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Documents accompanying the President's Message.

[23d Cong. 1st SESS.

FORTIFICATIONS.

ing-ditches of the island to such a size as would suit them Fort Independence, Boston harbor.-In making the for navigation with lighters. The extent of this excavanecessary preparations for commencing the repairs of this tion is 6,700 cubic yards. work, it was soon perceived that the amount of funds Fort Monroe, Hampton rouds, Virginia.-A part of the appropriated for that object would not be sufficient to funds placed at ibe disposal of the department, for this effect it. The estimates were predicated upon the prices work, has been applied during the year to the objects of materials and labor as they existed in 1831, since which specified in my last report. Although much has been they have risen about 25 per cent., judging by the best done towards its completion, yet, owing to the great data that could be procured. Under these circumstances, demand for labor, and the consequent difficulty in com. it was deemed proper to limit the operations, for the manding it at Fort Monroe, though an advance of fifteen present, on Castle island, to the building of the sea-wall, per cent. was offered, the outwork on the front of attack for its preservation, and the repairing of the southwest is not in estate as far advanced as it was hoped it would be. wharf. The former has been put under contract, and Fort Calhoun, Hampton roads, l'irginia.-By a refmeasures were taken for the early completion of the erence to my last annual report, it will be perceived that letter. An additional estimate for this fort will according- it has for some time been a leading ohject at this work to ly be submitted.

compress the substratum, by the accumulation of mate. Fort Warren, George's island, Boston harbor.-The rials upon it, to a state which will produce an equilibrium calls upon the department, during the last season, bave when it shall be required to sustain the weight of the been so numerous, and of a nature so pressing, as to ren walls, and the armament of the fort. Twelve thousand der it impossible, with its limited means, 10 mature the five hundred tons of stone have been added to the mole, plans for this work. Every effort in the way of prepara- and eleven thousand eight hundred tons of building stone tion will, however, be made this fall and winter for the deposited on and near the walls during the year. efficient prosecution of the preliminary works early next Fort Macon, Beaufurl, North Carolina.—This work will spring.

be completed and ready for inspection by the middle of Fort Adams, Newport harbor, Rhode Island. -Great the present month. The works for the preservation of progress has been made in this work since my last report. its site have been prosecuted with considerable advanThe operations on it have been conducted in a inanner tage, and give promise that they will accomplish the altogether satisfactory; it is in a good state, and exhibits desirable object for which they were begun. some of the finest specimens of workmanship to be met

Fort Caswell, Oak island, North Carolina. -As was with in our public works.

an'icipated in my last report, this fort will be completed Furl Hamilton, Narruu's, New York. There is a small and may be garrisoned before the end of this year. amount of the last appropriation for this work, yet unex- Furlifications in Charleston harbor, South Carolina pended, in the hands of ihe agent. It will be applied in Castle Pinckney and Fort Moulirie have been much imthe course of the coming year, to give the work that proved as regards their ability for defence, and the latter degree of finish which can only be attained after the lapse thoroughly repaired. Works to arrest the encroachments of sufficient time to allow the defects in construction, that of the water, on the site of Fort Moulirie, bave been comcannot be foreseen, to develop themselves.

menced; but sufficient time has not yet elapsed to justify Fort Columbus and Custie Williams, Governor's island, the expression of any opinion as to iheir ultimate effect. New York.–Satisfactory progress has been made in the About 16,500 tons of sione have been added to the mole repairs of Fort Columbus, which will be completed, it is to be occupied as a foundation to Fort Sumter, and the believed, this fall, or early next spring. The operations necessary preparation made to commence the construcfor the repair of Castle Williams have been confined to tion of this work as soon as the mole shall be finished. the building of a wbarf and the collection of materials; as Fort Pulaski, Cockspur island, Georgia.--About two it was deemed advisable to direct as much of the available months at the commencement of the last working seameans as might be found consistent with a due regard to son, at this work, were lost in consequence of the abeconomy, to the allainment of one object at a time. sence of the superintending engineer, who was with.

Fort Schuyler, Throg's neck, East riter, New York - drawn from his command to meet a pressing demand The attention of the officer charged with the construction elsewhere. The work was prosecuted, however, with of this fort, has been directed principally to the accom- great efficiency during the remainder of the season, and plishment of such preparatory measures as shall enable the progress has been such as 10 give satisfactmn. The him to commence and prosecute his operations with ad- means have been applied principally to meet the difficul. vantage, as aoon as the plans shall be matured and adopties encountered in the foundations. ted. These are not yet in readiness, in consequence of Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Florida.-The funds apincessant engagements of the officers of the department. propriated at the last session of Congress for this fort have

Fort Delaware, Delaware river.-The latter end of been applied, so far as it was deemed necessary for such April a commencement was made on the Pea Patch a work, and operations have, for some time, been die island, to construct the temporary quarters and work. rected to the repairing of the sea-wall connected with it, shops, preparatory to a demolition of the walls of the old with a hope of accomplishing the object of the law on fort. This object has been effected, and extended to the subject, by the middle of January or February. provide for the accommodation of nearly all ihe laborers, Fort Pickens, Pensacola harbor, Florida. —The condimechanics, and others, whose time and services will be tion of this work is in a high degree satisfactory. The required in the construction of the work for the defence masonry, with the exception of a very small portion, is of this position.

completed, and the entire work will, in probability, be Twenty-two thousand yards of the masonry of the old finished by the end of March next. fort bave been demolished by mining; 10,000 yards of Fort at Foster's bank, Pensacola harbor, Florida.--It the same have been removed, and transported to the ex was hoped, in the early part of the year, that the nature terior of the dyke surrounding the island, for its preserva- of the service would be such as to permit a convention of tion; of which 300 running yards have been thus secured, the board of engineers to revise, among others, the proand 400,000 bricks of the old work cleaned, prepar-ject for this work, and to fix its precise locality. This atory to their being used in the construction of the new hope was, however, disappointed, and the funds have in work.

part been, and the balance will be, applied to the collec. To accomplish the removal of the ma'erial of the oldtion of materials, and to making such preparations as fort, the most economical plan was to excavate the drain. I will enable the constructing engineer to commence the

23d Cong. 1st Sess.]

Documents accompanying the President's Message.

work under the next appropriation to advantage, as soon recommendation of that officer, and that of the local as the plans shall be matured.

agents. Fort Morgan, Mobile point, Alabama --This work will Kennebunk river, Maine. -The means provided for the be completed and ready for inspection by the end of De- works at the mouth of this river have been faithfully apcember next.

plied ; the Hardin pier, so called, having been thorough. Fort Livingston, Grande Terre, Louisiana. - At the ly repaired, with the exception, perhaps, of a small quantime of making the appropriation for this work, the land tity of stone that may yet be required for the greater on which it was to be located was private property. security of the work, which has been considerably exMuch time has, unavoidably, been consumed in effecting tended, and which is much exposed to ice and drift a purchase. The department has been assured, however, wood. that the protracted negotiation with the owner would Some additional work will be required to complete the soon be brought to a satisfactory termination, when the improvement on the east side of the channel. It is deem. purchase and collection of materials will be made prepar- ed' necessary to construct a pier of considerable length, tory to commencing the work with the next appropriation. extending from what is called the outer pier to the bar.

Contingencies of fortifications.-A considerable portion The piers heretofore erected at this place are of wooden of the appropriation under this bead has been applied, crib work, filled in with stone; and ii has been observed during the year, to the repairs of Fort Jackson, Batiery that those which are up the river some distance are in a Bienvenu, Tower Dupre, and Fort Wood, Louisiana, and good state of preservation, while those lower down have Fort Washington, Maryland.

been much injured by worms: some, indeed, have been

completely destroyed in the course of eight or ten years INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

after their construction. For this reason the estimate for Chicago harbor, Illinois - It being impossible 10 com- the additional pier alluded to contemplates the use of mand the services of an engineer officer at this place, stone entirely. the works were given in charge to the commanding Berwick branch of the Piscataqua.-The improvement officer at Fort Dearborn. Owing to the position of in this river at Quamplegan rapids has been completed. Chicaga, considerable difficulty was experienced in the There is now an unobstructed passage over the rapids, of early part of the scason in procuring suitable mate- nearly six feel at mean bigh water. rials and workmen to commence, as almost every thing, Merrimack river, Massuchuselts.-Some additions bave except timber and stone, had to be drawn from Buffalo. been made within the year to the breakwater in course The first proposals received on the invitation of the com.of construction, to improve the navigation of the river at mandirig officer through the public prints were rejected Newbury port. The work is represen'ed as being in good because of their exorbitant character. Proposals were condition. again invited, and finally contracts made for the supply of It is thought that the erection of a pier, to extend from a small quantity of stone and timber, more with the view Badger's rocks to Salisbury head, would greatly improve to ascertain the resources of the country, where every the navigation of the river; an estimate for wbich is ac. thing is new, and to create a competition, than with a cordingly submitted, and recommended for favorable hope of doing much in the way of construction during consideration. the past season. But little has been done therefore, fur. Deer island, Boston harbor.- The works for the presther than to collect some materials and wo knen, and to ervation of this island have been prosecuted with much construct a small portion of one of the piers. A com success, and it is expected that the whole of the masonry mencement in a position like this is, liowever, of great will be completed by the middle of this month. Four value, and hopes are entertained of being able to prose- thousand tons of rough stone have been placed in the cule operations with advantage during the next working breakwater in front of the sea.wall during the year:

two ihosand tons more will be added during the present La Plaisance bay, Michigan.-Eight hundred and forly season, leaving only four thousand tons to complete that feet of new pier work were sunk at this place within the work and the connecting breakwater between the prin • year ; piles were driven nearly the whole length of the cipal walls. pier, and will all be driven and secured by caps this fall. Plymouth beach, Massachusetts. The operations at this Considerable stone has been deposited in the pier, and, place have been of the same character as those of the as far as the appropriation extended, the work has been previous year. They have been directed to the exten. prosecuted satisfactorily.

sion (about 510 feet) of the stone wall to the west of the Oswego harbor, Sodus bay, Genesee river, Black Rock breakwater, and to repairing the breach by planting harbor, Buffalo harbor, and Dunkirk harbor, State of New grass. The grass is represented as doing well, and the York; PresquIsle harbor, State of Pennsylvania; Con- condition of the beach, generally, as being good. neaut creek, Ashtabula creek, Cunningham creek, Grand Provincetown, Massachusetts. --About 220 acres of river, Cleaveland harbor, Black river, and Huron river, ground were planted with beach grass during the last State of Ohio.- For the condition and progress made on spring, besides repairing many places previously planted, these works up to the 30th September last, I beg leave but which had been injured by ihe encroachments of the to refer you to the annexed report of their general su. sand. perintendents, marked D. From these it will be per- Hyannis harbor, Massachusetts.—The breakwater at ceived that although the operations at them continue to this place has been much improved and considerably in. be attended with success, still much remains to be done creased since my last report. The additional length before they can be completed in a solid and permanent constructed within the year is about 230 feet, giving : manner; and as the expenditures on each already exceed length of 820 feet completed. Jis entire length, when the original estimated cost, and the amount required to finished, will be 1,320 feet, leaving, therefore, 500 feet place them in that condition is very great, it was thought yet to be constructed. advisable by the department that the subject should be

Mill river, Connecticut. --The additions to this work brought fully to the consideration of Congress. With have been compleled, and are represented as having ac. this view, a thorough inspection, to be made by a skillul complished the objects for which they were made. and experienced engineer, was ordered during the last Harbors of New Castle, Marcus Hook, Chester, and Port

His report on the subject, marked E, hereto Penn, Delaware river.--The operations at the barbors on annexed, is accordingly respectfully submitted. The the Delaware river have been confined to the harbor of estimates presented for ihese works are predicated on the Marcus Hook, from wbich, by means of a steam dredg

season).

summer.

Documents accompanying the President's Message.

[23d Cong. 1st Sess.

ing machine, 15,369 cubic yards of earth have been ex. under many disadvantages, owing lo the difficulty of procavaled and removed, forming a safe and secure retreat curing laborers during the past season, yet, what has been for about twenty sail of vessels. Some progress has been done is of a character altogether satisfactory, and seems made in repairing one of the piers forming this harbor, to promise a success beyond the most favorable expecta. using stone for all that part above the low-water mark. tions. The part of the channel that was deepened to

To persevere upon the plan heretofore pursued is not ten feet has been increased by the action of the current deemed advan'ageous towards effecting the desired ob. to from twelve to fourteen. ject; any results accomplished by it would not, it is be- Escambia river, Florida.—This river was surveyed in lieved, be attended by a permanent good. The estimate July last, to ascertain the nature of the required improve. presented for the service of the year is however to con- ment, and to obtain an estimate of its probable cost. In tinue the operations upon the present plan.

the following month the work was let out on contract, Ocracock inlet, North Carolina.—Though much retard- and will be completed this fall, leaving a portion of the ed on account of tempestuous weather and the breaking funds unexpended. of machinery, the operations at this place have been ai. Harbor of Mobile, Alabama. - The progress here has tended with considerable success, and with the most fat. been satisfactory. The breadth of the bar at Choctaw tering effects upon the navigation through the inlet. A pass, or lengih of channel to be cut through it, is 620 dredging machine has been kept at work when the wea- yards; 580 were executed with a width of 100 feet, on ther would permit in Wallace's channel, from which ine 30th September; and the remaining 90 yards aré, no about 34,000 cubic yards of earth have been removed doubt, finished ere this. Operations will be continued within the year. A navigation of eight feet bas been ob. till the means are exhausted in increasing the width of tained through this channel.

the channel. Cape Fear river.-The jeltee near Barnhard's creek, Pascago:la river, Mississippi. Owing to a difficulty on the eastern side of the river, and the one near Old with ihe contractor, the operations at this place have not Town, on the western side, have been completed: that been of a satisfactory character. The work was not renear Barnhard's creek continued to wash up during the sumed till the 17th June låst, since which time nothing last winter; and nearly the whole of the labor applied this was been done lurther than to make some repairs of boats, year has been for the purpose of keeping these two jet. machinery, &c. It was expected that the dredging matees in repair. Notwithstanding the difficulties that have chine would be in operation by the 1st instant, heretofore attended the construction of jettees, it is con- Red river, Louisiani. — 7 be removal of the great raft fidently anticipated that a navigation of fourteen feet from the

bed of this river has been shown, by the operawater will be obtained when they are permanently se- tions of Captain H. M. Shreve, during the last summer, cured.

to be perfectly practicable. lle was at work at it till the Savannah river, Georgiu.—An officer las been engaged means at the disposal of the department were exhausted; during the year in making an examination of this river and his sticcess leaves the most ample testimony of his between its mouth and Sayannali, with view to obtain great zeal and ability. Captain Shreve's report on this the data necessary to enable the superintending engineer subject is so interesting that I deem it proper to lay it be. to apply the funds appropriated therefor to the best ad-fore you entire. It is herewith appended, marked F; vantage. This examination is nearly brought to a close, and I would earnestly recommend for favorable considerwhen active operations will be commenced for the re-ation the estimate submitted with it, for the prosecution, moral of obstructions, suitable preparations in the way to completion, of this great work. of boats and machinery being in the course of prepara. Arkansus river, Arkansas Territory.—The examination tion for the purpose,

of this river was made by an officer of the engineers Inland navigation between the St. John's and St. Mary's. early in the spring, and the boats, machinery, &c. under -The improvement contemplated here requires the the personal direction of Captain Shreve, commenced agency of a steam dredging machine. To have purchased the removal of obstructions to its navigation in the early one from the small appropriation placed at the disposal part of August last. At the latest advices, not much had of the department, would have so far exhausted it as to been done, however, owing to the unfavorable state of have left litile or nothing lor the prosecution of the work. the water; but this winter, wliile operations will be susUnder these circumstances, it was thought advisable to pended on the Onio by reason of the ice, it is intended do nothing till the improvement of the Savannah river, to concentrate a force on the Arkansas, and to prosecute and that at the St. Mark's or Appalachicola, would admit the work to the extent of the available means. of the boats employed at these places being transferred The report of the officer who made the examination of to the St. John's and St. Mary's. Nothing, therefore, this river above alluded to, being of an interesting charbas yet been done.

acter, is hereunto annexed, marked I. St. Mark's harbor and river, Florida.--A canal has been Mississippi and Ohio rivers. --For the progress made in opened through the natural bridge on the St. Mark's. the improvement of these rivers, I beg leave to refer you Owing, however, to the unexpected appearance of rock to the accompanying report from the superintendent, H. at this place, much of the money which it was hoped M. Shreve, marked G might be applied to the improvement of the river above, Cumberland river, Tennessee.- Operations were comhas been expended on it, and will render an additional menced on this river 1611 October, and continued till the appropriation necessary. The object of this appropria. 7th December, 1833. Owing to the unusual high state tion will be to open the river to the only convenient place of the water liule was done towards the improvement of of landing for the upper country, and to deepen the iis navigation, other than the cutting away of the timber channel already made, and that over the outer bare at the overhanging its banks in the island chutes and deep entrance into ihe river, for the admission of large vessels bends between Nashville and Harpelb island, and ma. drawing fifteen feet.

king the necessary preparations for prosecuting the work Ochlochney river, Florida.—The appropriation for the as soon as the water and season would permit. The work improvement of this river has been applied to the re- was resumed on the 1st of January last, since which time moval of the logs and trees which obstruct its navigation the operations have been directed with much success to from its channel. The whole will be expended by the improving the river at Harpeth shoals and their vicinity, middle of the present month.

to the cutting away of the lianging timber from the banks, Appalachicola river and harbor. --Although the improve and to the removal of logs, &c. from the sand bass. ments contemplated at this place have been prosecuted! Road from Memphis, on the Mississippi, to William Documents accompanying the President's Message.

23d Cong. 1st Sess.]

Strong's house, on the St. Francis.-An examination and will soon be in a travelling condition for a distance of survey have been made of the country be:ween the two thirty-three miles west. The grading, bridging, and culpoints above named, with the view to the location of this verts being finished by this time, excepting the bridges road; but the reports and drawing thereon not having at White river on the first and Mill creek on the twentybeen received, nothing has been done by this depart. seventh mile, both of which will, most likely, be finished ment. As soon as the reports shall be received, the lo by the end of the year. The contracts for the present cation and construction of the road will be commenced year on the western division are for such work as was without loss of time.

deemed necessary to bring the road into immediate use as Cumberland road in Ohio.—The affairs of this part of far as the western boundary of the State. These conthe national road have been manged in a manner highly tracts, therefore, embrace the entire distance from the satisfactory. The operations on it, though much influ- thirty-fourth to the seventy-first mile, inclusive; and enced by the prevalence of the cholera in the sectio. of the works provided for by them have progressed in the coun:ry through which it posses, have been prose. a manner altogether satisfactory to the superintendent. cuted with a zeal and ability highly creditable to the of. When these contracts shall be completed, carriages will ficer charged with their direction. The bridges between be able to travel, with but trifling interruption, from InZanesville and the 21st mile west from thence, inclusive, dianapolis to the eastern boundary of Illinois. have been repointed and put in complete order; the cul- Cumberland road in Illinois.— A belief was induced in verts which had given way in consequence of bad mate- the early part of the year that the affairs of this part of rials and workmanship, bave been taken down and re- the road were conducted in a manner not likely to be built; the masonry between Hebron and Columbus, a productive of results desired by the Government; and, distance of 27 miles, bas been completed, with the ex- therefore, an officer of engineers was instructed to make ception of two small bridges, one on the 51st and the an inspection of the road and its concerns, and to report other on the 53d mile, declared defective in workman- the result for subsequent action. Before the inspection ship, and not accepted from the contractors. The ma. was made, however, a direct charge was preferred, from sonry west of Columbus remains nearly in the state de. a source that seemed to require consideration, impeachscribed in my last annual report, the existence of the ing the moral character of the superintendent in a parcholera having prevented any improvement in it. Prep- ticular that could not well be true without being accomarations bave been made to construct the abutments for panied by dereliction of official duty. It was, therefore, the bridges over the canal at Hebron, and the Scioto at deemed necessary to suspend the superintendent till the Columbus; those for the former bridge will most likely facis in the case could be ascertained. An investigation be completed this fall. The wooden superstructure over was had of the affairs of this road, and it is shown that a the canal feeder on the 324 mile, Blacklick creek on the state of things existed which rendered any progress in 43d, Big walnut on the 46'h, and Alum creek on the the way of extension, during the present year, totally in50!h mile west of Zanesville, have all been finished. The consistent with a proper regard for the public interest; superstructure over the canal at Hebron will probably be and it is not perceived how any thing further can be done completed this year, and the timber for that over the till the blunders (but too palpable on almost every part Scioto will be got out this winter. The superstructure of the road) shall have been repaired, and a system es. over Little Darby, which was damaged in April last by tablished which will prevent their recurrence, and restore a tornado, has been repaired and strengthened by addi. a wholesome state of things onthis important national work. tional bracing. The first sıralum of metal is in course of Cumberlaud road east of the Ohio.-The repairs of this preparation to cover the road between the 22d and 320 part of the national avenue have progressed well. In miles, inclusive, west of Zanesville. Measures were taken Maryland, three thousand two hundred and thirty seven 10 have this metal prepared and put upon the road by the rods have received the entire covering of stone, and are 1st of August last, but the efforts of the contractors were completed; two thousand eight hundred and thirty-four defeated by the prevalence of disease, and the increased rods have received a covering of nine, sixteen hundred demand for labor. The second stratum of metal was to and ninety-seven of six, and twenty-seven of three inches have been put on by the 1st of last month, but the distance of metal. Three thousand nine hundred and eleven rods of the stone to constitute this layer, added to the causes have been graded and are ready to receive the covering, already adverted to, rendered this impossible. The third and for which there are, on the line of the road, six thou. and last stratum of metal is undergoing preparation to be sand one hundred and thirty eight perches of broken or placed upon the road as soon as broken, between Zanes prepared, and upwards of seven thousand perches of ville and the 21st mile west from thence, inclusive. The rough stone. In Pennsylvania, six thousand'nine huntime limited by the contracts for completing this part of dred and ninety-three rods of the road have been com. the road was the 1st of August last, but some of the pleted; ten thousandi and ten rods have received a cover. causes which operated against the advancement of the ing of nine inches, six hundred and ninety-lwo of six, and road in the neighborhood of Hebron, have operated to its three thousand five hundred and ninety five of four and a prejudice in this. It is confidently anticipated, however, balf inches of metal. Four hundred and ninety-four rods ihat these twenty-one miles will be finished within the of the road are graded and ready to receive its cover; and present year, when they will be turned over to the State. there are, near the road side, seven thousand six hundred The grade has been completed by this time as far as Co- and eleven perches of prepared, and two thousand two lumbus, by which there is a saving of five hours in the hundred and thirty-six perches of rough stone. In Virpassage of the mail between Zinesville and Colum- ginia, eight hundred and twelve rods have been covered bus, wbich commenced running on this road in July last. with four and a half inches of metal, and one hundred and The clearing and grubbing will most likely be comple- seventy-six with three inches. Eighteen hundred and ted as far as Springfield, 43 miles west of Columbus, by filty-five rods of the road have been graded, and are ready the end of the present month.

for receiving the metal; and for which there are, on the Cumberland road in Indiana.-An officer of engineers line of the road, eight thousand three hundred and fifty is at present engaged in making an inspection of the road perches of prepared, and twelve thousand six hundred through this Stale, and his report will be laid before you and forty-five perches of rough stone. Besides this, there as soon as received, the report of the superintendent of is a considerable quantity of stone out at the different the eastern division being of a character so general as to quarries, which will be hauled to the road and prepared render it impossible to get at the exact condition of the Juring the winter. Five thousand four hundred and fiftyroad. The western division, beginning at Indianapolis, I three cubic yards of masonry bave been constructed on Documents accompanying the President's Message.

[230 Coxg. 1st Sess.

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on it.

different parts of the entire road. The new location to mate for the year, based upon the facts herein stated. It turn Wills's mountain has been opened, and considerable will be perceived that the sum asked for the service of progress made in the bridge to cross Wills's creek. the year is to finish all that part lying between Cumber.

An examination was made of ihe Cumberland road east land and the Monongabela river, and commence that part of the Ohio in 1827, for repairing it upon the plan of its situated between this river and the Virginia line, and to original construction, when it appeared that 754 miles of finish the sixteen miles in Virginia; making the sum rethe old pavement were in good or and required three quired to repair the whole d, on the McAdam plan, inches of broken stone for a covering to resiore it to its not less than $645,000, of which the resources of that reprimitive stale--estimated to cost $3 75 per rod; that 323 gion of country will advantageously admit of $300,000 miles required four and a half inches of stone, and 214 being expended during the year. miles required six inches of stone, broken to four ounces should it, however, be the determination of Congress in weight, and that the masonry might cost $11,000; and to make a partial repair of this great national line of comthe whole road, thus repaired, would cost $230,274. munication between the Western waters and the Atlan.

In February of 1826, it was estimated that the sum of tic, the estimates would be materially varied. Leaving $278,983 would be sufficient to repair the whole road thé masonry in its present ruined state, constructing no upon the McAdam plan; and in May, 1827, (a period of more culverts to throw the water under the road, abansixteen months,) the superstratum or cover of reduced doning the McAdam plan of repair, and merely opening stone had been worn and washed away to an extent al- the ditches and drains, and to restore the grade with most incredible, and proved that too great a reliance was earth, lhe cost would be, for the part between Browns. placed upon the layer of large stone, as there were not so ville and West Alexandria, upon which, as yet, nothing many of them of as good a quality as was first supposed. has been done, 42 miles,

$50,000 To have effected the same repair in 1827, as was contem. For the 16 miles in Virginia, (finishing the maplated in 1826, would have required an additional sum of sonry on Wheeling hill)

20,00C $50,000-making $328,983 necessary to repair the road, For the first 10 miles in Maryland,

25,000 upon the best information to be obtained at that perind. For the remaining 22 miles in Maryland, 22,000 The utier destruction of the road was foreseen at that For the part through Pennsylvania, heretofore time unless measures were taken to repair it thoroughly, partially McAdamized, 41 miles,

30,000 it being then in a "most wretched" condition. In July, 1832, it was determined to repair the road ef

$147,000 feciually, from end to end, and cede it to the respective States through which it passed; after which, the repairs This, however, efpects nothing more than making a were to be met by the tolls collected from the travelling clay road, by no means suited to the immense travel pass

ing the mountains by this route, and, when finished, soon The system adopted was that extensively used in Eng- destroyed by the rains which would wash the earth from land, and known by the name of its inventor, McAdam. the face of the road into the valleys. The condition of the road at this period made very exten- To use the stone found on the road side is, as before sive repairs necessary, commencing from the grade, there remarked, worse than useless; the expense of applying being weither side drains, ditches, nor culveris for drain. it being very great, and, when applied, soon ground to ing ine water, presenting no better condition for the basis sand and washed away. Hence, it will be far better to of repairs on the McAdam system than what is called a apply the sum that may be appropriated for a partial re"rough grade," with the large bridges.

pair, to form a clay road over the old bed, than attempt Rather than make a partial repair by distributing the to apply sand-stone that is no better, costs more, and is sum appropriated over the whole line of 132 miles, the as soon washed away. parts through the mountains being in the worst condition, The road repaired in this manner will not justify tolls and, from the face of the country, most difficult to travel, being exacted, as, in the fall and spring of the first year, were first commenced. The supposition of finding good it will be next to impassable, and good only for the first stone in the bed of the road, wherewith to make " MCAJ- two or three summers. Another mode of repair might be amized metal,” proved fallacious: not a perch was found adopted, viz. that of restoring the grade by breaking up through the whole mountain district, the bed being com- lhe sand.stone to twelve-ounce pieces, and covering it posed of soft sand-stone. This, when broken to four- with earth. The result of this would be, after a year or ounce pieces, and used for a covering, is, in the course of two, when the earth had washed from the surface, an irthree months, reduced to sand, and washed by the heavy regular mass of rough stone, much like the road in its rains from the road into the ditches and drains, making it present condition. The cost of this might be $200,000. worse than useless to depend upon any of the varieties of A more particular estimate for these partial repairs is sand-slone. Under these circumstances, but one course not submitied, as they cannot be recommended, and the was left, and that was to procure the only suitable mate necessary information has not been collected to prepare rial the country produced-lime-stone. The natural posi- one. tion of this stone is under the sand-stone, and found only Road from Columbus, Georgia, to Line creek, Alabama. in the lowest valleys-often in the beds of creeks, coy. This road has been located after a careful examination of ered with several feet of earth, and distant from the line the country through which it passes; and its construction of the road. Through the mountains it is found in few will be prosecuted with as much despatch as circumstanpositions. The expense of repairing the road with a good ces will permit. The greater part of the road is in a dismaterial, and the only one of this character found in the trict of country entirely

uninhabited. This will render it country, is far greater than anticipated before these facis a matter of some difficulty to procure labor and supplies; were known. Another heavy item in the expense of re- but the department has the assurances of the agent that pair is the condition of the masonry; this having been ex- every effort will be made to complete the road as speedposed for a long time to the weather, without coping 10 ily as possible. throw off the rain and snow, is now in a dilapidated con.

Road from Detroit to Chicago, Michigan.—The con. dition, requiring a considerable portion to be renewed. tracts for the construction of this road, entered into last

Under these circumstances, cost of putting the road year, extended as far as the 1324 mile west from Dein such a condition as will justify toll being exacted, is so iroit. The contractors were actively engaged on the far beyond that at first anticipated, as to make it proper 30th September, and hopes were entertained that they to draw the particular attention of Congress to the esti. would be able to complete their engagements by the

VOL, XC

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