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May 27, 1778.

Resolved, That when any of the staff officers appointed from the line are promoted above the ranks in the line out of which they are respectively appointable their staff appointments shall thereupon be vacated.

May 29, 1778.

Resolved, That no persons hereafter appointed upon the civil staff of the Army shall hold or be entitled to any rank in the Army by virtue of such staff appointment.

June 2, 1778.

Resolved, That subsistence money be allowed to officers and others on the staff in lieu of extra rations, and that henceforward none of them be allowed to draw more than one ration a day.

June 4, 1778.-Congress appointed Messrs. Carroll, Matthews and Wentworth a committee to extract from the journals, for publication, all the resolutions relative to the government of the Army.

June 9, 1778.

Resolved, That the value of the rations due since the 1st of January last till the 1st inst. be estimated at one-third of a dollar

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June 23, 1778.-Congress authorized General Gates to dismiss all the supernumerary staff officers in the district under his command.

August 12, 1778.-Congress allowed $500 to every officer whose duty required him to be mounted and whose horse was killed in battle.

November 24, 1778.

Resolved, That all officers and persons employed on the staff shall receive for subsistence money one-third of a dollar for each extra ration heretofore allowed them.

December 19, 1778.-Messrs. Duane, Laurens, Ellsworth, Gerry and M. Smith, constituted a committee to confer with the Commander in Chief and the principal officers of the staff on ways and means of retrenching the expenses of the Army.

April 14, 1779.-The subsistence money allowed having become insufficient by reason of the rapid increase of the necessaries of life, Congress recommended that the several legislatures supply the officers of their respective States, at the expense of the United States, with West India rum at of a dollar a gallon, muscovado sugar at a dollar per pound, coffee at 1⁄2 a dollar a pound, tea at 13 dollars per pound, and chocolate at a dollar per pound.


May 11, 1779.

That all staff officers who serve with the Army shall be allowed clothing on the same conditions as officers in the line, provided they engage for a year or longer.

June 12, 1779.

The Board of War having reported a form of a commission for officers of the staff, the same was read and agreed to, as follows: "The United States of America in Congress assembled, to


"We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your patriotism, prudence, and fidelity, do by these presents constitute and appoint you

to be

You are therefore faithfully and diligently to discharge the duty of by doing and performing all manner of things thereunto belonging. And you are to observe and follow such orders and directions, from time to time, as you shall receive from this or a future Congress of the United States, or committee of Congress for that purpose appointed, a committee of the States, or Commander in Chief for the time being of the Army of the United States, or any other your superior officer, according to the rules and discipline of war, in pursuance of the trust reposed in you. This commission to continue in force until revoked by this or a future Congress, the committee of Congress before mentioned, or a committee of the States. President of the Congress of the United the day of and in the

"Witness States of America, at year of our independence.

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"Entered in the War Office, and examined by the Board.


August 11, 1779.

Resolved, That the half pay provided by the resolution of the 15th of May, 1778, be extended to continue for life; and that the holding of a civil office under the United States, or any of them, shall be no bar to prevent any officer from receiving the same.

August 18, 1779.

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500 dollars;

Resolved, That, until the further order of Congress, the said officers of the Army be entitled to receive monthly for their subsistence money the sums following, to wit: Each colonel lieutenant-colonel 400 dollars; every major every captain 200 dollars; every lieutenant, ensign dollars.

300 dollars;


Resolved, That, until the further order of Congress, the sum of 10 dollars be paid to every noncommissioned officer and soldier monthly for their subsistence, in lieu of those articles of food originally intended for them and not furnished.

August 18, 1779.-The Journals state that Congress proceeded to the consideration of a report for a further allowance to the officers of the Army (committee consisted of Messrs. Duane, Smith, Morris, Laurens and Drayton), and


'Resolved, That until the further order of Congress the said officers be entitled to receive monthly for their subsistence money the sums following, to wit: Each colonel and brigade chaplain, 500 dollars; every lieutenant-colonel, 400 dollars; every major and regimental surgeon, 300 dollars; every captain, 200 dollars; every lieutenant, ensign, and surgeon's mate, 100 dollars.


Resolved, That until the further order of Congress the sum of 10 dollars be paid to every noncommissioned officer and soldier monthly for their subsistence in lieu of those articles of food originally intended for them and not furnished."

October 2, 1779.-"The following are the uniforms that have been determined for the troops of these States, respectively, as soon as the state of the public supplies will permit their being furnished accordingly, and in the meantime it is recommended to the officers to endeavor to accommodate their uniforms to this standard; that when the men come to be supplied there may be a proper uniformity:

New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut: Blue, faced with white; buttons and lining, white.

New York, New Jersey: Blue, faced with buff; white lining and buttons. Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia: Blue, faced with red; buttons and lining, white.

North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia: Blue, faced with blue; buttonholes, edged with narrow white lace or tape; buttons and lining, white.

Artillery and artillery artificers: Blue, faced with scarlet; scarlet lining; yellow buttons; yellow-bound hats; coats edged with narrow lace or tape, and buttonholes bound with the same.

Light dragoons: The whole, blue faced with white; white buttons and linings. (Orders, General Headquarters, Moore's House.)

November 25, 1779.

Resolved, That the following articles be delivered as a suit of clothes for the current and every succeeding year of their service to the officers of the staff entitled by any resolution of Congress

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to receive the same, viz:

One hat, one watch coat, one body coat, four vests (one for winter and three for summer), four pair of breeches (two for winter and two for summer), four shirts, four stocks, six pairs of stockings (three pairs thereof worsted and three of thread), four pairs of shoes.

For which articles of clothing the officers shall pay, on receipt thereof, one-half more than the prices at which the same were currently sold before the commencement of hostilities, in April, 1775

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That all clothing issued to noncommissioned officers and soldiers, enlisted artificers beyond that allowed to them as a bounty, shall also be valued and paid for at the rate before mentioned; but no noncommissioned officer, soldier, artificer shall be entitled

to purchase in any one year, out of the public store, any other additional articles than those of hats, hose, shirts, and shoes, and not more of these than are absolutely necessary, and not exceeding the number of the like articles allowed as their bounty clothing.

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That all clothing to staff officers [shall be issued] on the certificate of their principal with the Army or in the district within which they shall serve

That no staff officer, artificer, or wagoner, not being engaged for at least one year, shall receive clothing; and if any such officer, artificer, or wagoner, being engaged for one year or more, after receipt of such clothing, shall quit the service before the expiration of the term for which he or they are or shall be engaged, he or they shall forfeit and pay the full value of such clothing, and be subject to all other penalties and inconveniences attending his or their breach of contract or desertion.

January 8, 1780.

Resolved, That every officer of the Army of the United States whose duty requires his being on horseback in time of action be allowed a sum not exceeding the average price given at the time, in the department or place where the accident shall happen, for horses purchased for private dragoons, as a compensation for any horse he shall have killed in battle; this resolution to have retrospect as far as the 1st of January, 1779; and the Quartermaster-General, or his deputy, is hereby authorized to pay the value of such horses, not exceeding the said price, to the respective sufferers, on the facts being properly authenticated.

January 20, 1780.-A board of commissioners (one of whom to be a member of Congress) was appointed to inquire into the expenses of the staff departments, to discharge supernumerary and delinquent officers and men, to stop all issues of rations and other supplies not indispensably necessary for the service; any two of them, in conjunction with General Washington, to adopt any proper measures for promoting economy in those departments. January 21 Congress elected Mr. Schuyler and Colonel Pickering, and January 22 General Thomas Mifflin.

March 11, 1780.

Resolved, That every officer who by such regulation [of the Commander in Chief] shall be entitled to a servant, and who shall enlist, to serve during the war, a youth not under fifteen nor exceeding eighteen years of age, and who from appearances is likely to prove an able-bodied soldier, such officer shall retain the youth so enlisted as his servant, until, in the opinion of the Inspector-General, or one of the subinspectors, he shall be fit to bear arms, and the youth shall receive the bounty money, clothing, pay, and rations of a soldier; and the officer to whom such servant shall be attached is not to be allowed a man out of the ranks, on any pretense whatsoever, while such servant remains with him The like allowance of clothing, pay, and rations shall be given to any officer entitled as aforesaid to a servant who shall bring into the field with him a servant of his own

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April 10, 1780.

Resolved, That when Congress shall be furnished with proper documents to liquidate the depreciation of the continental bills of credit, they will, as soon thereafter as the state of the public finances will admit, make good to the lines of the Army, and the independent corps thereof, the deficiency of their original pay, occasioned by such depreciation; and that the money and articles heretofore paid or furnished, or hereafter to be paid or furnished by Congress or the States, or any of them, as for pay, subsistence, or to compensate for deficiency, shall be deemed as advanced on account, until such liquidation as aforesaid shall be adjusted, it being the determination of Congress that all the troops serving in the Continental Army shall be placed on an equal footing: Provided, That no person shall have any benefit of this resolution except such as were engaged during the war, or for three years, and are now in service, or shall hereafter engage during the war for three years and are now in service, or shall hereafter engage during the war.

April 13, 1780.-Messrs. Schuyler, Matthews and Peabody constituted a committee to confer with General Washington and the chiefs of departments, with a view to remedying defects and perfecting the arrangement of the several staff departments. April 14, 1780.-Congress tendered their thanks to General Mifflin and Colonel Pickering for their attention to the business committed to them, manifested in their plan for the arrangements of the staff departments, which has been referred to a committee (Messrs. Schuyler, Matthews and Peabody), who are to consult the Commander in Chief and the heads of the staff departments.

June 14, 1780.-General Gates was authorized to appoint all staff officers necessary for the organization of the Southern Army.

S. Doc. 229

June 18, 1780.-"As it is at all times of great importance, both for the sake of appearance and for the regularity of service, that the different military ranks should be distinguished from each other and more especially at present, the Commander in Chief has thought proper to establish the following distinctions and strongly recommends it to all the officers to endeavor to conform to them as speedily as possible: The major-generals to wear a blue coat with buff facings and linings, yellow buttons, white or buff under cloth, two epaulettes, with two stars upon each, and a black and white feather in the hat. The brigadier-generals, the same uniform as the major-generals with the difference of one star instead of two and a white feather. The colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and majors, the uniforms of their regiments and two epaulettes. The captains, the uniforms of their regiments and an epaulette on the right shoulder. The subalterns, the uniform of their regiment and an epaulette on the left shoulder. The aides-de-camp, the uniforms of their ranks and corps, or if they belong to no corps, of their general officers. Those of the majorgenerals and brigadier-generals to have a green feather in the hat; those of the Commander in Chief, a white and green. The inspectors-as well sub as brigade— the uniforms of their ranks and corps with a blue feather in the hat. The Corps of Engineers and that of sappers and miners, a blue coat with buff facings, red lining, buff under cloth, and the epaulettes of their respective ranks. Such of the staff as have military rank to wear the uniforms of their ranks and of the corps to which they belong in the line; such as have no military rank to wear plain coats with cockade and sword. All officers, as well warrant as commissioned, to wear a cockade and side arms, either a sword or genteel bayonet. The general recommends it to the officers as far as practicable to provide themselves with the uniforms prescribed for their respective corps by the regulations of published in general orders, the

2d of October last." (Orders, General Headquarters, Short Hills.)

July 14, 1780.-"It was omitted in the general order of the 18th of June last to mention that the Adjutant-General and his assistants are to wear a red and green feather in their hats and the uniforms of their corps." (Orders, General Headquarters, Pracaness.)

July 15, 1780.

Resolved, That any of the said officers entitled to forage, who shall keep their horses at their own expense, when in camp, or when absent from the Army on public service, shall be allowed as much daily for the forage so found as shall be certified by the deputy quartermaster of the State in which the Army may be, to be the net current cost of a ration of forage, every officer claiming such payment producing a certificate from the forage master, from whom he usually draws, that he had not drawn forage from him during the time charged for, and certifying upon honor that he hath drawn no public forage whatever during the said time, on which a certificate shall pass from the commissary of forage, or deputy, to the Quartermaster-General's auditor, for settlement of the same, not exceeding the current net cost of the ration as settled by the quartermaster of the State: Provided, That no officer on furlough shall be entitled to draw forage or pay for the same for any time he is absent beyond the time allowed him by his furlough.

July 19, 1780.—"The feathers directed to be worn by major-generals are to have the white below, the black above. It will be best to have one feather, the upper part black. It is recommended to the officers to have black and white cockadesa black ground with a white relief-emblematic of the expected union of the two armies." (Orders, General Headquarters, Pracaness.)


August 12, 1780.

That the officers (of the Army) shall hereafter be allowed five dollars per month in the said new bills [emission of March 18, 1780] for each retained ration.

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