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Entre Rios was under the jurisdiction of Corrientes, and part of Santa Fee. T'he people however, of Santa Fee, Entre Rios, Monte Video, are in favor of joining the confederacy, when they can do it on such terms as they think to their interests, whatever may be the intentions of Artigas, who at present governs them. What may be the ultimate wish of Paraguay, is not known.

Confusion has been occasioned, by the circumstance of some of the subordinate districts being entitled to one or more representatives in congress, and, on that account, considered as provinces, by persons not acquainted with the nature of these divisions. They are, for all the purposes of municipal government, dependent on some province, or member of the union. Thus Catamarca and Jujuy are subordinate jurisdictions of Salta, and San Juan and San Fernando, subordinate to Cuyo.

The comparative importance of the provinces, in point of number and extent of territory, which compose the union, with those not included, may be seen by the following table; but the difference in point of information, public spirit, wealth, commerce, agriculture, and whatever contributes to the respectability of a people, is still greater in favor of the provinces of the union.

With respect to Paraguay, the estimate only includes those coming under the denomination of Spaniards; the Indians civilized or uncivilized, are excluded in this instance, as well as in the others.

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465,000

85,000 NOT UNITED. 100,000

Assumption, 12,000 40,000

Candelaria, 5,000

Santa Fee, 6,000 50,000

-190,000 Monte Video, .. 7,000

Paraguay,
Missions,
Santa Fee,
Entre Rios,
Banda Oriental,

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T'he five provinces of the union contain four hundred and fifty thousand souls, exclusive of Indians, and about six hundred thousand square miles; little short of the whole extent of our old thirteen states.

Those not of the union, but friendly, one hupdred and forty thousand souls, and seventy-five thousand

square miles.

Those not of the union, and unfriendly, fifty thousand souls, and one hundred thousand square miles; parts of the territory and population, under the Portuguese.

It is necessary to observe that, with respect to the population, as no census has ever been properly taken, the estimates differ exceedingly. From the imperfect data on which these estimates are founded, in all the Spanish colonies, nothing else could be expected; both Depons and Humboldt, have lamented this defect,

and both seem to agree, that the population is, invariably, underrated.

It is also to be remarked, that, in the ordinary estimates, the civilized Indians are frequently omitted, and the uncivilized never noticed at all. Of those who are counted as Spaniards, there is a considerable proportion of the mixed race, as by the laws of the Indies, after the fifth remove, they are enrolled in the class before-mentioned; but in their features, complexion, and habits of life, there is little or no difference between them and the immediate descendants of European Spaniards: unless it be, that they generally display more genius and native energy of character. These circumstances produce considerable shades of difference. In Paraguay, for instance, the Guarany language may be said to predominate. “Throughout the Spanish settlements in Paraguay, Guarany is the language which children learn from their mothers and their nursss; and which, owing to the great mixture of native blood, and the number of Indians in slavery, or in service, is almost exclusively used. Even in the city of Assumption, sermons were better understood in Guarany than in Spanish; and many women of Spanish name and Spanish extraction, did not understand the language of their fathers.” This was written nearly a century ago, but, according to Azara, the change has not been great. “Those who inhabit the province of Buenos Ayres, are more properly composed of continual accessions from Europe, than from a mixture with the Indians; who, in this part of the country; never were . numerous; it is on this account they speak Spanish. On the contrary, the Spaniards of Paraguay, and

their neighbors, the inhabitants of the city and district of Corrientes, are the offspring of the intermarriage of their forefathers with the Indian women, and, in consequence, speak Guarany; and it is only those who receive an education, or the men of the city Curruguaty, who understand Spanish.” At Assumption, there is also a proportion, not small, who are of Portuguese descent. This mixed race, like the Paulistas, have shewn themselves greater oppressors of the uncivilized Indians, than the Europeans.* The cities of Cordova, Tucuman, Salta, Mendoza, Santa

May not the revolutionary decrees of Buenos Ayres, giving equal rights and liberty to the poor Indian, as well as to the Spaniard, have produced an unfavorable effect with the wealthy and influential inhabitants of Paraguay? Indian slavery has been abolished in that province, I believe; but there is still Indian servitude! The difference in the language of this province from the others, may, also, be a reason for their not joining with them. Mr. Bland, in his Report, page 42, labors under the common error, when he speaks of “the Paraguay agriculturist, with his smattering of letters and his Jesuit habits.” The Jesuits had no influence in Paraguay, on the contrary, the influential clergy, the Franciscans and Dominicans, were their deadly enemies; and had the Spaniards on their side. The bishop Cardenas, succeeded in procuring their expulsion, and it required the greatest exertions on the part of the civil authorities, to protect them. The Jesuits were extremely unpopular, excepting among their Indian converts in one corner of the province, separated by deserts from the Spanish inhabitants, with whom they wished to avoid all intercourse. I refer the reader to the 2d vol. Southey's Brazil, Azara, and Wilcock's Buenos Ayres. What I have said of the Jesuits, proceeds from no partiality to their society, but from a desire to give every one his due. The Jesuits could not have acted otherwise, in the circumstances in which they were placed. Whether they would have pursued a different course if it had been in their power, is another question.

Fee, and some others, have a population similar to that of Buenos Ayres.

The uncivilized Indians are not taken into the estimate. Several subordinate districts of the union, I was informed by the gentleman from whom I procured my estimate, were not included, from his being unable to obtain information on which he could rely. The statement agrees tolerably well with that given by Mr. Graham.

CHAPTER III.

<Oh! could the ancient Incas rise again,
How would they take up Israel's taunting strain!
Art thou too fallen, Iberia? Do we see
The robber and the murderer weak as we?
Thou that has wasted earth, and dared despise
Alike, the wrath and mercy of the skies;
Thy pomp is in the grave, thy glory laid
Low in the pits thy avarice has made.

Cowper.

THE SUBJECT OF THE FOREGOING CHAPTER CONTINUÉD.

The provinces of upper Peru, or the audiencia of Los Charcas, it will be recollected, is the sixth natural division of the territory of the viceroyalty of La Plata. What a train of thought is inspired by the name of Peru! The seats of civilization in the new world-an innocent and industrious people, living

16

VOL. II.

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