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Robertson, Sage, Sharp, Smith of Virginia, Strong, sides those stated; and they apprehend that the fewTannehill, Telfair, Udree, and Yancey.
ness of these is attributable to the want of opportunity, Ordered, That Messrs. Gaston, Forsyth, and not of inclination in the Dey, to prey upon our Ward of Massachusetts, Grosvenor, Seybber, commerce, and to enslave our citizens. The war with McKim, and Newton, be the said committee.
Britain has hitherto shut the Mediterranean against
shortly venture upon it.
The committee are all of opinion, upon the evidence
which has been laid before them, that the Dey of AlMr. Gaston, from the select committee, to giers considers his Treaty with the United States as at whom was referred, on the 24th instant, the bill an end, and is waging war against them. The evi. for the protection of the commerce of the Uni- dence upon which this opinion is founded, and from ted States against the Algerine cruisers," with which are extracted the facts above stated, accompainstructions to inquire into, and report in detail, nies this report, and with it is respectfully submitted. the facts upon which the measure contemplated The said bill being then amended, by prefixing by the bill is predicated," made a report there the following preambleupon; which was read. The report is as follows:
“ Whereas the Dey of Algiers, on the coast of BarThe committee to whom has been referred the bill bary, has commenced a predatory warfare against the “ for the protection of the commerce of the United United States," States against the Algerine cruisers,” with instructions
Mr. GOLDSBOROUGH moved further to amend to inquire and report, in detail, the facts upon which the bill by inserting, after the word "aforesaid," the measure contemplated by the bill is predicated, in the 4ih line of the second section, the followreport: That, in the month of July, 1812, the Dey of Algiers
ing words: taking offence, or pretending to take offence, at the
“ If the Dey of Algiers shall not, on demand by an quantity and quality of a shipment of military stores, accredited agent of the United States, duly authorized made by the United States in pursuance of the stipu- for that purpose, deliver up, without delay, all Amerilation in the Treaty of 1795, and, refusing to receive can citizens who may be detained by him as prisoners the stores, extorted from the American Consul Gene. or slaves, and return to a state of amity with the Uni. ral at Algiers, by threats of personal imprisonment, ted States, by a treaty of peace." and of reducing to slavery all Americans in his power, And the question being taken thereon, it was a sum of money claimed as arrearages of treaty stipu- determined in the pegative-yeas 47, nays 92, as lations, and denied by the United States to be due; follows: and then compelled the Consul, and all citizens of the United States at Algiers, abruptly to quit his do.
Yeas-Messrs. Baylies of Massachusetts, Bigelow, minions.
Boyd, Bradbury, Brigham, Caperton, Champion, CilIt further appears to the committee, that, on the ley, Condict, Cooper, Davenport, Ely, Geddes, Golds25th of August following, the American brig Edwin, borough, Goodwyn, Hale, Hasbrouck, Henderson, Hunof Salem, owned by Nathaniel Silsbee of that place, Kent of Maryland, Kerr, King of Massachusetts, Law,
gerford, Jackson of Rhode Island, Kent of New York, while on a voyage from Malta to Gibraltar, was taken Lovett, Moseley, Pearson, Pickering, Pitkin, Potter, by an Algerine corsair, and carried into Algiers as John Reed, Ruggles, Sheffey, Slaymaker, Stanford, prize. The commander of the brig, Captain George Campbell Smith, and the crew, ten in number, have strong, Stuart, Sturges, Taggart, Thompson, Vose, ever since been detained in captivity, with the
Wheaton, White, Wilcox, Wilson of Massachusetts,
exception of two of them, whose release has been effected
and Winter. under circumstances not indicating any change of hos
Nars-Messrs. Alexander, Alston, Anderson, Avetile temper on the part of the Dey. It also appears ry, Barbour, Bard, Barnett, Bines, Bowen, Brown, that a vessel, sailing under the Spanish flag, has been Burwell, Calhoun, Cannon, Clopton, Comstock, Cox, condemned in Algiers as laying a false claim to that Creighton, Crouch, Culpeper, Cuthbert, Davis of Pennflag, and concealing her true American character. In sylvania, Desha, Duvall, Eppes, Farrow, Findley, Fisk this vessel was taken a Mr. Pollard, who claims to be of Vermont, Fisk of New York, Forsyth, Franklin, an American citizen, and is believed to be of Norfolk, Gaston, Gholson, Gourdin, Griffin, Grosvenor, Hall, Virginia, and who, as an American citizen, is kept in Hanson, Harris
, Hawes, Hawkins, Hopkins of Kencaptivity. The Government, justly solicitous to relieve tucky, Hubbard, Humphreys, Hulbert, Irwin, Jackthese unfortunate captives, caused an agent (whose son of Virginia, Johnson of Kentucky, Kennedy, Kerconnexion with the Government was not disclosed) to shaw, Kilbourn, King of North Carolina, Lefferts, be sent to Algiers, with the means, and with instruc- Lowndes, Macon, McCoy, McKim, Montgomery, tions to effect their ransom, if it could be done at a
Moore, Nelson, Newton, Oakley, Ormsby, Pickens, price not exceeding three thousand dollars per man. Rhea of Tennessee, Rich, Ringgold, Roane, Robert
Piper, Pleasants, William Reed, Rea of Pennsylvania, The effort did not succeed, because of the Dey's avowed policy to increase the number of his American son, Sage, Schureman, Sevier, Seybert, Sharp, Sherslaves, in order to be able to compel a renewal of his wood, Smith of New York, Smith of Pennsylvania, Treaty with the United States on terms suited to his Smith of Virginia, Stockton, Tannehill, Taylor, Telrapacity. Captain Smith, Mr. Pollard, and the master fair, Troup, Udree, Ward of Massachusetts, Williams, of the Edwin, are not confined, nor kept at hard labor; / Wilson of Pennsylvania, Wright, and Yancey. but the rest of the captives are subjected to the well
Mr. Stanford then moved to amend the same known horrors of Algerine slavery. The committee section, by inserting, after the word "into,” in the have not been apprized of any other specific outrages 7th line, ihe word "some," and after the word upon the persons or property of American citizens, be- port," in the same line, the words of the Uni
Supplemental Journal. ted States ;” which motion was determined in the gold, Roane, Robertson, Ruggles, Sage, Schureman, negative.
Sevier, Seybert, Sharp, Sheffey, Sherwood, Smith of Mr. S. then moved to amend the same section, New York, Smith of Virginia, Stockton, Stuart, Tanby inserting, after the word “of," in the tenth nehill, Taylor, Telfair, Troup, Udree, Ward of Mas. line, the word “maritime;" which was also deter- sachusetts, Wilson of Pennsylvania, Winter, and mined in the negative.
Yancey. The question was taken on engrossing the bill
, Caperton, Cilley, Constock, Crouch, Davenport, Davis
Nars-Messrs. Bard, Bigelow, Brigham, Brown, and reading it a third time, and passed in the of Pennsylvania, Ely, Goldsborough, Henderson, King, affirmative-yeas 94, pays 32, as follows : of Massachusetts, Law, Lovett, Pearson, Pickering,
YEAS—Messrs. Alexander, Anderson, Barbour, Bay- Piper, Pitkin, Slaymaker, Smith of Pennsylvania, lies of Massachusetts, Bines, Bowen, Bradbury, Bur. Stanford, Strong, Sturges, Taggart, Thompson, Vose, well, Calhoun, Cannon, Champion, Clopton, Condict, Wheaton, White, Wilcox, and Wilson of Massa. Cox, Creighton, Cuthbert, Desha, Duvall, Eppes, Far
chusetts. row, Findley, Fisk of Vermont, Fisk of New York, And the bill having been engrossed, was read Forsyth, Franklin, Gaston, Gholson, Goodwyn, Gour- a third time, and sent to the Senate by the hands din, Grosvenor, Hale, Hall, Harris, Hasbrouck, Hawes, of Mr. GASTON and Mr. FORSYTH. Hawkins, Hopkins of Kentucky, Hubbard, Humphreys, Hungerford, Hulbert, Irwin, Jackson of Virginia, Johnson of Kentucky, Kennedy, Kent of New York,
THURSDAY, March 2. Kent of Maryland, Kerr, Kershaw, Kilbourn, King The bill " for the protection of the commerce of North Carolina, Lefferts, Lowndes, Macon, McCoy, of the United States against the Algerine cruis. Montgomery, Moore, Nelson, Newton, Oakley, Orms- ers," was returned from the Senate, they having by, Pickens, Pleasants, Potter, John Reed, Wm. Reed, passed it without amendment. And the injuncRea of Pennsylvania, Rhea of Tennessee, Rich, Ring-ltion of secrecy was removed.
TO THE HISTORY OF THE THIRTEENTH CONGRESS.
COMPRISING THE MOST IMPORTANT DOCUMENTS ORIGINATING DURING THAT CON
GRESS, AND THE PUBLIC ACTS PASSED BY IT.
GREAT BRITAIN—RETALIATION. Mr. Monroe to Sir Alexander Cochrane, Vice Admi
ral, &c. [Communicated to Congress, the 26th day of Septem
DEPARTMENT OF State, ber, 1814.]
September 6, 1814. To the Senate and House of
Sir: I have had the honor of receiving your Representatives of the United States : letter of the 18th of August, stating that, having I transmit to Congress, for their information, been called on by the Governor General of the copies of a letter from Admiral Cochrane, com- Canadas, to aid him in carrying into effect measmanding His Britannic Majesty's naval forces on ures of retaliation against the inhabitants of the the American station, to the Secretary of State, United States for the wanton desolation commitwith his answer, and a reply from Admiral Coch-ted by their army in Upper Canada, it has berane.
come your duty, conformably with the nature JAMES MADISON. of the Governor General's application, to issue SEPTEMBER 26, 1814.
to the naval force poder your command an order to destroy and lay waste such towns and
districts upon the coast as may be found assailVice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane to Mr. Monroe. able. His BRITANNIC MAJESTY'S SHIP THE
It is seen, with the greatest surprise, that this Tonnant, Patuxent River, system of devastation, which has been practised
August 18, 1814. by the British forces, so manifestly contrary to Sir: Having been called upon by the Governor the usage of civilized warfare, is placed by you General of the Canadas to aid him in carrying on the ground of retaliation. No sonner were the into effect measures of retaliation against the in- United States compelled to resort to war against habitants of the United States for the wanton Great Britain, than they resolved to wage it in a destruction committed by their army in Upper manger most consonant to the principles of huCapada, it has become imperiously my duty, con- manity, and to those friendly relations which it formably with the nature of the Governor Gen- was desirable to preserve between the two naeral's application, to issue to the naval force un- tions after the restoration of peace. They perder my command, an order to destroy and lay ceived, however, with the deepest regret, ihat a waste such towns and districts upon the coast as spirit, alike just and humane, was neither chermay be found assailable.
ished nor acted on by your Government. Such I had hoped that this contest would have ter- an assertion would not be hazarded if it was not mioated without my being obliged to resort to supported by facts, the proof of which has, perseverities which are contrary to the usage of civil. haps, already carried the same conviction to other ized warfare, and as it has been with extreme re nations that it has to the people of these States. luctance and concern that I have found myself Without dwelling on the deplorable cruelties compelled to adopt this system of devastation, I committed by the savages in ihe British ranks, shall be equally gratified if the conduct of the and in British pay, at the river Raisia, which, tó Executive of the United States will authorize my this day, has never been disavowed or atoned for, staying such proceedings, by making reparation I refer, as more immediately connected with the to ibe suffering inhabitants of Upper Canada, subject of your letter, to the wanton desolation thereby manifesting that, if the destructive mea that was committed at Havre-de-Grace and at sures pursued by their army were ever sanctioned, Georgetown, early in the Spring of 1813. These they will no longer be permitted by the Govern- villages were burnt and ravaged by the naval ment. I have the honor to be, &c.
forces of Great Britain, to the ruin of their unALEX. COCHRANE, armed inhabitants, who saw, with astonishment,
Vice Admiral, Commander, fc. that they derived no protection to their properly Hon. JAMES MONROE.
from the laws of war. During the same season, 13th Con. 3d Sess.-41
Relations with Great Britain.
scenes of invasion and pillage, carried on under either Power may have committed against the the same authority, were witnessed all along the other, this Government will always be ready to waters of the Chesapeake, to an extent inflicting enter into reciprocal arrangements. It is prethe most serious private distress, and under cir- sumed that your Government will neither excumstances that justified the suspicion that re- pect nor propose any which are not reciprocal. venge and cupidity, rather than the manly mo Should your Government adhere to a system tives that should dictate the hostility of a high- of desolation. so contrary to the views and pracminded foe, led to their perpetration. The late tice of the United States, so revolting to hudestruction of the houses of the Government in manily, and repugnant to the sentiments and this city is another act which comes necessarily usages of the civilized world, whilst it will be into view. In the wars of modern Europe, no seen with the deepest regret, it must and will be example of the kind, even among nations the most met with a determination and constancy becomhostile to each other, can be traced. In the course ing a free people contending in a just cause for of ten years past, the capitals of the principal their essential rights and dearest interests. Powers of the continent of Europe have been I have the honor to be, &c. conquered, and occupied alternately by the victo
JAMES MONROE. rious armies of each other, and no instance of such Sir ALEXANDER COCHRANE, wanton and unjustifiablé destruction has been Vice Admiral, Commander, fc. seen. We must go back to distant and barbarous ages to find a parallel for the acts of which I com- Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane to Mr. Monroe. plain. Although these acts of desolation invited, if
His BRITANNIC MAJESTY'S SHIP they did not impose on the Government the ne.
TONNANT, IN TAE CHESAPEAKE, cessity of retaliation, yet in no instance has it been
September 19, 1814. authorized.
Sir: I have had the honor to receive your let. The burning of the village of Newark in Up- ter of the 6th instant this morning, in reply to per Canada, posterior to the early outrages above the one which I addressed to you from the Pa. enumerated, was not executed on that principle. tuxent. The village of Newark adjoined Fori George, As I have no authority from my Goveroment and its destruction was justified by the officers to enter upon any kind of discussion relative to who ordered it, on the ground that it became ne. the points contained in your letter, I have only cessary in the military operations there. The to regret that there does pot appear to be any act, however, was disavowed by the Government. hope that I shall be authorized to recall my genThe burning which took place at Long Point was eral order; which has been further sanctioned by unauthorized by the Government, and ihe conduct a subsequent request from Lieutenant General of the officer subjected to the investigation of a Sir George Prevost. military tribunal. For the burning at Si. Da. A copy of your letter will this day be forwarded vid's, committed by stragglers, the officer who by me to England, and, uotil I receive instruccommanded in that quarter was dismissed, with- tions from my Government, the measures which out a trial, for not preventing it.
I have adopted must be persisted in, unless remuI am commanded by the President distinctly neration be made to the inhabitants of ihe Cana. to stale, that it as little comports with any orders das for the injuries they have sustained from the which have been issued to the military and pa- outrages committed by the troops of the United val commanders of the United States, as it does States. with the established and known humanity of the I have the hovor to be, yours, &c. American nation, to pursue a system which it
ALEX. COCHRANE, appears you have adopted. This Government
Vice Admiral, Commander, fc. owes it to itself, to the principles which it has Hon. JAMES MONROE. ever held sacred, to disavow, as justly chargeable to it, any such wanton, cruel, and unjustifable Warfare. Whatever unauthorized irregularities may have
GREAT BRITAIN. been committed by any of its troops, it would have been ready, acting on these principles of [Communicated to Congress, October 10th and 14th, sacred and eternal obligation, to disavow, and, as
and December 1, 1814.] far as might be practicable, to repair. Bui, in to the Senate and House of the plan of desolating warfare which your leiter Representatives of the United States : so explicitly makes known, and which is attempt I lay before Congress communications just reed to be excused on a plea so utterly groundless, ceived from the Plenipotentiaries of the United the President perceives a spirit of deep-rooted States charged with negotiating peace with Great hostility, which, without the evidence of such Britain, showing the conditions on which alone facts, he could not have believed existed, or would that Government is willing to put an end to the have been carried to such an extremity.
For the reparation of injuries, of whatever pa The instructions to those Plenipotentiaries, ture they may be, not sanctioned by the law of disclosing the grounds on which they were au. nations, which the military and naval force of thorized to negotiate and conclude a treaty of
Relations with Great Britain.
cease as soon
peace, will be the subject of another communi-lhe war. Had not Great Britain persevered obcation.
stinately in the violation of these important rights, JAMES MADISON. the war would not have been declared. It will WASHINGTON, October 10, 1814
as these rights are respected.
The proposition made by Mr. Russell to the To the Senate and House of
British Government immediately after the war, Representatives of the United States : and the answer given by this Department to AdI now transmit to Congress copies of the in- miral Warren's letter since, show the ground on structions to the Plenipotentiaries of the United which the United States were willing to adjust States charged with negotiating a peace with the controversy relative to impressment. Great Britain, as referred to in my message of
This has been further evinced by a report of the 10th instant.
the Committee of Foreign Relations of the House JAMES MADISON.
of Representatives, and an act of Congress passed WASHINGTON, October 14, 1814.
in consequence of that report. By these docu. ments you will see that, to accommodate this
important difference, the United States are disTo the Senate and House of
posed to exclude British seamen altogether from Representatives of the United States :
ihe American service. This being effectually I transmit for the information of Congress the done, the British Government can have no precommunications last received from the Ministers text for the practice. How shall it be done? Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United By restraints to be imposed by each nation on States at Ghent, explaining the course and actual the naturalization of the seamen of the other, ex. state of their negotiations with the Plenipoten- cluding, at the same time, all others not natutiaries of Great Britain.
ralized ? Or shall the right of each nation to JAMES MADISON.
naturalize the seamen of the other be prohibited, DECEMBER 1, 1814.
and each exclude from its service the natives of
the other? Whatever the rule is, it ought to be Mr. Monroe, Secretary of State, to the Plenipoten- reciprocal. If Great Britain is allowed 10 galu
tiaries of the United States for treating of peace with ralize American seamen, the United States should Great Britain.
enjoy the same privilege. If it is demanded that DEPARTMENT or STATE, April 15, 1813.
the United States shall exclude from their service GENTLEMEN: I had the honor, on the ul. all native British subjects, a like exclusion of timo, to receive from Mr. Adams two letters, one American citizens from the British service ought bearing date 30th September, the other on the to be reciprocated. Tbe mode also should be 17th October last, communicating the overture common to both countries. Each should be at of the Emperor of Russia to promote peace by liberty to give the same facilities, or be bound to his friendly mediation between the United States impose the same restraints that the other does. and Great Britain.. On the day following, Mr. The President is willing to agree to either alterDaschkoff
, the Russian Minister, made a similar native, and to carry it into effect by the most communication to this Department. The sub- eligible regulations that can be devised. ject has, in consequence, been duly considered, If the first alternative is adopted, the extent of and I have now to make known to you the result. the proposed exclusion will depend on the im.
The President has not hesitated to accept the pediments to naturalization, on the efficacy of mediation of Russia, and he indulges a strong ihe regulations 10 prevent imposition, and the hope that it will produce the desired effect. It is fidelity of their execution. The greater the diffinot known that Great Britain has acceded to the culty in acquiring the right of citizenship, the proposition, but it is presumed that she will not easier will it be to avoid imposition, and the more decline it.' The President thought it improper complete the desired exclusion. The law of the to postpone his decision until he should hear of last session of Congress relative to seamen proves that of the British Government. Sincerely de- how sincerely desirous the Legislative as well sirous of peace, he has been willing to avail him as Executive branch of our Government is, to self of every opportunity which might tend to adjust this controversy, on conditions which promote it, on just and honorable conditions, may be satisfactory to Great Britain. By that and in accepting this overiure he has been par: law it is made indispensable for every British ticularly gratified to evince, by the manner of it, subject who may hereafter become a citizen, to the distinguished consideration which the United reside five years, without intermission, within States entertain for the Emperor Alexander. the United States, and so many guards are imShould the British Goveromeni accept the media posed to prevent frauds, that it seems to be imation, the negotiation to which it leads will be possible that they should be eluded. No British held at St. Petersburg. The President commits subject can be employed in a public or private it to you, for which a commission is enclosed, ship of the United States, unless he produces to and he has appointed Mr. Harris secretary of the the commander, in the one instance, and to the mission.
collector, in the other, a certified copy of the act The impressment of our seamen and illegal by which he became naturalized. A list of the blockades, as exemplified more particularly in the crew, in the case of a private ship, must be taken, Orders in Council, were the principal causes of certiñed and recorded by the collector, and the