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March 22, 1778.—“As a system of easy manoeuvres and exercises is to be introduced, with a view of establishing uniformity in those points throughout the Army, the commanding officers of brigades and regiments are desired to discontinue exercising and manquvreing their men by way of instructions, until new regulations shall be distributed.” (Orders, General Headquarters, Valley Forge.) [This was preparatory to the introduction of Baron Steuben in the character of Inspector-General, and the adoption of the new system of tactics proposed by him. General Washington at this date was selecting proper subinspectors. ]
March 28, 1778.—"The Baron Steuben, a lieutenant-general in foreign service and a gentleman of great military experience, having obligingly undertaken to exercise the office of Inspector-General in the Army, the Commander in Chief, till the pleasure of Congress be known, desires he may be respected and obeyed as such, and hopes and expects that all officers, of whatsoever rank, will afford him every aid in their power in the execution of his office.
“Lieut. Colonels Davies, Brooks, Barber, and Mr. Ternant are appointed to act as subinspectors; the three former retaining their rank and station in the line." (Orders, General Headquarters, Valley Forge.)
March 29, 1778.—“The following officers are appointed brigade inspectors, and are to be obeyed and respected as such in their several respective brigades: Colonel Tupper, in General Patterson's brigade; Lieut. Colonel Sprout, in General Glover's; Major Wallace, in Woodford's; Major Cabell, in Weedon’s; Major Hull, in Learned's; Major Fish, in Poor's; Major Huling ? in the late Conway's; Captain Smith, in Varnum's; Major Brimfield, in Maxwell's; Major Ryan, in the 1st Pennsylvania; Captain Inglis, in McIntosh's; Captain McGowan, 2nd Pennsylvania." (Orders, General Headquarters, Valley Forge.).
April 7, 1778.-"Captain William Lewis is appointed brigade-inspector in General Muhlenberg's brigade, and Captain Croghan in General Scott's." " (Orders, General Headquarters, Valley Furge.)
April 26, 1778.—“Lieut. Colonel Fleury is to act as subinspector, and will attend the Baron Steuben till circumstances will admit of assigning him a division of the Army." (Orders, General Headquarters, Valley Forge.)
May 5, 1778. Resolved, That Congress approve General Washington's plan for the institution of a well-organized inspectorship.
That Baron Steuben' be appointed to the office of Inspector-General, with the rank and pay of major-general, his pay to commence from the time he joined the Army and entered into the service of the United States.
That there be two ranks of inspectors under the direction of the Inspector-General, the first to superintend two or more brigades and the other to be charged with the inspection of only one brigade.
Frederick William Augustus Steuben was a distinguished officer in the Prussian armies. He reached America December 1, 1777, and served as a volunteer until his appointment as Inspector-General, which was mainly secured by Washington's influence. No foreign officer rendered more important service to America. He had given up an income, offices, and emoluments far greater than those he could hope for in America, and from pure love of freedom entered as a volunteer, the service of the United States, in which he died November 28, 1795.
“I have seen the Baron and his assistants seven long hours inspecting a brigade of three small regiments. Every man not present must be accounted for; if in camp, sick or well, they were produced or visited; every musket handled and searched; cartridge boxes opened, even the flints and cartridges counted. Knapsacks unslung and every article of clothing spread on the soldier's blanket, and tested by his little book, whether what he had received from the United States within the year was there; if not, to be accounted for. Hospitals, stores, laboratories, every place and every thing was open to inspection and inspected, and what officer's mind was at ease if losses or expenditures could not, on the day of searching, be fully and fairly accounted for? The inspections were every month, and wonderful was the effect, not only with regard to economy, but in creating a spirit of emulation between different corps. I have known the subalterns of a regiment appropriate one of their two rations to the bettering the appearance of their men, but this was at a later period of the war, when supplies and payments were more ample and more regular." [William North, in Kapp's Life of Steuben.]
That the officers appointed inspectors receive, in addition to the pay which they derive from their ranks, 30 dollars a month, and that the brigade inspectors receive, in addition to their pay, 20 dollars a month.
That General Washington be authorized to appoint such persons to be inspectors and brigade inspectors for the main Army as he shall think best qualified to execute the several duties of those offices.
May 9, 1778.—“Congress have been pleased to appoint Baron Steuben InspectorGeneral with the rank of major-general, and the Commander in Chief, being invested with powers to appoint the inspectors and brigade inspectors, continues in office those who have already been nominated and appointed.' (Orders, General Headquarters, Valley Forge.) [July 2, 1778, Baron Steuben was given the temporary command of Woodford's, Scott's, and the North Carolina brigades. July 22 General Washington directed him to resume his office of Inspector-General and tendered him his thanks for conducting the right wing of the Army from Brunswick to Wright's Mills. ]
May 14, 1778.
Resolved, That it is the interest of the United States to employ Mons. de la Neuville' (sr.] as inspector of the Army under the command of Major-General Gates.
Resolved, That Mr. de la Neuville's pay as inspector be 105 dollars per month and six rations a day, his pay and rations to commence from the time of his entering the service of the United States.
Resolved, That Mr. de la Neuville be informed that Congress will be disposed, after an experience of his services as an inspector to the army under General Gates, for the space of three months, to confer on him such rank as his merits may justly entitle him to.
May 26, 1778.
Resolved, That the Quartermaster-General be directed to furnish Baron Steuben with two good horses for his use.
June 4, 1778.—“On the march, Lieut. Colonel Fleury will be attached to General Lee's division; Lieut. Colonel Davies to General Stirling's; Lieut. Colonel Barber to General Millin's; Major Ternant to General de La Fayette's; Lieut. Colonel Brooks to Generai de Kalb's; and, as they will not be employed on the march in exercising or maneuvering the troops, they are to fill the office of adjutant-general, each in his respective division.' (Orders, General Headquarters, Valley Forge.)
June 15, 1778.--"Till the duties of the office of Inspector-General shall be defined and fixed by Congress, the Commander in Chief thinks proper to establish the following plan:
The functions of it are to comprehend the instituting a system of rules and regulations for the exercise of the troops in the manual and maneuvers; for their formation for the purposes of exercise on guard and on detachments, and for camp and
1 The appointment of Mr. de la Neuville, sr., was predicated on the following reasons: Recommended by Baron de Wormser, lieutenant-general in the French service, as an officer of great zeal, activity, and knowledge; recommended to General Washington by the Marquis de Bonilli, governor of Martinico, as an intelligent officer, not only acquainted with the theory but the practice of war, having served in several campaigns in Germany; by Mr. Merlet, quartermaster-general of the French army, and further by the favorable testimonies of the Marquis de La Fayette, and Major-General Conway: October 14, 1778, Mr. de la Neuville, sr., was granted a brevet commission of brigadier-general, to date August 14, 1778, and on the 4th of December following Congress directed that a certificate be given him by the President, in the words following: “Mr. de la Neuville, having served with fidelity and reputation in the Army of the United States, in testimony of his merit, a brevet commission of brigadier has been granted him by Congress, and, on his request, he is permitted to leave the service of these States and return to France.”
garrison duty, by which is to be understood whatever relates to the service of guards, the ordinary routine of duty in and the internal policy of camps and garrisons; in the execution of which rules and regulations the Inspector-General and his assistants shall be employed as hereafter specified.
All rules and regulations shall first be approved and authorized by the Commander in Chief, and either published in general orders or otherwise communicated through the Adjutant-General, from whom the division and brigade inspectors will receive the and communicate them to the major-generals and brigadiers, and to their respective divisions and brigades.
The division and brigade inspectors will assist in their execution [military maneuvers and exercises) under the immediate orders of the major-generals, brigadiers, and colonels commanding.
Grand maneuvers will be occasionally executed by the Inspector-General, with particular brigades or with detachments from the line. The InspectorGeneral will occasionally attend the troops while exercising. His directions relative to their exercise agreeably to the rules laid down are to be observed by every officer of inferior rank who may command. When any new maneuver is to be introduced, it is, in the first instance, to be performed by the division or brigade inspector, aiter which the brigadier or colonel will take the command. Each division inspector shall attend his major-general when he is of the day, and under his directions assist the field officers of the day in examining whether the duty of the guards is performed according to rule. Each brigade inspector shall likewise attend his brigadier when he is of the day, for the same purpose. On the daily parade of the guard, the Inspector-General, if present, or the subinspector of the day, is tv exercise the parade under the orders of the major-general of the day. The division and brigade inspectors are immediately to furnish their respective major and brigadier generals with all the regulations which have been heretofore madle.” (Orders, General Ileadquarters, Valley Forge.)
June 16, 1778.--"Captain Archibald Anderson, of the 2nd Maryland regiment, is appointed brigade inspector to the 2nd Maryland brigade.” (Orders, General Headquarters, Pulley Forge.)
July 29, 1778.
The Board of War further reported: 1
That Mons. Noirmont de la Neuville (jr.] since the month of December has acted as aid-de-camp to Major-General Conway, and since the
Mr. de la Neuville, aid-de-camp to the Marquis de La Fayette, was promoted to lieutenant-colonel by brevet; February 4, 1779, Congress denied his petition for a brevet commission of lieutenant-colonel, although the Marquis had addressed a letter to Congress in his favor on December 22, 1778; February 10, 1779, at his request, Mr. Noirmont de la Neuville was authorized to return to France; April 1, 1779, the Board of War having reported that Mr. Noirmont de la Neuville is a brevet major, and as as such entitled to neither the pay nor subsistence allowed to a major, Congress authorized him to repair to the Southern Army under General Lincoln, and granted him the pay and subsistence of a major during the ensuing campaign. October 18, 1779, Congress resolved “That Major de la Neuville, who has served two campaigns in the American Army, and has obtained very honorable testimonials of his merit, valor, and services in the several capacities in which he has been employed, be appointed a lieutenant-colonel by brevet in the Army of the United States. That Lieutenant-Colonel Noirmont de la Neuville have leave to return to France." October 21, 1779, the Board of War having represented that Mons. Noirmont de la Neuville had represented his uneasiness lest his not being gratified with the rank and command of a lieutenant-colonel should create disagreeable comparisons between the supposed ideas entertained by Congress of his merit and that of those enjoying such command, Congress resolved: “That Congress entertain a very favorable opinion of the personal merit and military character of Mons. Noirmont de la Neuville, which he has evidenced on every occasion presenting itself to him during his service in America; but a re-formation of the Army having lately taken place, which renders it inconsistent with the arrangement as now settled to grant commands in the line to gentlemen under Mr. Noirmont's circumstances, has prevented his having a commission of the same nature with some others, though his merit and services would otherwise entitle him thereto.” [As the brevet of lieutenant-colonel had already been conferred upon Mr. de Neuville by the resolve of October 27, 1778, the denial of his petition for promotion must have been because, as seemingly indicated in the resolve of October 21, 1779, he sought a commission of that grade in the line.]
appointment of his brother as inspector to the Northern Army has discharged the duties of deputy inspector with uncommon assiduity and much satisfaction to the officers and men of the Northern Army; whereupon,
Resolved, That Mons. Noirmont de la Neuville have the rank of a major by brevet in the American Army.
September 25, 1778.
Resolved, That Mr. John Ternant' be appointed a lieutenant-colonel in the service of the United States, and be ordered to repair to South Carolina forthwith, to perform the duties of inspector to the troops in the service of these States in South Carolina and Georgia; that he report his proceedings as inspector, from time to time, to the board of war and Inspector-General, conforming himself to such regulations as are or shall be established by Congress for the Inspector-General's Department; and, until he shall be duly notitied of the plan of the department being arranged and confirmed by Congress, that he govern himself as near as may be by the rules and practice pursued by Baron Steuben, during his having executed the office of inspector-general with the grand army, procuring the approbation and authority of the officer commanding the troops of the United States in the said States of South Carolina and Georgia, in all matters relative to the discipline of the troops and the police of the camps, garrisons, or quarters, previous to their being put in practice by him as inspector.
Resolved, That Mr. Ternant be allowed the pay and subsistence of a lieutenant-colonel from the 26th of March last.
February 18, 1779. Resolved, That there be an Inspector-General to the armies of the United States, with the rank of major-general, who, in all future appointments, shall be taken from the line of major-generals;
That the duty of the Inspector-General shall principally consist in forming a system of regulations, for the exercise of the troops in the manual evolutions and maneuvres, for the service of guards, and detachments, and for camp and garrison duty;
That the Inspector-General and his assistants shall review the troops at such times and places, and receive such returns for that purpose, as the Commander in Chief or commanding officer in a detachment shall direct; at which reviews he or they shall inspect the number and condition of the men, their discipline and exercise, the state of their arins, accouterments, and clothes; observing what of these articles have been lost or spoiled since the last review, and, as nearly as possible, by what means; reporting the same, with the deficiencies and neglects, to the Commander in Chief, or the commanding officer of a detachment, and to the board of war;
That all new maneuvres shall be introduced by the Inspector-General, and all old ones performed according to the established principles, under his superintendency; but he shall not introduce or practice
Lieutenant-Colonel Ternant having had two riding horses impressed by the State of South Carolina during the siege of Charleston, Congress, October 16, 1780, ordered the quartermaster-general to furnish him with two good horses.
any regulations relative to the objects of his department, save such as are made and established in manner following, all regulations whatsoever to be finally approved and established by Congress. But the exigence of the service requiring it, temporary ones may, from time to time, be introduced by the Inspector-General with the approbation of the Commander in Chief. These regulations to be communicated to the Army through the Adjutant-General, and to be transmitted to the board of war with all convenient despatch, that, after being examined and reported by them to Congress, they may be rejected, altered, amended, or confirmed, as Congress shall deem proper;
That there be as many subinspectors as the Commander in Chief or commanding officer in a detachment shall, on consideration of the strength and situation of the Army, from time to time, deem necessary, to be taken from the line of lieutenant-colonels, and to receive their instructions relative to the department from the InspectorGeneral;
That there be one brigade inspector to each brigade, who shall be one of the majors in the brigade; and that the office of brigade inspector shall in future be annexed to that of major of brigade. He shall accordingly keep a roster of the battalions of his brigade, regulate all the details and take care of the formation and march of all guards, detachments, &c., from the brigade. He is to receive the general orders and communicate them to the commanding officers of the brigades and regiments, and, through the adjutants, to all the officers of the brigade. He is, so far as concerns his brigade, to inspect the police of the camp, the discipline and order of the service. In time of action he is to assist in executing the necessary maneuvres of the brigade, according to the orders of the brigadier or officer commanding. He is to do no duty in the line;
That all the officers of the inspectorship having appointments in the line shall retain their rights of command, succession, and promotion in the same manner as if they had not assumed the office. But as the duties of this department are sufficient to employ their whole time, they are to suspend the exercise of their respective commands, except on particular occasions, when the Commander in Chief or commanding officer in a detachment may deem it necessary to invest them with command. They are to be exempted from all common camp and garrison duty, that they may attend the more carefully to those of the inspection; and in time of action they are to be employed in assisting in the execution of the field manœuvres;
That the Inspector-General, so far as relates to the inspector of the Army, be subject to the orders of Congress, the board of war, and the Commander in Chief only; but the subinspectors shall also be subject to the officers commanding the divisions and brigades to which they are attached, on the principles herein established;
That there be allowed to the Inspector-General, in consideration of the extraordinary expenses which attend the execution of his office, 84 dollars per month, in addition to the pay and rations of a majorgeneral, heretofore provided.
March 29, 1779.–Baron Steuben having prepared a system of regulations for the infantry, which was highly commended by both General Washington and the Board of War, Congress adopted the system of tactics and ordered its publication and distribution to the Army.