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FREDERICH ENGELS TO FLORENCE KELLEY.
"Our theory is a theory of evolution, not a dogma to be learned by heart and to be repeated mechanically. The less it will be knocked into the Americans from without, and the more they test it by their experience, the deeper it will go into their flesh and blood."-FREDERICH ENGELS, January 27, 1887 (quoted in New York Call, Socialist, January 29, 1923).
Is this the reason why Mrs. Florence Kelley (formerly Mrs. Wischnewetzky) conducts a constant agitation in behalf of socialistic legislation, disguised as "social welfare "-a desire to inject into the "flesh and blood" of Americans under pretense of relieving the pains of poverty, the Socialist drugs manufactured by Marx and Engels, which Americans would never accept if properly labeled? Is this the reason why Mrs. Kelley, formerly editor of the Archiv für Socialgesetzgebung, at Berlin (1897-98), translator of Marx and Engels, former president of the Intercollegiate Socialist League, etc., now advances socialistic legislation as general secretary of the “ National Consumers' League" and chief agitator for "maternity and infancy" measures?
The question of the Communist influence on these measures can not be overlooked. I would not have touched this if I had not had my pretty good proof of these things.
Here is a book issued by the Children's Bureau. I maintain that the contact with Russia is there. What the channel of transmission for these ideas is, we do not know.
This is a book called Maternity Benefit Systems in Certain Foreign Countries, by the Children's Bureau at public expense.
Mr. YATES. What is the number of the book?
Miss KILBRETH. Legal series No. 3, Bureau Publication No. 57. Maternity benefits means doles for maternity and not to be compared with widows' pensions. This system does not apply merely to the poor woman or the widow, who is to be helped. That is a different matter altogether. These are maternity doles. The Children's Bureau does not state specifically which system they prefer. They give all the dole systems in the different countries, and they are all recommended to the attention of the people of this country. The doles vary from help for every woman, rich or poor, giving birth to a child. It is the entering wedge.
Mr. FOSTER. You say they are all recommended to us?
Miss KILBRETH. They are all printed and transmitted, at the public expense, to the public.
Mr. FOSTER. That is quite different, whether it is transmitted or recommended.
Miss KILBRETH. I will read the statement.
Mr. FOSTER. You said "recommended."
Miss KILBRETH. For if the word was used correctly, Miss Lathrop's letter of transmittal at the end reads with this sentence, "In the hope that the information might prove useful to the people of one of the few great countries which as yet have no system of State or national assistance in maternity-the United States."
Mr. FOSTER. That was Miss Abbott?
Miss KILBRETH. No; that was Miss Lathrop, former chief. Miss Abbott was not in charge at that time.
Mr. YATES. Miss Julia Lathrop?
Miss KILBRETH. Miss Julia Lathrop. I am taking too much time. The CHAIRMAN. I wish you would bring your argument to a close as quickly as possible.
Miss KILBRETH. I would just like to read this contact with Mos
The CHAIRMAN. For what purpose do you wish to read it? Miss KILBRETH. I offer this to show we are tending in the direction of communistic regulation of children by the State.
The CHAIRMAN. I will have to rule that out of order. We can not consider that now in connection with this amendment.
Miss KILBRETH. I see. Well, that question was raised in connection with whether my reference was showed right-that it would lead to these things.
Mr. FOSTER. You said you made no inference. That is what you specifically told us.
Miss KILBRETH. I am showing the general trend is toward the communist system, and here is the indorsement of the soviet system in this book of Maternity Benefits. That is what I wanted to read, but it has been ruled out. That is one of my contacts.
Now, just one thing in connection with propaganda. This is from a communist source. This is from the resolutions and speeches of the Fourth Congress of the Third International.
Mr. FOSTER. I suggest that be left out, the minutes of some communist convention having no reflection on this constitutional amendment.
Miss KILBRETH. This is the thesis of the Young Worker.
The CHAIRMAN. I wish you would just omit that and get to the conclusion.
Miss KILBRETH. This is from the Young Workers' Convention here in America. Would that be germane?
Mr. FOSTER. Relating to child labor?
Miss KILBRETH. Yes; in the whole propaganda. He says: "The purpose is continually to point out "_"
It is just part of the propaganda.
Mr. FOSTER. You said, "Yes; it related to child labor." There is nothing said about it.
Miss KILBRETH. Just on the previous page I read you the indorsement of the child labor laws up to 18 and the feeding and care of the child.
Mr. FOSTER. Not just previously to this you did not, because I paid close attention.
Miss KILBRETH. I beg your pardon; here it is. I did read that. Mr. FOSTER. Instead of "just previously," you are going back about four quotations.
Miss KILBRETH. You will find it in the stenographic record.
Miss KILBRETH. Because I am now coming to propaganda about this, and what I said about that was all.
Mr. DYER. Mr. Chairman, I make the point of order that is not germane to this question of whether or not there should be a child labor amendment to the Constitution. This committee is not going to be governed about what the lady reads about propaganda.
Miss KILBRETH. The only thing is that I am taking the statement of Lincoln that it is not fair to ignore entirely what the probable working out of the bill would be. I am not quoting him exactly. This is germane. This is from the September, 1923, the International of Youth. It is a Communist organization entirely. Mr. YATES. Printed in America?
Miss KILBRETH. In England. They are talking about America. Mr. FOSTER. Just a moment. I want to submit whether a Communist publication in England---
Miss KILBRETH. But it is referring to conditions here.
Mr. FOSTER (continuing). Is germane on the question of this child labor amendment?
Miss KILBRETH. It is referring to the thing here in America.
The CHAIRMAN. I do not think it is germane, but on the same line,' I think it has got about as much relevancy as the subject inquired of as existing in America.
Mr. FOSTER. I withdraw it in view of that statement, Mr. Chairman. I have no objection to your going ahead.
Mr. MICHENER. The practical part of getting these things in the record of the congressional hearing is that they are used later, sent out over the country, and these statements are used as appearing in these publications, and they are very often assumed in the country to have official sanction when sent out.
Miss KILBRETH. Yes.
Mr. MICHENER. You appreciate that, Miss Kilbreth?
Miss KILBRETH. Yes.
Mr. MICHENER. People involved in the controversy do send them out under a congressional frank.
Miss KILBRETH. Yes. May I give the statements of these different leaders as to the taking over of the care of the child by the State? Miss Alice Paul says:
We intend to insist also that the State assume entire responsibility for the maintenance and education of children until they become of age. When the women of the world have junked the battleships and other impediments of war, enough money will be released to take care of these reforms.
Mr. DYER. Where was that statement made?
Miss KILBRETH. We have used it and it has not been denied.
Mr. DYER. Where was it made?
Miss KILBRETH, Washington Herald, October 25, 1920.
Mr. DYER. I make the point of order that is not proper testimony
and nothing but hearsay.
Miss KILBRETH. I beg your pardon, this has not been denied. We use it a great deal, and the newspaper verified it.
Mr. FOSTER. Did you ask her about it?
Miss KILBRETH. Our office called up.
Mr. FOSTER. Did you?
Miss KILBRETH. No; I did not. I would not do that. Well, here is Harriet Stanton Blatch. Would that be considered?
Mr. DYER. What was it in?
Miss KILBRETH. The official organ of the National Women's Party.
Mr. DYER. I make the point they are not germane,
Mr. MICHENER. These people are in the city if you want to bring them here.
Miss KILBRETH. No, indeed. They are our opponents. But I want to show that the idea of the States taking care of the child is in the air.
Mr. FOSTER. It is not in the Constitution.
The CHAIRMAN. Her argument is that that is one of the results of the working out of this law.
Miss KILBRETH. It will have to be.
The CHAIRMAN. That is what she presented it for.
Miss KILBRETH. I am taking what the Socialists themselves claim openly is necessary if this thing is done.
Now, Harriet Stanton Blatch-oh, you threw that out, did you? Because it is a very startling statement.
Mr. YATES. Nobody has thrown anything out yet.
Miss KILBRETH. She is one of the great leaders and exerts a great deal of power in Congress.
Mr. DYER. I ask that that statement be stricken from the record. Mr. YATES. Power in Congress?
Mr. DYER. Yes.
Mr. BOIES. I make the point of order that the committee is not permitted to sit at this hour.
Mr. FOSTER. Let us finish it up.
Mr. BOIES. If the lady will bring it to a close, I will.
Miss KILBRETH. Will you let me quote this? You need not put it in the record.
Mr. BOIES. The committee will decide that.
Miss KILBRETH. It may be considered ridiculous, but Harriet Stanton Blatch, the daughter of Harriet Cady Stanton, says:
The enfranchised women of America, through pressure brought by a woman's party, broadening perhaps to an international woman's party, could be instrumental in bringing political freedom to the women of the world, and behind all such social and economic demands lies the most important item on the woman's program, namely, the endowment of motherhood. (Suffragist, Octo
ber, 1920, p. 235.)
Mr. BOIES. You offer that for what purpose?
Miss KILBRETH. Namely, the endowment of motherhood.
Mr. FOSTER. You dropped your voice so we did not hear the last of it.
Miss KILBRETH. The most important item in the women's program, namely, the endowment of motherhood.
Mr. BOIES. Your purpose in reading that is to show what? Miss KILBRETH. My purpose in reading it was to show that there were these ideas of the Government taking over the care of children and of the mother. They are in the air now.
Mr. FOSTER. You feel if this amendment is adopted and Congress has the power, it will do those things?
Miss KILBRETH. I say these are the ideas back in the heads of the people who are in favor of this type of legislation. I think I have presented material to show that. That was my purpose in showing that.
I thank the committee, Mr. Chairman.
STATEMENT OF MR. EDWARD F. DICKINSON
The CHAIRMAN. Give your full name to the reporter, please. Mr. DICKINSON. Edward F. Dickinson of Massachusetts. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen: There has been much time taken this
morning, and I do not wish to overtax the time of the committee, and if desired and thought best I have here a statement that I made a year ago before a Senate committee and if desired
The CHAIRMAN. Would you wish instead of orally addressing the committee to submit that statement and to let it go in the record? Mr. DICKINSON. I would like to do that, sir, and if I might have 3 minutes otherwise I would be pleased to do that, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Very good.
Mr. DICKINSON. I love the boys and girls of America, and I love America, and I wish my country's best and the best for our children, and this question seems to me to connect very vitally in one respect with our concept of education. I have covered that partly in this, but perhaps I may enlarge very briefly.
Does education consist mostly of book learning? A very competent authority, one who has stood in some of the favorite pulpits of our land and has been listened to as an author and a very cultured man, has said this in a little book, Culture Without College, given for the encouragement of those who were not allowed to have and could not have the advantages of college he said has this:
Those of you who are so forbidden to get the benefits of the university, may have the solace of this thought, that culture without college is still possible for you, because there are three teachers that we can all have teach that, in school, in college, or out, and they are in this order: First, our work; next, our society; next, our books.
This is in a little booklet written by Rev. William C. Gannett, of Boston, Culture Without College.
I have been an interested student of life in a way from a private standpoint. I have had to make my own way; to work when I was young. I feel that work has been a very definite part of my own education. Of recent years, as the result of having worked, and worked in my earlier years, and having accumulated by work a modest competence, I have been privileged to come on winter vacations to the city of Washington on 20 or more vacations with my wife, and I have gained what I could in studies here and from studies at home, and from my observation of life and the progress of our children I have felt more and more impressed with that vital element in the child's life of work. Not undue work and not work that should exclude books as far as may be. I have no quarrel with all the broad culture that may be gathered, but I do say, let us put character, work, productive training at the bottom of our ladder of child preparation for life.
Our small town in Massachusetts, just south of Lowell, Billerica, was privileged some 40 years ago to send a governor to the capital. What was the story of Thomas Tolbert, called Honest Thomas Tolbert? At 12 years of age he was working in a textile factory at Cambridge, N. Y. Being fatherless, he worked to support his mother and younger brothers and sisters; later, to make the story very brief, he came to Lowell, and came to our town with his brother and came into ownership of a water power and built up a manufacturing business there, a business that some 60 years ago started small, and there has been a most thriving, happy village there, largely consisting of his own factories-another one or two, but largely his own work-with scores and scores of families, happy and thriving, because of his industry and thrift. And his education was largely that of work; not more than a grammar-school opportunity came to Thomas Tolbert.