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Whole, the consideration of the bill 10 authorize The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the the President of the United States to call upon Whole, the consideration of the bill, entitled "An the several States and Territories thereof, for act to authorize the Commissioner of the Reve their respective quotas of thousand militia, nue to cause a clerk in his office to aid him in for the defence of the frontiers of the United signing licenses."
States, together with the amendment proposed Ordered, That the further cunsideration there thereto by Mr. German; and, after debate, the of be postponed until 10-morrow.
WEDNESDAY, November 16.
The bill, entitled "An act to authorize the publi- the Territories of the United States," was read a cation of the laws of the United States within third time, and passed. the Territories of the United States," was read The bill, entitled "An act for the relief of John the second time.
Chalmers, junior," was read a third time, and The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the passed. Whole, the consideration of the bill to authorize The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the the President of the United States to call upon Whole, the bill, entitled "An act for the relief of the several States and Territories thereof for their John Castille, of the city of New Orleans." respective quotas of thousand militia, for the On motion of Mr. FROMENTIN, the bill was refrontiers of the United States, together with the ferred to a select committee, to consider and reamendment proposed by Mr. ANDERSON, to strike port thereon; and Messrs. FROMENTIN, DAGGETT, out “two years," the term of service.
and ANDERSON, were appointed the committee. On the question, Will the Senate agree to the The bill, entitled “An act to authorize the proposed amendment? it was determined in the Commissioner of the Revenue to cause a clerk negative--yeas 15, nays 16, as follows:
in his office to aid him in signing licenses," was
NAY8_Messrs. Bibb, Bledsoe, Brent, Brown, Chace, and Messrs. King, Giles, and Bledsoe, were ap-
On motion, by Mr. German, to strike out, sec- informed the Senate that the House have passed tion 3, after the word "thar,” in the first line, to a resolution for furnishing the American Antithe word “ act," inclusive, in the sixth line-on quarian Society with a copy of the Journals of motion, the further consideration thereof was Congress, and of the documents published under postponed until to-morrow.
their order; in which they request the concur
rence of the Senate. Tuesday, November 15.
ORGANIZATION OF NAVY DEPARTMENT. Mr. Smith, from the committee to whom was
The PRESIDENT communicated a report of the referred the bill, entitled "An act for the relief of Secretary of the Navy, containing a system for John Chalmers, jun., reported it without amend- the better organization of the Department of the ment; and the bill was considered as in Com- Navy of the United States, made in obedience to mittee of the Whole, and ordered to the third a resolution of the Senate of the 18th March, reading.
1814. The reading thereof was dispensed with ; The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the and it was ordered to be printed for the use of the Whole, the consideration of the bill, entitled "An Senate, and that it be referred to the Committee act to authorize the publication of the laws of on Naval Affairs to consider and report thereon. the United States within the Territories of the The report is as follows: United States ; and, no amendment having been
Navy DEPARTMENT, Nov. 15, 1814. proposed, it was ordered to the third reading. The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the passed on the 18th of March last, directing the Secre
Sır: In obedience to the resolution of the Senate, Whole, the consideration of the bill, entitled "An tary of the Navy to devise and digest a system for the act to authorize the Commissioner of the Reve better organization of the Department of the Navy of Due to cause a clerk in his office to aid him in the United States, I have now the honor to report the signiog licenses; and no amendment having been following system, with such prefatory observations as proposed, it was ordered to the third reading.
appear to me pertinent to the occasion. On request, Mr. Fromentin had leave to with It has been affirmed and cannot be denied, that im.
Organization of the Navy Department.
perfections exist in the civil administration of the obvious. Yet, under all these circumstances, it is deNaval Establishment; hence it has been inferred that monstrable, that upon a comparison of an equal quana radical change of system can alone remedy the evils. tity of tonnage and number of guns and men, or in Legislative wisdom will readily discriminate between proportion to the number of men alone, our naval exthe constituent principles upon which the present penditure is considerably less than that for the Navy establishment is predicated, and has thus far prospered, of Great Britain, in which "one hundred and fortyand the defects which result from the absence of an five thousand men are employed, at an expense of intelligent, practical, auxiliary agency, qualified to di. more than twenty millions of pounds sterling, angest, arrange, and enforce a proper system of detailed nually." regulations, calculated to insure the judicious and The local service is, from its scattered, irregular, faithful application of public moneys; a strict ac- and irresponsible nature, much more expensive and countability in the expenditures of supplies: and a wasteful than that of the regular Navy; the more perrigid execution of the duties enjoined on all the offi- fect organization of which, and responsibility of com. cers and agents connected with the establishment. mand, insure a more faithful superintendence and
Profusion, waste, and abuse, are the inherent off- accountability. Hence the current expenditure of the spring of all extensive public institutions; and, if we service would be an extravagant criterion by which to occasionally perceive these evils, in some degree, in estimate that of a regular establishment under a judithe Naval Establishment of the United States, we are cious system. The force employed in local service is not thence to infer their absence from similar estab- extended throughout a line of stations from Louisiana lishments in other countries, where naval science and to Maine, and from Champlain to Huron, consequently experience may be presumed to have provided greater it is so weak as readily to be penetrated, at almost any safeguards, and more numerous, skilful, and vigilant point on our maritime frontier, by the concentration of agencies.
a small hostile force; and it is expensive in proportion But regulations, however correct and adequate to to its diffusion, Independently of the deleterious nathe end, become nugatory, or worse, unless the au ture of this service upon the health and habits of those thority and the means are co-extensive, and competent employed in it, we are, from the present necessity of to enforce the execution, or punish the violation there this system, deprived of the services of a body of offiof. This may account for the non-existence of many cers and seamen, sufficient to man thirteen ships ofwholesome regulations in the civil administration of the line, such as the Independence, Washington, and the Navy of the United States; and for the imperfect Franklin seventy-fours. execution of those which exist. Breaches of the lat When we contemplate the effect which such a force ter too frequently escape with impunity, from the im- would have when acting in conjunction upon our own possibility of the head of the Department taking cog- coast and waters, or in squadron, pursuing the comnizance of all the multifarious concerns of the estab- mercial fleets of the enemy on the ocean, or in the lishment. It is problematical, however, whether the harbors of his colonies, it is impossible to avoid the excess may not be more injurious than the deficiency conclusion, that our waters would be freed from invaof regulation; in the former case, responsibility may sion; our coast from blockade; his military and naval be lost in the maze and mass of detail and multiplied resources intercepted to such a degree as to paralyze agency, while in the latter, general instruction, and his efforts on this continent; supersede the necessity of sound discretion, not unfrequently insure greater suc- a vast Military Establishment, coextensive with our cess and responsibility.
maritime, Canadian, and Indian frontiers ; and our That the duties enjoined, or which may necessarily citizens from those harassing, irregular, and inconvedevolve upon the Secretary of the Navy, particularly nient calls of militia, which the predatory enterprise during a period of active and diversified hostility, are of the enemy so frequently produce. In short, accordbeyond the powers of any individual to discharge to ing to my conceptions, this cheap and efficient national the best advantage, cannot be doubted; although, by defence should be adopted as soon as circumstances great labor and assiduity, with adequate professional will admit, and cherished by a well digested, enerqualifications, he may, possibly, execute the general getic, and liberal system, steadily progressing with the and most essential branches of duty with tolerable population, commerce, and resources of the nation. success.
The nature, construction, and equipment of the In the progress of reform, while we pay due respect ships which constitute a navy, form the basis of its to that system, the establishment of which has attained efficiency, durability, and economy, and the most imthe greatest celebrity, more, it is believed, from its portant branch in the civil administration of its affairs. magnitude and power, than from the excellence of its with a view to the reform and extension of the Naval civil administration, we ought not to lose sight of its Establishment of the United States, these objects palpable and acknowledged defects, nor of those fea- ought to command the first place in our attention, tures in our own system, to which, in no trivial degree, combined with such an organization of the civil dethe exalted reputation of our infant Navy may be partment as shall promise the best results. attributed.
The defects in this part of the British system have That our Navy is not excelled in anything which been the theme of criticism and reprehension for many constitutes efficiency, perfect equipment, and general years past. The most minute, laborious, and able ingood qualities, it is believed, will be admitted. That vestigation, has, from time to time, taken place, under our seamen are better paid, fed, and accommodated, is the direction and scrutiny of the Parliament; yet no less true. That all the imported, and many of the nothing approximating to radical amendment has been domestic articles of equipment, and of consumption in adopted ; and the advocates of reform, either from the the service, are exceedingly enhanced ; that the wages subtle ramifications of the evil, or the agency of some of mechanical labor is more than double that which is sinister influence, appear to despair of success. paid by Great Britain ; that our expenditure is greatly According to the most intelligent writers, supported increased by the interruption to navigable transporta- by well established facts, the deterioration of the Brittion, and the great extent of the local service, is equally | ish navy, owing to the injudicious selection and com
NOVEMBER, 1814. bination of incongruous materials in the construction, competition. The same energy, skill, vigilance, and and the abortive method of preserving, is very alarm- intrepidity, which distinguished the commercial navi. ing; and the diversity in the form, dimensions, and gators of the United States, characterize the officers proportions, not only of the several rates, but of the and seamen of the Navy. The same superiority of numerous distinct classes of the same rate, as well in construction which gave to its commercial marine the their hulls as in their masts, sails, and equipments, celerity and security for which it is distinguished, may and in a still greater degree in their qualities for com- be seen in the American Navy, which is truly indigebined action, demonstrates the prevalence of caprice nous and distinct from every other. The independent and prejudice, instead of science and system. “When character of the nation is manifestly visible in the Lord Nelson was off Cadiz, with seventeen or eighteen genius of its Navy. The classes of our ships, their sail-of-the-line, he had no less than seven different form, construction, armament, and equipment, have classes of seventy-four gun ships, each requiring differ- been tested by experience, and found to have been ent masts, sails, yards, &c., so that if one ship was happily adapted to our circumstances, compelling the disabled, the others could not supply her with appro- enemy either to employ ships-of-the-line against frigo priate stores."
ates, or to construct a new class of ships. Their effiThe consequences resulting from this defective or ciency and perfection have extorted the praise of the ganization and want of system are strongly illustrated enemy. The author, before quoted, says: "The carin the fact, related by a recent professional writer of ronades I saw on board the United States' brig Argus rank and talents, that "out of five hundred and thirty- were better mounted, and the vessel more complete eight ships, &c., in the British navy, now at sea, there than those in the British navy; and she was uncomare only sixty-nine which are in reality superior in the monly well manæuvred." discharge of metal or force of blows, but inferior in Our ships are excellent, and all in good condition. sailing, to some of the American frigates; and that The classes are few, and so uniform that, without inthere are but eighteen which, unless in smooth water, convenience, the masts, spars, and equipments, of any are equal to contend with the United States, leaving one of a class will serve, indifferently, for any other of four hundred and fifty-one, out of five hundred and the same class. All the new ships, of each rate, are thirty-eight, which are admitted to be incompetent to of the same class, and are absolutely similar in all engage, single-handed, with an American frigate.” their equipments, and in the dimensions and propor
These facts are encouraging, and serve to show, tions of their hulls, masts, spars, &c. This strict simithat although the numerical force of the enemy in larity should be carefully preserved, upon every prinships and men appears to be overwhelming; yet, if ciple of convenience, economy, and efficiency. the aggregate numlier of officers, seamen, and marines, Timber, which forms an object of much solicitude which the United States may, even now, engage for in Great Britain, deserves the particular attention of the public service, was concentrated in eighteen or the Department, the reorganization of which will doubl. twenty ships-of-the-line, such as have been recently lessly be made to combine the necessary talents and built, it would place all the ships alluded to in the means to provide for every branch of the service, by a quotation just recited, except the eighteen, hors de seasonable, diligent, and judicious collection, in secure combat ; nor could our enemy protect his commerce and convenient depots, of all the materials which enter and colonies, and combine such a force as would coun- into the construction and equipment of ships of war. teract the power and offensive enterprise of an Ameri When it is considered that one seventy-four-gun can squadron so truly formidable. With such a force ship requires two thousand large oak trees, equal to it will be perceived, that his host of frigates and the estimated produce of fifty-seven acres, the importsmaller vessels would be struck out of the account, or ance of securing, for public use, all that valuable speadded to the list of our Navy, if they came in contact. cies of oak, which is found only on the Southern seaThese views, it is true, are prospective, but with a sta- board, is sufficiently obvious. ble, judicious, and liberal system, the result would be Dock yards, foundries, smitheries, and armories, in realized at no remote period.
safe and eligible situations, are indispensable appenHaving noticed these exceptions to the civil admin. dages of so important and growing an establishment. istration of the British navy, it is but just to observe, These always collect the best workmen, and as private that the organization of the military part of their sys- | interest cannot interfere with the execution, the matem is much more perfect.
terials and workmanship are better, and the work is The regulations and instructions for the service at performed with more certainty and regularity, than by sea, adopted by order in Council, and published in one contract with private individuals, whose works, in quarto volume, in 1808, are those which now prevail. some cases, may be so remote from the seat of deThey are excellent, and afford much matter worthy of mand, that the transportation may cost more than the incorporation into our system, with such modification article. as the peculiar circumstances of the service may re There is another branch of the service which apquire.
pears to me to merit the serious deliberation of the of the French naval system, the Department of Con- Legislature, with regard to the establishment of some struction is universally admitted to be the most perfect regular system, by which the voluntary enlistments for in existence, and is well worthy of imitation. The the Navy may derive occasional reinforcement from the military part of the system, however, is less perfect in services of those seamen, who, pursuing their own pripractice, and not so well adapted to the habits and vate occupations, are exempt, by their itinerant habits, usages of American seamen as that of the British. from public service of any kind. In my view there
The character of the navy of any nation will be de- would be nothing incompatible with the free spirit of termined by its commercial and navigating enterprise. our institutions, or with the rights of individuals, if That of America had surpassed every other, until registers, with a particular descriptive unexampled prosperity and rapid extension of its com- kept in the several districts, of all the seamen belongmerce, excited the envy, jealousy, and hostility, of ing to the United States, and provision made by law those who could not meet it in fair, equal, and friendly for classing and calling into the public service, in
Organization of the Navy Department.
succession, for reasonable stated periods, such portions except as hereinafter modified, altered, or transferred or classes, as the public service might require, and if to any other office or offices, created by this act. any individual, so called, should be absent at the time, Sec. 2. That the President of the United States be the next in succession should perform the tour of duty and he is hereby authorized to designate three officers of the absentee, who should, on his return, be liable of the Navy, and, with the advice and consent of the to serve his original tour, and his substitute be exempt Senate, to appoint two other judicious persons, skilled from his succeeding regular tour of duty.
in naval affairs, to be Inspectors of the Navy, who toIn the military service, should the ranks not be filled gether shall constitute a Board of Inspectors of the by recruits, the deficiency of regular force may be Navy, three members whereof shall be necessary to made up by draughts of militia, to assemble at a given form a quorum; and the business of the said board time and place; not so in the naval service, it de- shall be transacted in such central and convenient pends, exclusively, upon voluntary enlistments, upon place, for the superintendence of the affairs of the Nawhich there is no reliance for any given object, at any vy, as the President of the Uniied States shall direct ; time or place. Hence, the most important expeditions who shall also have power to designate the presiding may utterly fail, though every possible exertion shall member, and to appoint the secretary of the said board, have been made to carry them into effect.
whose duty it shall be to keep regular and correct reIf we examine, with due attention, the nature, ex. cords of all the transactions of the board, and to transtent, and importance of the objects involved in the mit attested copies of all such proceedings to the Secadministration of naval affairs, and contemplate, in retary of the Navy, for the inspection and revision of the history of ages past, the unsuccessful, though' in the President of the United States, as soon as may be defaligable labors of legislation, science, and genius, after the adjournment of the meeting at which any to perfect the system, we may learn to appreciate with such proceedings shall have taken place; and the said more accuracy, and cherish with liberality, the life of board shall have power to establish such rules and study, observation and experience, required to arrive regulations, for its own proceedings, and to employ even at moderate attainments in a science, which, such number of clerks and assistants, as well for the though familiar in the estimation of all, is the most transacting of the business of the board, as for that complicated, critical, and interesting, that has ever
of the several inspectors, and to procure such books, engaged the attention or influenced the destinies of na- maps, charts, plans, drawings, models, and stationery tions. My sole object is to invite the attention and as the public interest may require, and the President liberality of the National Councils to the requisite of the United States approve. talents and qualifications for the cherishing and rear
Sec. 3. That it shall be the duty of the Secretary ing to maturity, the vigorous plant, around which of the Navy to arrange and class, under distinct and are entwined the affections and confidence of the appropriate heads, as equally as may be, all such ducountry.
ties and details as may be found impracticable for the All these objects appear to me to be intimately officers of the Department of the Navy, as now organconnected with the revision of the civil adminstra- ized, to execute with advantage to the public, and, tion of our naval affairs, the Executive branch of with the approbation of the President of the United which should be conducted by persons of enlarged States, to assign to each inspector of the Navy the views, collectively combining all the practical know- special charge and execution of one of the classes, so ant, diversified, and comprehensive subjects, obviously under the instruction and subject to the revision of ledge and professional intelligence which these import- arranged; for the faithful performance of which trust
the said inspectors shall severally be held responsible, require.
We have a good foundation upon which to raise a the board of inspectors, to which a statement of all the durable superstructure; and concluding that that
transactions of each inspector shall be submitted for
system cannot be radically wrong, which has produced revision, at each stated meeting, and an abstract theresuch favorable results, I should be unwilling to hazard, of transmitted monthly to the Secretary of the Navy, by an entire innovation, the benefits we have derived, with such remarks thereon as the nature of the case and may still derive, by retaining the present organ may require ; and it shall also be the duty of the Secization of the Navy Department, and providing, by retary of the Navy to prepare a system of general reglaw, for an intelligent, practical, and efficient auxiliary ulations, defining and prescribing the respective powagency, such as experience has suggested.
ers and duties of the board of inspectors of the Navy,
and of the several inspectors, which rules, when apWith this view, I have the honor to submit, with proved by the President of the United States, shall be great deference, the following system for the organiza, respected and obeyed, until altered or revoked by the tion of the Department of the Navy of the United saine authority; and the same general regulations, States, distinguishing, for the sake of perspicuity, in thus prepared and approved, shall be laid before Conthe form of a bill, those objects which appear to re- gress at their next session. quire Legislative provision, from those for which Ex
Sec. 4. That the President of the United States be ecutive regulation may prescribe with more convenience and he is hereby authorized alone to appoint a person, and advantage; the outline of which only is given, skilled in the science and practice of naval architecture, as the ground-work may be filled up to greater benefit, to the office of Naval Constructor; and also to appoint when the collected experience and talents which it two naval constructors. And it shall be the duty of contemplates shall have deliberated upon the subject. the Secretary of the Navy to prepare such rules and An Act for the better organization of the Navy De regulations for connecting the business of the Conpartment.
structor's department, as shall appear necessary and
proper; which, when approved by the President of the Be it enacted, &c., That the office, dutiès, and pow- United States, shall be respected and obeyed, until reers of the Secretary of the Navy, and of the Account- voked by the same authority. And the naval construcant, Agents, and other officers of the Department of tor shall be allowed one clerk, to assist in transacting the Navy, be and remain as now, by law, established; the business of his department.
Organization of the Navy Department.
Sec. 5. That the President of the United States be All requisitions of commanding officers, pursers, and and he is hereby authorized, with the consent and ad. other persons, upon the agents, should be checked, and vice of the Senate, to appoint a Paymaster of the Navy, receive the sanction of the board, or of the resident who shall perform the duties of his office agreeably to officer authorized by the board, before they are comthe directions of the President of the United States for plied with. the time being; and, before he enters upon the duties Payments and advances should be made, as heretoof the same, shall give bonds, with good and sufficient fore, through the navy agents, (except those for the pay sureties, in such sums as the President of the United or the Navy ;) and the sanction of the Secretary of the States shall direct, for the faithful discharge of his said Navy, of the board, or of the officers authorized by the office, and shall take an oath to execute the duties board, should precede all payments and advances, thereof with
Sec. Go. That all letters and packets to and from the The board should establish general regulations for inspectors and paymaster of the navy, which relate to the conduct of its members, in the discharge of the spetheir official duties, shall be free from postage. cial and important trusts severally assigned to them by
Sec. 7. That each inspector of the navy shall be en- the Secretary of the Navy; and should digest and titled to the pay and rations of a captain commanding report to the Department distinct regulations for the a squadron on separate service, and also to the sum of following objects : one thousand two hundred dollars per annum, in lieu 1. Uniform regulations establishing the several classes of house-rent, fuel, forage, &c.; and the salary of the of ships and vessels in the Navy of the United States; naval constructor shall be three thousand dollars per with tables of the dimensions, proportions, number, annum; each of the assistant constructors, one thou- quantity, quality, nature, and description, of masts, sand five hundred dollars per annum; the paymaster spars, rigging, anchors, cables, armament, and equipof the navy, two thousand dollars per annum; the sec- ments, of all kinds; and of the quantity, quality, and retary of the board of inspectors, two thousand dollars description, of provisions and stores, of every species, per annum ; and the clerks and assistants, authorized for a given period, for each class. by this act, shall receive such reasonable compensation 2. Regulations for receiving, preserving, issuing, and for their services as the President of the United States strictly accounting for, the expenditure of materials shall direct.
and stores of all kinds, and in every department of the I would also respectfully suggest the expediency of service, within the United States. providing by law for the establishment of a Nával 3. Regulations for surveying and authenticating the Academy, with suitable professors, for the instruction actual state and condition of all the ships and vessels of the officers of the Navy, in those branches of the of the Navy, and of all materials and stores, of overy mathematics and experimental philosophy, and in the species, reported to be decayed, damaged, or defective; science and practice of gunnery, theory of naval archi- and for directing the repair, conversion, sale, or other tecture, and art of mechanical drawing, which are disposition of the same, as the nature of the case may necessary to the accomplishment of the naval officer. require.
In order to illustrate the principles and operation of 4. A more perfect system of general regulations for the proposed organization of the Navy Department, the naval service, at sea and on the Lakes. the following outline of the powers and duties which 5. General regulations for the flotilla or force emit is contemplated to assign to the board of inspectors, ployed in harbor defence, adapted to the peculiar naand to the several inspectors, is respectfully suggested: ture of that service. Powers and duties of the Board.
6. Uniform regulations for the navy yards, arsenals, and direction of the affairs of the Navy, under the in the Navy, while in port; for the recruiting service; The board shall have the general superintendence and depots of stores and materials.
7. Regulations for the cruising ships and vessels of structions from, and powers delegated by, the Presi- and for the officers of the Navy, while on shore, on dent of the United States, and authority over all the duty, or on furlough; in order to ascertain the actual officers, agents, and persons, employed under the Navy state and local situation of all the officers. Department; report to the Secretary of the Navy, from time to time, ali such matters and things as may, in hospitals, and medical department of the Navy within
8. A system of detailed regulations for the naval the opinion of the board, tend to promote the efficacy the United States. and economy of the establishment; and, upon the
9. An entire and new system of regulations for the requisition of the Secretary of the Navy, furnish all the estimates of expenditure which the several branches of pursers in the Navy, accurately defining their duties, the service may require, and such other information securing a more strict accountability; limiting their and statements as he may deem necessary.
emoluments by a fixed and reasonable standard; and and purchases, either directly or through the navy, the present system. The board shall have the power of making contracts protecting the seamen of the Navy from the undue ad
vantages which may be practised, with impunity, under agents, whose power, in this respect, should be limited to small sums, and to objects, the procuring of which 10. Regulations for ascertaining, by examination, the may not admit of delay. In all other cases, the previ- moral character and professional qualifications of all ous sanction, either of the Secretary of the Navy, of the officers of the Navy, below the grade of a master the board of inspectors, or of some officers authorized commandant, classing them in the scale of their several by the board, should be indispensable.
merits; and of the pretensions of those who may be The naval stations within the United States should selected for promotion, as well as of the candidates for be designated by convenient boundaries; and an offi- warrant appointments in the Navy. cer of rank, trust, and confidence, should reside in each, All which regulations, when approved by the Presiwho should, under the instructions of the board, super-dent of the United States, should be established and intend and control the affairs of the Navy within his obeyed, until revoked by the same authority. district, and report to the board from time to time. The duties and details of the service, proposed to be