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Militia of the United States.


trol of them, it would be highly inexpedient to a regiment of London apprentices. Has the honresort 10 such a measure. It is forbidden by allorable gentleman forgotten the artful address, the considerations which have subjected the im- used by that hypocritical tyrant, to entice into providence of youth to the guide and direction his army the youth of the country; and then to of age and experience. If minors are wanted for insinuate himself, by all methods in his power, the Army, why not address yourself to their pa- into their confidence and affections? The same rents and guardians ? They surely can best judge troops who put down the royal power accomwhether it is suitable and proper for their children panied their ambitious leader to ihe House of and wards to enlist. If there should be no rea- Parliament, and drove from their seats the very sonable objections, it must be presumed, they men who had raised him to power. They enawould consent. You will, then, without conseni, bled Cromwell to establish a tyranny so odious obtain those only whom you ought not to obtain. and oppressive, that the English nation to avoid It is to be hoped the number will not be great. it, in a short time, surrendered themselves at disThis measure will tend to weaken the sacred re- cretion to the most unprincipled and profligate lation between parents and children, and to lessen monarch that ever sat on their throne, and under the power for the discipline and education of him patiently bore injuries more grievous than youth, the best and safest foundation of all Govo those for which they had brought his father to ernments. It is a direct invitation for rebellion the block. The people of this country are not against parental authority.

more strongly attached to liberty than the EnOur infant manufactures, still requiring the glish were at the time of Cromwell. The army fostering aid of Goveromeni, and which, in the now recommended will be in number three-fold Northern and Eastern States, are in a considera- what he ever possessed. We also may hereafter ble degree carried on by the labor of apprentices, find a Cromwell in some military demagogue will be greatly injured. Without instructing who is now flattering the people with professions children in manufactures, a sufficient supply of of affection and devotion to their cause. laborers can never be expected. The labor of a After painting, in strong colors, the distress skilful mechanic in the line of his business is and danger of the nation, the honorable gentle. more important to the community than his serv man has said that strong and energetic measures ices can be in the Army.

are necessary to preserve it from ruin; and that All these objects will be injured in proportion light objections ought not to be made. It seems as this attempt is attended with success. And to be supposed that those who shall oppose measafter all the exertions which can be made, it is ures, declared to be brought forward for that purnot probable any great number of recruits can, pose, will have the appearance of opposing the in this way, be provided. Can a wise Govern- necessary defence of the country. But, however ment hazard such valuable interests for the sake unpopular that course may be, it is surely our of a miserable project of enlisting unwary youth duiy io examine the character and tendency of a into the Army?

measure before we assent to it. In my opinion, The circumstances of the country being such what have been called the strong and energetic as to render a standing army of considerable mag- measures of the Government, have caused our nitude necessary, I do not wish to excite any present distress, and nothing but a change can unreasonable jealousy against such an establish-give relief. The various acts composing the sys

The plan of the Secretary of War con tem of commercial restrictions, and also the detemplates an army of more than one hundred claration of war, were, in their respective periods, and forty thousand men, at the disposal of Gov- demoninated strong and energetic measures. All eromeni. It may be worthy of consideration objections against them were deemed light and whether such an army, in certain events, which trivial. Is there an honest man in the oation may occur, instead of defending, may not endan- who does not now lament that those objections ger the liberties of the country. On one occasion, were not heard with proper attention ? All the at least, it required all the influence and address disastrous consequences which have ensued were of their great and good commander to restrain, then foretold. What was then prophecy is now within the bounds of their duty, the army of the history. To the ill-judged measures of GovernRevolution; than which there is no reason to hope ment may be traced all our misfortunes. They the present will be more patriotic. Surely, it is arose from a war unnecessarily waged, and badly not to be desired that an unusual proportion of conducted; and bave been increased by a profuse young men, of such early years as not to have waste of the treasure, and by a destruction of the become acquainted with the relations and duties credit of the nation. Wheiher the war was deof civil life, should be drawn into the Army. clared through an erroneous estimation of injuries, Persons educated from childhood in a camp be suffered from a foreign nation, or for the purpose come soldiers of fortune, iodifferent in what cause of gratifying a lust for power and patronage, they employ their arms. From a numerous and makes little difference to the country. The Adveteran army danger is mostly to be apprehended, ministration and their friends are united in opinwhen the civil power rests in feeble hands. ion that the terms of peace which they have

The honorable gentleman (Mr. Giles) has re- offered to the enemy, provide sufficiently for both lated, that Oliver Cromwell, in the war between the honor and safety of the country. By these the King and Parliament of England, defeated terms the pretended causes of the war are abanthe royalists at the battle of Naseby, by means of doned. If, then, without obtaining satisfaction




Militia of the United States. for the past, or security for the future, we can cast in New England; but now, though proposed honorably and safely return to a state of peace, on the most favorable terms, the Government we surely might, with equal honor and safety, will not permit a gun to be made for their use in har remained in that condition. Whatever, that section of the Union. Peculation and protherefore, were the injuries suffered from Great fusion almost universally prevail, 10 such an exBritaio, (and I have never deemed them incontent as could not be borne by any nation. If a siderable,) it was unnecessary and unwise to de- remedy be not soon applied, the resources of the clare war. Should a nation, extensively con- country will be entirely exhausted. Without nected in intercourse with others, make every means of subsistence, armies are worse than useinjury sustained a cause of war, it would never less; they become dangerous. be at peace. The inquiry ought to have been, The military force of the country has been po whether the injuries were of such a nature as better employed than its pecuniary 'means. could not, without loss of honor, be borne, and The gallantry and good conduct of the Navy, whether we had the means of obtaining redress and, in several instances, also of the Army, have by war. The Government has shown no more merited and received the warmest approbation of wisdom or prudence in conducting the war, than the nation. of this, however, the Executive in declaring it. In modern times, the strength Government is entitled to no share. In awarding of a nation for carrying on war essentially con- the meed of praise for the important victories in sists in its revenue. An empty treasury, the con- the naval batiles on the Lakes, Erie and Cham. sequence of waste and mismanagement, and the plain, truth compelled you to declare, that they total loss of public credit are the immediate were, in both instances, gained over a superior causes of the present distress. When the Gov- hostile force. The Government merits censure, eroment passed into the bands of the party now instead of praise, for exposing to such imminent in power, the nation enjoyed peace and prosper- hazard the great interest staked on the issue of ity, an extensive commerce, and ample revenues. those battles. On Lake Ontario, also, the enemy After having procured the repeal of the former has been permitted to gain a decided superiority internal taxes, so abundant was the income from of force. The fleet, built and equipped there at commerce alone, that in his last annual Message great expense, has become useless. Instead of to Congress Mr. Jefferson gravely recommended protecting our own shores from the attacks of the to their consideration the obtaining, by amend- enemy, a large land force is now employed in ments of the Constitution, more enlarged. powers defending the fleet from threatened destruction. and other objects, to enable the Government to The ships of war on the waters of the Atlantic expend the surplus of the revenue. All the causes, are mosily laid up in the various harbors, and deas far as they depended on foreign nations, which fended by bodies of militia at enormous expense. have led to our present condition then existed. Ample appropriations were last year made, not At the commencement of the war the Adminis- only for all the vessels then in commission, but tration proposed their plans of increased revenue also for putting into service two new seventyto meet the increased expenditures. Their sys- four gun ships and three frigates. These approtem was adopted by the Legislature in its full ex- priations have been disregarded. The naval sertent. Thus far, everything deinanded has been vice on the Atlantic, and also the defence of the granted. Whai, then, but gross mismanagement seaboard seem to be abandoned. The enemy bas and waste can have produced the present deplor- occupied more than a hundred miles of the eastable condition of the finances ? In the war ofern seacoast of the State of Massachusetts, inthe Revolution, without the power of levying cluding one of the best harbors and naval stations, taxes, or in any way commanding the resources in the United States, all which was defended by of the nation, the Government was able to obtain less than one hundred troops. Or so little imloans in foreign countries. Now, though possess- portance has this appeared to the Government, ing all the resources necessary for sustaining that the President, whose duty it is to lay before credit, Government can obtain loans neither at the Legislature information of the state of the home nor abroad. Economy and good manage- Union, omitted even to mention it in his Message ment then gained and established that confidence at the opening of the session. Not a movement which waste and profusion have now destroyed. has been made to regain that valuable territory; The debt already contracted in this war will be but the enemy is left to fortify and secure it at found to be double in amount to the whole debt his leisure. of the United States at the end of the Revolu The military force, instead of defending the tionary war. Instances of the grossest profusion country, has been employed in the idle and fruitare constantly occurring in every department. less attempt to conquer the provinces of Canada. The cannon designed for the two seventy-four With their whole power bent to that object, durgun ships, and which have been for a long time ing three campaigns, the Government have lost wanted, are yet to be transported by land from their two principal fortresses, Niagara and MiWashington, more than five hundred miles. The chilimackinac, and gained nothing. Still, this mere expense of transportation far exceeds the wild project is to be pursued. The Secretary of sum for which they might be made in the vicinWar, in his report, announces the intention of ity and delivered at the places where wanted. In the Administration, with a hundred thousand the war of the Revolution, and also in that of regular troops, “to touch the feelings and excite 1798 with France, cannon in abundance were the apprehensions of the British Government by



NovembER, 1814. pushing the war into Canada.” These are bold |

Friday, November 18. counsels for men who lately, without drawing a Mr. King, from the committee to whom was sword, fled in dismay and disgrace from their referred the bill, entitled "An act to authorize the own capitol, before a handful of the enemy. Commissioner of the Revenue 10 cause a clerk in They now, in pom pous language, promise forth, his office to aid him in signing licenses;" reported with to overrun iwo provinces, and then ascend it with amendments, which were considered as in the plains of Abraham, and storm the strongest Committee of the Whole, and agreed to; and the fortress on our continent. Rashness in counsel

, President reported the bill to the House amendand imbecility in execution do not constitute ed accordingly. strong claims to confidence. Can the nation

On the question, Shall the amendments be enlonger repose confidence in such counsels? Is it grossed and the bill

read a third time, as amendwise and safe to expend our utmost resources in ed? it was determined in the affirmative. weak and extravagant projects, in which past ex:

The resolution for furnishing the American perience destroys even the hope of future success? Antiquarian Suciety with a copy of the Jouruals

The conquest of Canada should in my opinion of Congress, and of the documents published unnever have been undertaken; and the idle altempt der their order, was read the second time. ought immediately to be abandoned. Already,

The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the too much blood and treasure have been wasted whole, the consideration of the bill to authorize in the pursuit of an object, which, were it desira- the President of the United States to call upon ble, cannot be attained. Without a naval force, the several States and Territories thereof 'for to command the mouth of the St. Lawrence and their respective quotas of — thousand militia prevent the arrival of troops and supplies, as they for the defence of the frontiers of the United may be wanted, Canada cannot be conquered. States, as amended; and the bill having been furBy means of such force, the British succeeded in ther amended, on motion, the Senate adjourned. wresting those provinces from France; and for want of it, we failed in our attempt, in the war of the Revolution, when the regular troops there

SATURDAY, November 19. were few, and the inhabitants almost universally The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the inclined to favor us. For the prosecution of this Whole, the consideration of the resolution for fruitless object, I will give no aid.

furnishing the American Antiquarian Society For the necessary and proper defence of the with a copy of the Journals of Congress, and of country, neither men nor pecuniary means are, the documents published under their order; and, in my opinion, to be withheld. Even to the pres- no amendment having been proposed, it passed ent Administration, so long as they continue to to the third reading. be clothed with Constitucional authority, and The amendments to the bill, entitled "An act shall not have given the most unequivocal and to authorize the Coromissioner of the Revenue decisive evidence of having abandoned that de- to cause a clerk in his office to aid him in signing fence, I will, for that purpose, and restricted to licenses," having been reported correct, the bill that object, grant all that could be necessary was read a third time as amended, and passed under a wise and prudent Administration. Such with amendments; and, on motion, the title was grants, however, must be within the limits, and amended to read as follows: "An act authorizing in all respects according to the provisions of the the Secretary of the Treasury to appoint a clerk Constitution. Beyond those limits, under no in the office of the Commissioner of the Rev. pressure of circumstances, will I consent to go. enue, with power to sign licenses." Should the national defence be abandoned by the Mr. HORSEY submitted the following motions General Government, I trust the people, if still for consideration: retaining a good portion of their resources, may Resolved, That the President of the United States rally under their Siate Governments against for- be requested to cause to be laid before the Senate a eign invasion, and rely with confidence on their statement of the amount of expenditures on account Owo courage and virtue.

of the national armories, and the number of arms made and repaired at each of the said armories since

the 2d day of April, 1794. THURSDAY, November 17.

Resolved, That the President of the United States The resolution brought up yesterday for con- be requested to cause to be laid before the Senate a currence was read, and passed 10 the second statement of the number of arms and equipments purreading.

chased or manufactured by or on account of the Uni. The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the ted States; as, also, of the number transmitted to Whole, the consideratioo of the bill to authorize each State and Territory, in virtue of the act of 230 the President of the United States to call upon together with a statement of the expenditures on ac

April, 1808, for arming the whole body of the militia ; the several Staies and Territories thereof for their count of the said arms and equipments. respective quotas of — thousand militia, for the

Resolved, That the President of the United States defence of the frontiers of the United States; be requested to cause to be laid before the Senate a and sundry amendments having been agreed to, statement, exhibiting the whole number of arms be. on motion, by Mr. Giles, the bill, as amended, longing to the United States, distinguishing what are was ordered to be printed for the use of the fit from what are unfit for immediate use; as, also, Senate.

showing the number distributed for the use of the

Militia of the United States.

Senate. armies or militia in the service of the United States; And the President reported the bill to the Sen

to ate ritories respectively.


new section to the bill, as ollows: The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the

“Sec. 11. And be it further enacted, That the reWhole, the consideration of the bill to authorize cruits raised by the classes as aforesaid, shall be subthe President of the United States to call upon be performed by, the militiamen contemplated by this

stituted for, and employed in the service intended to the several States and Territories thereof for their act to be furnished by the several classes.” respective quotas of — thousand militia, for the defence of the frontiers of the United Siates.

It was determined in the negative-yeas 11, On motion, by Mr. ANDERSON, to strike out the nays 21, as follows: seventh section of the bill, as follows:

YEAS-Messrs. Daggett, Dana, German, GoldsborSec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the militia, ough, Gore, Horsey, Hunter, King, Lambert, Mason,

and Thompson. while employed in the service of the United States in

NAYS.-Messrs. Anderson, Bibb, Bledsoe, Brent, virtue of this act, shall not be compelled to serve beyond the limits of the United States, nor beyond the Morrow, Roberts, Robinson, Smith, Tait, Taylor, Tur

Brown, Chace, Fromentin, Gaillard, Giles, Lacock, limits of the State or Territory furnishing the same, and the limits of an adjoining State or Territory; ex.

ner, Varnum, Walker, Wharton, and Worthington. cept that the militia from Kentucky and Tennessee On the question, Shall this bill be engrossed may be required to serve in the defence and for the and read a third time as amended ? it was deterprotection of Louisiana."

mined in the affirmative.
It was determined in the negative-yeas 6,
Days 25, as follows:

MONDAY, November 21.
ÝBas—Messrs. Anderson, Bledsoe, Dana, Hunter,
Varnum, and Walker.

The Senate resumed the consideration of the Nars-Messrs. Bibb, Brent, Brown, Chace, Condit, motions made the 19th instant, by Mr. Horsey, Daggett, Fromentin, Gaillard, German, Giles, Golds- which were amended and agreed to, as follows: borough, Gore, Horsey, King, Lacock, Lambert, Mor. Resolved, That the President of the United row, Roberts, Robinson, Smith, 'Taylor, Thompson, States be requested to cause to be laid before the Turner, Wharton, and Worthington.

Senate a statement of the amount of expendiOn motion, by Mr. GOLDSBOROUGH, to strike tures on account of the national armories, and out the ninth section of the bill, as follows:

the number of arms made and repaired at each of “Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That, after the the said armories since the 20 day of April 1794. classification of the militia as aforesaid, any three

Resolved, That the President of the United classes within any State or Territory which shall fur- States be requested to cause to be laid before the

Senate a statement of the number of arms and nish, according to law, two effective able-bodied recruits, to serve in the Army of the United States, dur- equipments purchased or manufactured by, or on ing the war, shall thereafter be exempt from the militia account of, the United States, in virtue of the act of service required by this act; and, to aid them in this April 23, 1808: as, also, of the number transmitted respect, such recruits shall be entitled, respectively, to to each State and Territory, for arming the whole receive the bounty in money and land, according to body of the militia ; together with a statement of the provisions of the act, entilled "An act -, which the expenditures on account of the said arms and is allowed to other recruits respectively, for the Army equipments. of the United States; and in all cases where recruits Resolved, That the President of the United shall be furnished as aforesaid, the same shall be deliv- States be requested to cause to be laid before the ered to some recruiting officer in the service of the Senate a staiement exhibiting the whole number United States, who shall immediately give his receipt of arms belonging to the United States, distintherefor on account of the classes furnishing them, guishing what are fit from what are unfit for imand shall forthwith report the same to the Department mediate use; as, also, showing the number disof War, specifying in such report the names and de tributed for the use of the armies or militia in the scription of such recruits respectively, and the descrip- service of the United States, other than those distion of the classes of the militia furnishing the same ; tributed under the act of 230 April, 1808, and the whereupon, it shall be the duty of the Secretary for the Department of War to grant, without delay, to number loaned or sold to the States and Territosuch classes, a certificate of exemption from the militia

ries respectively. service required by this act; which certificate shall, to

The bill to authorize the President of the Uniall intents and purposes, be good and available to them ted States to call upon the several States and for their absolute exemption therefrom."

Territories thereof for their respective quotas of It was determined in the negative-yeas 11,

thousand militia for the defence of the fronnays 19, as follows:

tiers of the United States, having been reported Yxas-Messrs. Daggett, Dana, Goldsborough, Gore, by the committee correctly engrossed, was read Horsey, Hunter, King, Lambert, Mason, Thompson,

a third time, and further amended by unanimous and Varnum.

consent; and the blanks having been filled, on Nars—Messrs, Bibb, Bledsoe, Brent, Brown, Chace, the question, Shall this bill pass ? on motion, by Condit, Fromentin, German, Giles, Lacock, Morrow, Mr. Brent, it was agreed to take the question by Roberts, Sinith, Tait, Taylor, Turner, Walker, Whar. yeas and nays. ton, and Worthington.

On motion, the Senate adjourned.


Militia of the United States.


Tuesday, November 22.

his army, and then fancied himseli equal to his A message from the House of Representatives more wealthy neighbors, who, at great expense, informed the Senate that the House have passed supported a large body of soldiers of flesh and a resolution appointing a committee on their part blood, well armed and accoutred. We are told to join such committee as may be appointed on by well informed Senators on this floor, that the the part of the Senate, to inquire and report whe- United States are unable, that the States respecther Congress may not be more conveniently ac.

lively are unable, that the individuals themselves commodated, either by an alteration of the

are unable, to arm the militia.

present chambers, or by procuring other rooms within

I truly hope, sir, that this picture of the dea convenient distance of the public offices; in plorable condition of our country is founded in which resolution they request the concurrence of error. If it be not, it is a very important addithe Senate.

tion to that mass of evidence which is daily

crowding on our minds, of the fatal improvidence MILITIA OF THE UNITED STATES. of engaging in this destructive war. The Senate resumed the third reading of the If it be not in the power of the nation, nor of bill to authorize the President of the United the several States, por of the individuals, to proStates to call upon the several States and Terri- vide arms for eighty thousand militia, why call tories thereof for their respective quotas of

them forth to eat ihe bread of idleness, and prothousand militia for the defence of the frontiers vide the cerlain means of victory to our foe, and of the United States.

defeat to ourselves? Why continue to propagate Mr. Gore addressed the Chair as follows: delusion? Why this empty boast of taking CanThere is no truth more evident than that the ada, of expelling the British from every foot of general, sovereigo, and uncontrolled power of the the Continent, and dictating the conditions of several States, over the militia, remains with peace to the Court of London ? them respectively, except in certain specified cases,

Believe me, sir, rather believe the accounts, in which the Congress has authority to provide which are pouring into this desolated capital bý for calling out this force, which, while so called every mail, from every quarter and corner of the into the service of the United States is subject to country, that blind confidence, which, trusting to your Government, preserving always their offi- proclamations and the extravagant vaunts of igcers and militia organization, and excluding porance and indolence, has delivered this genefrom the command all other officers, except only rous people a prey to the weakest of men, and the President of the United States.

the worsi of passions, is fast dissipating, and will The cases are, when insurrections exist, when soon cease to hide from them the dreadful abyss the laws of the Union cannot be executed by the into which they have been plunged, and the enorcivil powers when an invasion is made.

mity of those delinquencies which have impov. "The Congress may provide for calling forth the erished, dishonored, and degraded them. militia to execute the laws, to suppress insurrections,

Whether it be true or not, that the people are to repel invasion."

capable of armiog themselves, or the states of

providing the arms, there is no good reason for For no other purposes can the United States receiving men who come without arms and equipcall them forth, in no other service can they re- ments, and thus filling your muster rolls with quire their aid.

such beings, as, in no sense of the word, can be “ The Congress may provide for organizing, arm- considered soldiers, but mere cormorants, to deing, and disciplining the militia, and for governing vour the remnant of sustenance, which can yet such part of them as may be in the service of the Uni- be wrung from this industrious nation, whom ted States, reserving to the States respectively the ap- presumptuous folly has rendered bankrupt. pointment of the officers, and the authority of training We too well know the fact, that great, rich, the militia, according to the discipline prescribed by and powerful States issue forth uoarmed legions, Congress."

and boast of having complied with requisitions The power of organizing and disciplining the for soldiers to fight the battles of their country. militia seems to have been granted for the pur We are told that the Executive provides such pose of enabling this force to operate efficiently. men with arms and equipments. Where the That, when called to act, the militia of the seve- authority is to be found for thus favoring any ral Siates might manæuvre alike, and having the State I am yet to learn. If allowed to some, and same military language and ideas, might under not to all, it is unequal, and therefore unjusi. stand and comprehend each other, as well as the Further, sir, some years since a law was enacted, orders of their superiors, and be usefully combined appropriating an annual sum of money for the to effect the object proposed.

purchase of arms to be distributed among the That Congress should provide for arming the States. To certain favored States arms were militia was necessary to place them in a condi- supplied, to others none. The neglected States tion to act as soldiers; for if be not a contradic-have lately received a small part of their proportion to call militia without arms, soldiers, it is tion. Whence was derived the authority ihus to assuming very much the characier of a petly discriminate, lo favor some States, and neglect German potentate, ambitious of military fame, others, is unknown to me.

Sure I am it is conwho procured a large number of wax figures in sistent neither with policy nor justice. warlike attitude and habiliment, which he called It is, however, of the same character with that

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