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and that laborers be hired to cultivate it under the direction of an overseer, to be appointed by the general or commanding officer.
That the general or commanding officer in each of the armies cause strict enquiry to be made into the conduct of the directors of the hospitals and their surgeons, officers, and servants, and of the regimental surgeons, that if there had been any just ground of complaints in those departments the offenders may be punished.
That the colonel or commanding officer of every regiment make frequent enquiry into the health of the men under his command and report the state thereof, with any negligence, malpractice, or other misconduct of the surgeons or others, to the general and to Congress, delivering copies of such reports to all persons therein accused.
December 1, 1776.
That the medical committee be directed to take such steps as they shall judge proper for the accommodation of the sick of the Army.
December 12, 1776.-Owing to the approach of the enemy, the continental apothecary was directed to remove certain stores to a place of safety.
December 30, 1776.
Resolved, [That one wagon be allowed on a march] for the particular use of the director of the hospital. Each wagon to be drawn by two horses
and subject to such orders as shall from time to time be issued by the general or commanding officer.
January 9, 1777.
Resolved, That Dr. John Morgan, director-general, and Dr. Samuel Stringer, director of the hospital in the northern department of the Army of the United States, be, and they are hereby, dismissed from any further service in said offices.
That the directors of the military hospitals throughout the Army, with the assistance of the hospital and regimental surgeons in each department, make returns to Congress as soon as possible of the kind and quantity of medicines, instruments, and hospital furniture that remain on hand.
January 14, 1777.
That the medical committee provide a suitable assortment of medicines and send them to the hospital in the northern army with all possible despatch, together with other necessaries for the sick.
That Dr. Potts be directed to repair to Ticonderoga without delay.
That Dr. Stringer be directed to deliver to Dr. Potts such medicines and other medical stores as may be in his hands belonging to the continent.
S. Doc. 229
January 29, 1777. Resolved, That Dr. Mackenzie, who has the care of the sick in the hospital in Baltimore, be empowered to appoint a mate to assist him.
February 5, 1777. Resolved, That the medical committee be empowered to employ a suitable person in each of the States to purchase such medicines as they shall direct, for the use of the army, which can be procured at any reasonable rates.
April 7, 1777.
Resolved, That there be one director-general of all the military hospitals, which shall be elected for the Continental Army in the United States, who shall particularly superintend all the hospitals between Hudson's and Potomac rivers.
That there be one deputy director-general, who, in the absence of the director-general, shall superintend the hospitals to the eastward of Hudson's River.
That there be one deputy director-general, who, in the absence of the director-general, shall superintend the hospitals in the Northern Department.
That when the circumstances of the war shall require it, there be one deputy director-general, who, in the absence of the directorgeneral, shall superintend the hospitals in the Southern Department.
That the director-general, or, in his absence, the deputy directorgeneral in each respective department, be empowered and required, with the advice and consent of the commander in chief therein, to establish and regulate a sufficient number of hospitals at proper places for the reception of the sick and wounded of the Army; to provide medicines, instruments, dressings, bedding, and other necessary furniture, proper diet, and everything requisite for the sick and wounded soldiers and the officers of the hospitals; to pay the salaries and all other expenses of the same.
That there be assistant deputy directors to superintend the hospitals committed to their care, and assist in providing the articles before specified, under the orders or control of the director or deputy directorgeneral of the respective districts.
That there be one apothecary-general for each district, whose duty it shall be to receive, prepare, and deliver medicines and other articles of his department to the hospitals and Army as shall be ordered by the director-general or deputy directors-general, respectively,
That the apothecaries be allowed as many mates as the directorgeneral or respective deputy directors-general shall think necessary.
That there be a commissary of the hospitals in each of the aforesaid districts, whose duty it shall be to procure, store, and deliver provisions, forage, and such other articles as the director-general shall judge necessary for the use of the hospitals, in the purchase of which he shall frequently consult with the Commissary and QuartermasterGeneral, and be regulated by the prices which they give.
That the commissary be allowed such assistants and storekeepers as the director-general or deputy director-general of the district shall judge necessary.
That a steward be allowed for every hundred sick or wounded, who shall receive provisions from the commissary and distribute them agreeable to the orders of the director-general, or physician, or surgeon-general, and be accountable to the commissary for the same.
That a matron be allowed to every hundred sick or wounded, who shall take care that the provisions are properly prepared; that the wards, beds, and utensils be kept in neat order, and that the most exact economy be observed in her department.
That a nurse be allowed for every ten sick or wounded, who shall be under the direction of the matron.
That an hostler or stabler be allowed to each hospital, to receive the horses from the commissary, and to take care of the wagon and other horses belonging to the hospital, pursuant to orders from the directorgeneral, or, in his absence, the deputy director-general, or such other officers as he shall appoint.
That there be a clerk in each district, whose business it shall be to keep the accounts of the hospitals and to receive and deliver the monies agreeable to the orders of the director or deputy director-general. That a sufficient number of assistant clerks be allowed.
That such officers and soldiers as the general shall order to guard the hospitals and to conduct such as shall be weekly discharged the hospitals to their respective regiments shall, while on this duty, obey the director or deputy director-general, or the physicians and surgeonsgeneral.
That the director and deputy directors-general be respectively empowered to appoint and discharge their assistant deputy directors, and other said officers and attendants of the hospitals, in such numbers as the necessities of the Army may require, and the commanders-inchief of the department shall, in writing, approve, report of which to be immediately made to Congress, as hereafter directed.
That there be also one physician and one surgeon-general in each district, to be appointed by Congress, whose duty it shall be, respectively, to superintend the practice of physic and surgery in all the hospitals of the district to which they shall be appointed, and in the absence of the director or deputy director-general they shall have power to order the physicians, surgeons, and other officers of th eral hospitals to such duty as they shall think proper, and shall report weekly to the director-general, or, in his absence, to the assistant deputy director, the state and number of the sick and wounded in the hospitals, and the delinquent officers of the same, and see that such as may be fit shall be delivered every week to the officer of the guard, to be conducted to the Army.
That there be allowed, also, senior physicians and surgeons, who shall attend, prescribe for, and operate upon, and see properly treated, such sick and wounded as shall be allowed them by the directorgeneral, deputy director-general, or assistant director, or physician, or surgeon-general, the number for the district to be determined by the director or deputy director-general and appointed by the surgeon and physician-general.
That there be also such a number of second surgeons as the director or deputy director-general for the district shall judge necessary to assist the senior surgeons, and be under the same direction, and to be appointed by the physician and surgeon-general as aforesaid.
That there be also such a number of mates as the director-general or
deputy director-general of the district shall direct, who shall assist the surgeons in the care of the wounded, and see that the medicines are properly and regularly administered, and appointed in the manner before directed for the senior and second surgeons.
That a suitable number of covered and other wagons, litters, and other necessaries for removing the sick and wounded shall be supplied by the quartermaster or deputy quartermaster-general, and in cases of their deficiency, by the director or deputy director-general.
That there be one physician and surgeon-general for each separate army, who shall be subject to the orders and control of the directorgeneral and deputy director-general of the district wherein he acts. That his duty shall be to superintend the regimental surgeons and their mates, and to see that they do their duty, to hear all complaints against the said regimental surgeons and mates, and make report of them to the director-general, or, in his absence, to the deputy director, or, in their absence from the said army, to the commanding officer thereof, that they may be brought to trial by court-martial for misbehavior; to receive from the director-general or deputy directorgeneral, a suitable number of large strong tents, beds, bedding, medicines, and hospital stores, for such sick and wounded as can not be removed to the general hospital with safety, or may be rendered fit for duty in a few days; and shall also see that the sick and wounded, while under his care, are properly attended, dressed, and conveyed, when able to the general hospital, for which last purpose he shall be supplied by the director-general, or deputy director, with a proper number of convenient wagons and drivers.
That each physician and surgeon-general of the armies shall appoint such a number of surgeons, nurses, and orderly men as the director or deputy director-general shall judge necessary, for the more effectual care and relief of the sick and wounded, under the care of such physician and surgeon-general, as provided in the last foregoing section; and the said physicians and surgeons-general shall have under them, in each army, a steward to receive and properly dispense such articles of diet as the director-general, or deputy director-general, shall give or order to be given him by the commissary of the army or hospital.
That whenever any regimental surgeon or mate shall be absent from his regiment without leave from the said surgeon-general, or the Commander in Chief of the Army where his duty lies, the said surgeongeneral shall have power to remove such surgeon or mate, and forth with to appoint another in his stead.
That the director, deputy directors, physicians, and surgeons-general, and all other officers before enumerated shall be tried by a courtmartial for any misbehavior or neglect of duty as the Commander in Chief of the several armies shall direct.
That the physician and surgeon-general of each army shall cause daily returns to be made to him of all the sick and wounded which have been removed to the hospitals, all that remain in the hospital tents, all that are become fit for duty, all that are convalescent, and all who may have died, specifying the particular maladies under which the sick and wounded labor.
That the said physicians and surgeons-general shall cause weekly returns of the same to be made to the director or deputy directorgeneral, respectively.
That the physicians and surgeons-general of the hospitals cause like
daily returns to be made in every hospital, and the like weekly returns to their respective directors, mutatis mutandis.
That the deputy directors-general cause the like returns to be made once every month to the director-general, together with the names and denominations of all the officers in the respective hospitals.
And that the director-general shall make a like return for all the hospitals and armies of these United States once every month to the medical committee.
April 8, 1777. Resolved, That in time of action and on any other emergency when the regimental surgeons are not sufficient in number to attend properly to the sick and wounded that can not be removed to the hospitals, the director or deputy director-general of the district be empowered and directed upon the request of the physician and Surgeon-General of the Army to send from the hospitals under his care to the assistance of such sick and wounded, as many physicians and surgeons as can possibly be spared from the necessary business of the hospitals.
That the directors, deputy directors-general, assistant deputy directors, physicians and surgeons-general be, and they are hereby, required and directed to employ such parts of their time, as may conveniently be spared from the duties before pointed out to them, in visiting and prescribing for the sick and wounded of the hospitals under their care.
That the establishment of the Medical Department be as follows: Director-General..
6 dollars a day and 9 rations. Deputy director-general
do. Assistant deputy director.
do. Physician-general and surgeon-general, each.
do. Physician and Surgeon-General of the Army.
do. Senior surgeons, each
6 do. Second surgeons, each.
do. Surgeons' mates, each.
13 d. Apothecaries-general, each
do. 6 do. Do. mates, each.
1} d. do.
do. Clerk, who is to be paymaster
do. Assistant clerks, each
do. Stewards, each..
do. Nurses, each.
do. Regimental surgeons.
do. Do. mates, each
do. 2 do. April 11, 1777. Congress then proceeded to the election of officers in the hospital department; and the ballots being taken,
Dr. William Shippen, jr., was chosen, by the unanimous ballot of the thirteen States, director-general of all the military hospitals for the armies of the United States.
Dr. Walter Jones, physician-general of the hospital in the Middle Department.
Dr. Benjamin Rush, surgeon-general of the hospital in the Middle Department.
Dr. John Cochran, physician and surgeon-general of the army in the Middle Department.
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