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John Oldham, who, from the keenness of his satirical poetry, justly acquired the title of the English Juvenal, was born at Shipton, in Gloucestershire, where his father was a clergyman, on 9th August, 1653. About 1678, he was an usher in the free school of Croydon ; but having already distinguished himself by several pieces of poetry, and particularly by four severe satirical invectives against the order of Jesuits, then obnoxious on account of the Popish Plot, he quitted that mean situation, to become tutor to the family of Sir Edward Theveland, and afterwards to a son of Sir William Hickes. Shortly after he seems to have resigned all employment except the unthrifty trade of poetry. When Oldham entered

this career,

he settled of course in the metropolis, where his genius recommended him to the company of the first wits, and to the friendship of Dryden. He did not long enjoy the pleasures of such a life, nor did he live to experience the uncertainties, and disappointments, and reverses, with which, above all others, it abounds. Being seized with the small-pox, while visiting at the seat of his patron, William Earl of Kingston, he died of that disease on the 9th December, 1688, in the 30th year of his

age. His “ Remains,” in verse and prose, were soon afterwards published, with elegies and recommendatory verses prefixed by Tate, Flatman, Durfey, Gould, Andrews, and others. But the applause of Dryden, expressed in the following lines, was worth all the tame panegyrics of other contemporary bards. It appears, among the others, in “ Oldham's Remains," London, 1683.





FAREWELL, too little, and too lately known,
Whom I began to think, and call my own;
For sure our souls were near allied, and thine
Cast in the same poetic mould with mine.
One common note on either lyre did strike,
And knaves and fools we both abhorr'd alike.
To the same goal did both our studies drive;
The last set out, the soonest did arrive.
Thus Nisus fell upon the slippery place,
Whilst his young friend perform’d and won the race.
O early ripe; to thy abundant store
What could advancing age have added more!
It might (what nature never gives the young)
Have taught the numbers of thy native tongue.
But satire needs not those, and wit will shine
Through the harsh cadence of a rugged line. *



* Dryden's opinion concerning the harshness of Oldham's numbers, was not unanimously subscribed to by contemporary authors.

A noble error, and but seldom made,
When poets are by too much force betray’d.
Thy generous fruits, though gather'd ere their

prime, Still shew'd a quickness ; and maturing time But mellows what we write, to the dull sweets of


In the “ Historical Dictionary," 1694, Oldham is termed, “a pithy, sententious, elegant, and smooth writer :" and Winstanley says, that none can read his works without admiration ; “ so pithy his strains, so sententious his expression, so elegant his oratory, so swimming his language, so smooth his lines." Tom Brown goes the length to impute our author's qualification of his praise of Oldham to the malignant spirit of envy: “ 'Tis your own way, Mr Bayes, as you may remember in your verses upon Mr Oldham, where you tell the world that he was a very fine, ingenious gentleman, but still did not understand the cadence of the English tongue." —Reasons for Mr Bayes' changing his Religion, Part II. p. 33.

But this only proves, that Tom Brown and Mr Winstanley were deficient in poetical ear; for Oldham's satires, though full of vehemence and impressive expression, are, in diction, not much more harmonious than those of Hall or of Donne. The reader may take the following celebrated passage on the life of a nobleman s chaplain, as illustrating both the merits and defects of his poetry:

Some think themselves exalted to the sky
If they light in some noble family ;
Diet, a horse, and thirty pounds a-year,
Besides the advantage of his Lordship's ear ;
The credit of the business, and the state,
Are things that in a youngster's sense sound great.
Little the unexperienced wretch doth know
What slavery he oft must undergo ;
Who, though in silken scarf and cassock dress'd,
Wears but a gayer livery at best.
When dinner calls, the implement must wait,
With holy words, to consecrate the meat ;
But hold it for a farour seldom known,
If he be deign'd the honour to sit down :
Soon as the tarts appear,—Sir Crape, withdraw !
These dainties are not for a spiritual maw.
Observe your distance, and be sure to stand
Hard by the cistern, with your cup in hand ;

Once more, hail, and farewell! farewell, thou young, ,
But ah too short, Marcellus of our tongue !
Thy brows with ivy, and with laurels bound;
But fate and gloomy night encompass thee around.

There for diversion you may pick your teeth,
Till the kind voider comes to your relief :
For mere board-wages such their freedom sell ;
Slaves to an hour, and vassals to a bell;
And if the enjoyment of one day be stole,
They are but prisoners out upon parole';
Always the marks of slavery retain,
And e'en when loose, still drag about their chain.
And where's the mighty prospect, after all,
A chaplainship served up, and seven years thrall ?
The menial thing perhaps, for a reward,
Is to some slender benefice preferr'd ;
With this proviso bound, that he must wed
My lady's antiquated waiting-maid,
In dressing only skill'd, and

Let others, who sach meannesses can brook,
Strike countenance to every great man's look ;
Let those that have a mind turn slaves to eat,
And live contented by another's plate;
I rate my freedom higher, nor will I
For food and raiment truck my liberty :
But if I must to my last shifts be put,
To fill a bladder and twelve yards of gut,
Rather with counterfeited wooden leg,
And my right arm tied up, I'll chuse to beg;
I'll rather chuse to starve at large, than be
The gaudiest vassal to dependency.

"T has ever been the top of my desires,
The utmost height to which my wish aspires,
That heaven would bless me with a small estate ;
There, free from noise and all ambitious ends,
Enjoy a few choice books, and fewer friends ;
Lord of myself, accountable to none,
But to my conscience and my God alone ;
There live unthought of, and unheard of die,
And grudge mankind my very memory.

Satire to a Friend about to leave the University.






She was

in 1685,

of her age.

MRS ANNE KILLIGREW Was daughter of Dr Henry Killigrew, master of the Savoy, and one of the prebendaries of Westminster, and brother of Thomas Killigrew, renowned, in the court of Charles II., for wit and repartee. The family, says Mr Walpole

, was remarkable for its loyalty, accomplishments, and wit; and this young lady, who displayed great talents for painting and poetry, promised to be one of its fairest ornaments. maid of honour to the Duchess of York, and died of the small. pox

the 25th

year Mrs Anne Killigrew's poems were published after her death in a thin quarto, with a print of the author, from her portrait drawn by herself. She also painted the portraits of the Duke of York and of his Duchess, and executed several historical pictures, landscapes, and pieces of still life. See Lord ORFORD's Lives of the Painters, Works, Vol. III. p. 297 ; and BALLARD's Lives of Learned Ladies.

The poems of this celebrated young lady do not possess any uncommon merit, nor are her paintings of a high class, although preferred by Walpole to her poetry. But very slender attainments in such accomplishments, when united with youth, beauty, and fashion, naturally receive a much greater share of approbation from contemporaries, than unbiassed posterity can afford to them. Even the flinty heart of old Wood seems to have been melted by this young lady's charms, notwithstanding her being of


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