« ПретходнаНастави »
tor, when he started first up into the knowledge of the world? For he, and all men and families, ay, and all stats and kingiioms too, have had their upstarts, that is, their beginnings. This is like being the Trne Church, becaus: old, uot becanis good; for families to be noble by being old, and not by being virtuons. No sicla Iratter: it must be ag. iu virtue, or esu virtue b for: age; for otherwise. a mun should be noble by means of his predecessor, and y't the predecessor less nobletdan he, becallse he was the acquirer; which is a p:radox that will puzzle all their heraldry to explaiv. Strangol that they should bo more noble than their ancestor, that got their nobility for thein! But if this be absurd, as it is, thn the upstart is th noble man; the man that got it by his virtue: and those only are entitled to his honour that are imitators of his virtue: the rest inay bear his name from his blood, bat that is all. If virtue, then, gire nobility, which heathens themselves agree, then funilies are no longer truly noble than they ar: virtuous. And if virtue go pot by blood, but by the qualifications of the descendants, it follows, blood is excluded ; else blood would bar virtue, and no man that wanted the one should be allowed the benefit of the other; which were to stint and bound nobility for want of antiquity, and inak, virtue uselc83. No, let blood and naine go together ; but pray, let nobility and virtne keep company, for they are nearest of kin.
But, methinks, it should suffice to say, our own eyes see that men of blood, out of their gear and trappiug3, without their feathers and fuery, have no more marks of honour by nature stamped upon tiem than their inferior neighbours. Nay, thenselves being jadges, they will frankly tell us they feel all those passions in their blood that make them like other men, if not further from th: virtue that truly dignifics. Tue lamentable ignorance and debauchery that now råges among too many of our greater : o't of foks, is too clear and castiug au eviduuce in the poiut: and pray, tell me of what blood are they come ?
Howheit, when I have said all this, I intend not, by debasing on falee quality, to Inake insolent another that is not true. I would not be thought to set the chur! upon th: present gentleman's shoulder: by no meanz; his rudenes will not mend ti inafter. But what I have writ, iz to give aim to all, where true nobility dwells, t:at every one may arrive at it by the ways of virtue and goodness. But for all this, I must allow a great advantage to the g ntleman; and ther-fore prefer his station, just as the apostl. Paul, who, aftur le liaj huubled th: J.:ws, that insulted upon tlić Christians with their law and rites, gavo them the advant:19 upon all other nations in ftatutes and judgment.. I must grant that the condition of our great men is much to be prefurrd to the ranks of inferior people. For, first, they have more power to do good; and, if the r hearts by equal to their ability, th:yar: blessings to the people of any country: Scondly, the cyes of the people are usually directed to thein; and if thy wil bu kiud, jast, and helpful, they eball have their affections and services. Thirdly, they are not under equal siraits with the inferior sort; aud consequently they have more hulp. Ljisure, and occasion, to polish their pos-ions and tempers with books and conversation. Fourthly, thiy biri more time to observa the actions of other pat ons; to trar I and viw the laws, customs, and interests of other countries; and bring home wbatsoever is worthy or imitable. And so, an easier wily is opxn for gruat non togt honour; and such as love true reputation will embrace the best means to it. But I cause it too often hipp ns that great man do litile inind to give God the glory of their prosperity, and io live answerable to his mercies, but, on the contrary, live without God in the world, fulalling the lufta thereof. His hand is ofteu ben, either in impoverishing or extinguishing thein, and r sing up man of more virtue and humility to their ertat3 and dignity. Howerur, I rustalow, that among people of this rank, there have been some of them of more than ord.niry virtus, whose esamples lave given light to their families. And it has been something natural for some of their descendants to endeavour to keep up the crudit of their houses in proportion to the merit of their founder. And, to say trua, if there be any advantage in such discut, 'rig not from blood, but education; for blood has no intelligence in it, and is often spurious and uncertain; but education has a mighty influence and strong bias upon the affections aud act vhs of mun. lu this the ancint nobles and goutry of this kingdom dd (scel; and it were mach to be wished that our great people would set about to recover the ancient ecopomy of their bonses, the strict and virtuous discipline cf their anc'stors, when mcn were honoured for their achievements, and when nothing more exposed a jnan to shame, than his being born to a nobility that he had not a virtuu to support.
Penn's Advice to his Children. Next, betake yourself to some honest, industrious course of life, and that not of sordid covetousn ss, but for example, and to avoid idleness. And if you change your condition and marry, choose with the knowledye and consent of your mother, if living, or of guardians, or of those that have the charge of you. Mind neither beauty uor richus, but the fear of the Lord, and a sweet and amiable disposition, such as you can love above all this world, and that may make your habitations pleasant and desirable to you.
And being inarried, be tender, affectionate, patient, and meek. Live in the fear of the Lord, and He will bless you and your oftspring. Be sure to live within compass ; horrow not, neither be beholden to any. Ruin not yourselves by kindness to others; for that exceeds the dne bonds of friendship, neither will a true friend expect it. Small matters I heed not.
Let your industry and parsimony go no further than for a sufficiency for life, and to make a provision for your children, and that in moderation, if the Lord gives you any. I charge you help the poor and needy: let the Lord have a voluntary share of your income for the good of the poor, both in our society and others : for we are all his creatures: remembering that he that giveth to the poor lendeth to the Lord.'
Know well your incomings, and your outgoings may be better regulated. Love not money nor the world : 18: them only, and they will serve you ; but if you love them, you serve them, which will debase your fpirits, as well as offend the Lord. Pity the distressed, and hold out a hand of help io them; it may be your case, and as you mete to others, God will mete to you again. Be humble and gentle in your conversation; of few words, I charg: you ; but always pertinent when you speak, hiaring out before yon attmpt to answer, and then speaking as if you would persuade, not impos. Affront none, neither revenge the affronts that are done to you; but forgive, and yon shall be forgiven of your beavenly Father.
In making friends, consider wol first; and when you are fixed, be true, not waver. ing by reports, nor deserting in a fiction, for that becomes not the good and intu
Watch against anger; nither speak nor act in it; for, like drunkenness, it makes a man a brust, and throw people into desperate inconveniences. Avoid flatterers, for they are thieves in disguise; their praise is costly, designing to get by those they bespeuk; they ars the worst of creatures; they lie io flatter, aud flatter to cheat; and which is wors, if you beli ve them, you cheat yourselves inost dangerously. But the virtuous, though poor, love, cherish, and prefer. Remember David, who, asking the Lord: Who sha'l abide in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell in thy holy hill ?' answers: He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his beart; in whosu eyes a vile person is contemned; but he honoureth them that fear the Lord.'
Next, my children, b: temp :rate in all things: in your diet, for that is physic by prevention; it kepa, nay, it makes people hulthy, and their generation sound. This is exclusive of the spiritual advantage ii brings. Balso plain in your apparel; keep out that lust which reigus-too much over some; let your virtues be your ornaments, remembering life is more than food, and the body than raiment. Lt your furniture be simple and cheap. Avoid prhle, avarice, and luxury. Read my : No Cross, no Crown. There is instruction. Make your conversation with the most eminent for wisdom and piety, and shun all wick d men as you l:ope for the blessing of God and the comfort of your father's living and dying prayers. Bu sure you speak no evil of any, 110, not of the meant st ; much less of your sup riors, as magistrates, guardians, tutors, teachers, and ciders in Christ.
Be no busyboilies; meddle not with other folk's matiers, but when in conscience and duty pressed; for it procures trouble, and is ill manners, and very unseemly to wise men. In your families remember Abraham. Moscs, and Joshua, their integrity to the Lord, and do us you have them for your examp.es. Let the fear and service of the living God be encouruged in your houses, and that plainness, sobriety, and moderation in all things, as becoineth God's chosen people; and as I advise you, my beloved children, do you counsel yours, if God should give you any. Yen, I counsel and command them as my posterity, that they love and serve the Lord God with an upright heart, that be muy bless you and yours from generation to generation.
Aud as for you, who are likely to be concerned in the government of Pennsylvania and my parts of East Jersey, especially the first, I do charge you before the Lord God
and his holy angels, that you be lowly, diligent, and tender, fearing God, loving the people, and bating covetousness. Lei justice have its impartial course, and the law free passage. Though to your loss, protect no man against it; for you are not above the law, but the law above you. Live, therefore, the lives yourselves you would have the people live, and then you have right and boldness to punish the transgressor. Keep npon the square, for God sees you : therefore, do your duty, and be sure you see with your own eyes, and hear with your own ears. Entertain no lurchers, cherish no informers for gain or revenge, use no tricks, fly to no devices to support or cover injustice; but let your hearts be upright before the Lord, trusting in him above the contrivances of men, and none shall be able to hurt or supplant.
ROBERT BARCLAY. The two great founders of Quakerism, as a respectable and considerable religious body in this country, were Robert BARCLAY and WILLIAM Penn. Both were gentlemen by birth and education, amiable and accomplished men, who sacrificed worldly honours, and suffered persecution for conscience' sake. Barclay was born at Gordonstown, in Morayslijre, December 23, 1618. He was educated at the Scots College at Paris, of which his uncle was rector, but returned to his native country in 1664. Two years afterwards, his father, Colonel Barclay of Ury, in Kincardineshire, made open profession of the principles of Quakerism; and in 1667, when only nineteen years of age, Robert Barclay became fully convinced,' as bis friend William Penn has expressed it, and publicly owned the testimony of the true light.' His first defence of the new doctrines appeared in 1670, and bore the title of “Truth cleared of Calumpics.' It was a reply to a work publislied in Aberdeen. About this time (1672), Barclay walked ihrough the streets of Aberdeen clothel in sackcloth and ashes, and publisbed a "Seasonable Warning and Serious Exhortatiön to, and Expostulation with, the Inhabitants of Aberdeen.' Other controversial treatises followed : A Catechism and Confession of Faith,' 1673; and 'The Anarchy of the Ranters,' &c. 1674. His great work, originally written and published in Latin, appeared in 1676, and is entitled An Apology for the true Christian Divinity, as the same is held forth and preached by the People called in scorn Quakers, &c.' The Apology' of Barclay is a learned and methodical treatise, very different from what the world expected on such a subject, and it was therefore read with avidity both in Britain and on the continent. Its most remarkable theological feature is the attempt to prove that there is an internal light in man, which is better fitted to guide bim aright in religious matters than even the Scriptures themselves; the genuine doctrines of which he asserts to be rendered uncertain by various readings in different manuscripts, and the fallibility of translators and interpreters. These circumstances, says lie,
and much more which might be alleged, put the minds, even of the learned, into infinite doubts, scruples, and inextricable difficulties; whence we may very sately conclude, tbat Jesus Christ, who promised to be always with his children, to lead them into all iruih, to guard them against the devices of the chemy, and to establish their faith
upon an unmovable rock, Icft them not to be principally ruled by that which was.suliject, in itself, to many uncertainties; and therefore he give them bis Spirit as their principal guide, which neither mothis nor time can wear out, nor transcribers nor translators corrupt; which none are so young, none so illiterate, none in so remote a place but they may come to be reached and rightly informed by it.' It would be erroneous, however, to regard this work of Barclay is an exposition of all the doctrines which have ben or are prevalent among the Quakers, or, indeed, to consider it as anything more than the vehicle of such of his own views as, in his.character of an apologist, he thonght it desirable to stare. The dedication of Barclay's Apology' to King Charles II. has always been particularly adınired for its respectful yet manly freed m of style, and for the pathos of its allusion in his majesty's own early troubles, is a reason for his es. tending mercy and livour to the persecuted Quakers. Thou hast lustel,'s:ys lie, of prosperity and indversity; inou knowest what it is to be banished thy native country, to be over-ruled as well as to rule in sit upon the throne; anıl, being oppressed, thou hast reason to know how litteful the oppressor is to bow God and man: if, after all these warvings and alvertisements, thou dost not turn unto the Lord with all thy heart, but forget Him, who remembered thee in ty distress, and give thyself up to follow lust and vanity, surely great will be thy condemnation. Biit this appeal bad no effect in stopping persecution; for after Barclay's return from Hollandi and Germany, which be hiul visited in company with Fox and Penn, he was, in 1677, imprisoned along with many other Quakers, itt Aberdeen, through the in-trumentality of Arclibishop Starp. 1: prison he wrote a treatise on Universal Love' He was soon liberateil, and subsequently gaine i favour it court. Both Penn and he were on terms of inimicy with James II; and just before the sailing of the Prince of Orange for England in 1648, Barclay, in a private conference with liis mijesty, urged Jimes lv mike some concessions to the people. The deatli ofihis respectable and amiable person took place at his seat of Cry on the 3d of October 1090.
Against Titles of IIonour. We arm positively, that it is not lawful for Christians either to give or to receive these titles of honour, as, Your Holiness, Your Majesty, Your Excelency, Your Eminency, &c.
First, because these titles are no part of that obedience which is flue to magis. trates or superiors; neither doth the giving them add to or diminish from that rubj ction we owe to them, which consists in obeying their just and lawful commands, Lot in titles and disignations,
Secondly, we find not that in the Scripture any such titles are used, cither under the luw or ibe gospel; but that, in sp: aking to kings, princes, or nobles, they used cnly a simple compellation, as, o King !' and that without any further desiguat.on, fave, perhaps, the name of the person. as, O King Agrippa,' &c.
Thirdly, it lays a necessity upou Christians most frequently to lie; because the pssous obtaining these titles, either by election or hereditarily, may frequently be found to have nothing really in thein deserving them, or answering to them : as some, io whom it is suid, 'Your Excellency,'having nothing of cxcell.ucy in them;
and who is called "Your Grace,' appear to be an enemy to grace; and he who is callel. Your Honour,' is known to be base and ignoble. I wonder what law of man, or what patent, ought to oblige me to make a lie, in calling good evil and evil good! I wonder what law of mau can secare mne, in so doing, from the best judgment of Goul, that will make me count for every idie word. And to lie is someting more. Surely Christians should be ashamed that such laws, manifestly crossiug the law of God, should be among them.
Fourthly, as to those tities of 'Holiness,'. ' Eminency,' and · Excelloner,' used among the Papists to the pope and cardinals, &c.; and Grace,'.· Lordship,' aud
Worship,' used to the clergy among the rotestants, it is a most blaphenous usurpation. For if they use • Holiness' and Grace' because these things ought to be in å pops or a bishop, how came they to usurp, that peculiarly to theniselves ? Ouglit not holiness and grace to be in every Christiani And so every Christian should say “Your Holiness' and `Your Grace' one to another. Nexi, how can they in reason claim any more titles than were practised and received by the apostles and primitive Christians, whose successors they pretend they are; and as whose successors, and no otherwise, themselves, 1 judge, will confess any honour they seek is dae to them? Now, if they neither sought, received, nor admitted such honour nor titles, how caine th 83 by them? If they say they did, let them prove it if they cau: we find no such thing in the Scripture. lho Christians speak to the apostle's without any such denomination, neither saying, “If it please your Grace, your Holiness,' nor your Worship;' they are veither called My Lord Peter, vor My Lord Paul; nor yet Master Peter, por Master Paul; nor Doctor Peter, nor Doctor Paul; but singly Peter and Paul ; and that not only in the Scripture, but for some hundreds of years after : 80 that this appears to be a manifest fruit of the apostasy. For if these titles arise either from the office or worth of the persons, it will not be denied bat the apostles deserved them better than any now that call for them. But the cuse is plain; the apostles had the holiness, the excellency, the grace; and because they were holy, excellent, and gracious, they neither used nor admitted such titles: but these having neither holidees, excellency, por grace, will needs be so called to satisfy their ambitious and ostentatious mind, which is a manifest token of their hya pocrisy.
Fifthiy, as to that title of Majesty'usually ascribed to princes, we do not find it given to any such in the Holy Scripture ; but that it is specially and peculiarly ascribed unto God. We find in the Scripture the proud king Nebuchadnezzar assuming this title to himself, who at that time received a sufficient reproof, by a sudden judgment which came upon him. Therefore, in all the compellations used to princes iu the Old Testament, it is not to be found, nor yet in the New. Paul was very civil to Agrippa, yet he gives him no such title. Neither was this title used among Christians in the primitive times.
RICHARD BAXTER. RICHARD BAXTER (1615–1691) is justly esteemed the most eminent of the Nonconformist divines of inis period. He was a native of Rowton, in Shropshire, and was educated chiefly at Wroxeter. My faults,' he said, are no disgrace to any university, for I was of none; I have little but what I had out of books, and inconsiderable helps of country tutor's. Weakness and pain helpeil me 10 study how to die; that sel me on studying how to live.' In 1638 he was ordained, au í was appointed master of the Free School of Dudley. From 1640 10 1612 he was pastor of Kidderminster, and wiis highly popular and useful. During the Civil War he sided with the Parliament, and accepted the office of chaplain in the army, in which capacity he was present at the sieges of Bridgewater, Exeter, Bristol, and Worcester. ile was disgusted with the frequent and vehement disputes about liberty of conscience, and was glad to leave the army and return to Kidderminster. Whilst there, whilst recovering from a severe illness,