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Documents accompanying the President's Message.
[23d Cong. 1st Sess.
From observations made at this barbor,
Big Sodus bay.-The artificial works at this harbor and elsewhere along the lakes, it appears
are as follows : 1st. A harbor pier, 2,138 feet long, runthat where the water is so deep that the
ning in a course a little north of east from the neck waves do not break upon the natural bot.
which connects Long point with the main shore. (See tom, they are best resisted by a vertical
plan.) 24. Another harbor pier, 1,372 feet long, runstructure. This remark is known to be in
ning a little north of west from the northwest extremity direct opposition to prevailing notions, and
of Point Charles. 3d. A channel pier running nearly to almost all practice; still it is now advan.
north 640 feet from the outer end of the first-mentioned ced with confidence, and may, ere long, be
harbor pier ; and, 4th. A channel pier running nearly again urged more at large; at any rate, there
north for 180 feet, and a little east of south about 150 feet is some direct proof in relation to the east
from the outer end of the eastern harbor pier. The disbarbor pier. In consequence of a strong
tance between the two channel piers, giving access to conviction of the soundness of this opinion,
the harbor, is 475 feet. The piers are in part 14 feet, the agent at Oswego was requested to
and in part 18 feet wide: they are formed of timber sides "observe the east pier very carefully in
connected by cross ties, a floor of logs and top of planks, every blow, and let me have his (your)
the interior being filled with stones. In a few places, as opinion whether, it it be made vertical, with
seen in the plan, the piers are reiriforced by buttresses of a strong wall, it will not do without a break.
timber filled with s!ones. water outside of it." The answer is, “I
The works thus far described were commenced in bave bad an opportunity of witnessing two
1829, and finished last year. They appear to have perpretty severe blows from the northeast, in
fectly resisted the action of the waves, and being foundwhich it would naturally be supposed that
ed on a bottom of coarse sand and pebbles, have settled the east pier would be most exposed; but
but very little in any place. The draught of water into the flooring [top] was scarcely wet, while
the harber is represented as having been increased by the west pier was continually covered by
These corstructions from less than 8 feet to 9 feet. immense sheets of water; and the same hap
The work now in progress consists of an extension pens in all blows that I have observed.”
northward of the west channel pier 210 feet, and of the in There has never been any stone thrown
east channel pier 690 feet. It is supposed that these exoutside of the east pier, but a few washed
tensions will be completed this year with the present apout of the crib while they were sinking
propriation. them, making an irregular bank a foot or
To complete the improvement of this harbor, it protwo thick in some places." These circum
posedstances induce the recommendation to make
1st. To extend the western channel pier no change in the east pier but such as is re
northward 300 feet, in order to keep the quired to give durability to the work, to
outside sard, which is said to be moved wit, by substituting, above water, strong
by the current towards the channel piers, stone walls for the work now in wood. The
from being lodged near the entrance, bepresent broad mass of stones on the outside
tween the channel piers. This work may of the west barbor pier, makes the applica
be executed in 1834, and is estimated tion to it, of the principle here announced,
$7,000 00 impossible. The sloping profile must, in
20. To erect a narrow pier along the back that case, be continued and perfected.
of Point Charles, and along the outside The expense, then, of placing the pres
of the narrow part of the beach that con. ent work beyond accident, and lighting the
nects this point with the main land, for entrance wi by these estimates, be
the purpose or guarding the shore from Of which, all may be expended to advan.
the wash of the sea, which is now weartage, according to the calculations of the
ing it away. This pier will be about agent, next year, excepting the cost of the
1,800 feet long. To be erected in 1834, superstructure of the light-house, namely 5,500 00
and estimated to cost
3d. To dredge a channel for a length of Leaving, as required for the services
about 500 yards, 150 feet wide, and 6 feet next year,
deep, which will give a draught of 15 All the sustaining parts of these struc.
feel water into the bay. Including ma. tures are, as before mentioned, of wood;
chinery and all other expenses, this ope. and all the wooden parts above water are,
ration will cost, it is supposed, $20,000, of course, rapidly decaying. The contem
of which $14,000 may be refunded in plated labors of the next year have refer
1834, and $6,000 in 1835,
20,000 00 ence to a future substitution, which is una
The substance to be dredged is represent. voidable, of an imperishable material for the
ed to be a concretion of sand and iron, decaying portions, and, as there is much to
forming a mass of considerable, though do in this way, the succeeding year should
not stony hardness. It is penetrated by begin the substitution.
the piles that have been driven on parts To give the west harbor pier a perma
of the structure, and may, no doubt, be nent character, the profile No. 2 is recom
broken up and removed by ploughs and mended. The cost will be
scrapers. The nature of this bottom To give the same character to the east
promises permanency to any excavation barbor pier, profile No. 3 is recommended.
that may be made in it. The cost is estimated at
22,960 0 Total estimated cost of completing the
The sum just stated, viz. $35,000, will give
to Sodus bay all that was originally look. finishing the works at this harbor in a sub.
ed for, namely, a good depth of water in stantial and durable manner,
the channel; a spacious and perfectly
230 Cong. Ist Sess]
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
safe anchorage in all weathers, and, dur
the depth was originally but 4, 5, or 6 feet, there is now ing dayliglit, an easy entrance. Two
16 and 17 feet, The force of the current which has other indispensable qualities will still re
wrought this change has also operated to cause an unemain to be providej: these are, ready ac
qual subsidence in parts of the piers: any further action cess by night, and such a strong and du.
of this sort may, however, be effectually prevented, and rable character in the works themselves,
it is believed has been, by a small deposite of stones at that the advantages mentioned may be
the foot of the piers. The piers are of timber sides and secured for all future times. The first
cross ties, are filled with stones, and are from 18 to 20 of these requisites may be had by the
feet wide: as yet their stability has been in no perceptierection of a beacon-light near the end
ble degree impaired by the violence of storms. In order of one of the channel piers, of which the
to obtain a depth of 15 or 16 feet water, it will be neces. expense will vary according to the mode
sary to advance the piers further into the lake, because of construction. If of wood, and found
the shoalest part of the channel is at and near the ends ed on a pier of timber and stone, the ex
of the piers. It is supposed that a further prolongation pense may be about
2,700 00 of 900 feet will give the depth required. This prolongLike all the other harbor improvements on
ation may be executed in 1834, and, according to the estiLakes Ontario and Erie, the operations
male of the agent, will cust
$22,500 00 at Sodus must, thus far, be considered as
There should be a beacon-light near the experimental: indeed, the problem as to
end of one of the piers, estimated cost 2,700 00 this place is not, even now, fully solved; because, although a perfect shelter has
Total cost of bringing the works in their been obtained for the deep water within
present form to completion,
$25,200 00 the bay, sufficient depth of water over
The remarks made on the perishable nature the bar (between the piers) does not yet
of the materials employed in the conexist.
struction at Oswego and Sodus, apply There is no reason, however, to doubt the
equally to these. Thus far, this experifull success of the dredging process; and
ment has been completely successful; and it is important now to look forward to the
there is no reason to doubt a proportional means that, in that event, will be needed
triumph over natural obstacles for the adto impart durability to those portions of
ditional meang which it is proposed to apthe work which, to save cost in the un
ply. It becomes necessary therefore to certainty of the issue, were erected of
know what must be done to give perma. perishable materials.
nency to these important improvements. All the wood work of the p'ers above the
Adopting a plan similar to that recommendlowest water of the lake will have decay
ed for Sodus, that is, converting the timed in eight or ten years. To substituie
ber work, above water, into masonry of a facing of large stones for the outer, and
the best kind, the expense is estimated of smaller stones for the inner side of the
to be about
34,000 00 piers, making, with these, s'rong stone walls laid in hydraulic mortar, filling the
Making the total cost of the future operaspace between the walls with inferior
tions at the mouth of the Genesee river $59, 200 00 stones, and paving the top with large
stones, will cost, it is supposed, about 40,000 00 Black Rock harbor.-It is through the artificial harbor This latter operation need not be begun
that the great western canal of the State of New York for some time, and in fact it may be best
gains access to Lake Erie; and it is by means of a large to wait, in order closely and fully 10 ob
lock at the foot of the harbor that vessels passing beserve the effect of weaiber, of the ice,
tween Lakes Erie and Ontario, through the Welland caand of waves, upon the structure. Care.
nal and Niagara river, avoid the Black Rock rapids. The ful observation during two or three years
pier which forms the harbor, by separating it from the may point out imporiant matters of detail
river, and keeping the waters up to their lake level, runs in the conversion of this timber work into
souih, nearly parallel with the cast shore of the river, from stone work.
the upper end of Squaw island, to within a short distance of According to these estimates, the future
Bird island. (See sketch herewith, A.) As the canal operations at Sodus bay will require the
enters the Niagara river near the lower end of Squaw isl. expenditures of
$77,700 00 and, and leaves it again opposite the point just indicated,
this portion of the harbor is also a portion of the canal, Mouth of Genesee river. — The object of the improve the pier and the dyke on Squaw island forming its westments of ihe mouth of this river was to remove from be- ern margin. This portion of the pier and the dyke was tween certain limits a body of sand lying off the mouth, constructed by the State of New York. through which there was a crooked channel, with but 6 At the point A, commences the work executed under to 7 feet draught.
appropriations from Congress. The pier diverges, at this To accomplish ihis object, beginning in 1829, two point, towards the western end of Bird island, and conparallel piers were run into the lake from the poinis which tinues 415 yards to B; it then runs south to the island, a form the mouth of the river. (See the plan.) The piers distance of 158 yards, (to C,) and, lisily, it runs easterly are distant from each other 360 feet. At the close of 10 the eastern end of the island, (to D,) a distance of 1832, the west pier was 1,720 feet long, and the east pier 200 yards. 1,880 feet long. There have been added, and will be Bird island is a mere ledge of rocks, scarcely rising ia firished this year, out of the appropriation, 585 feet to any place above the surface of the lake. This ledge has, the west, and 527 feet to the cast pier, making the former however, considerable breadtlı, though lying chiefly un. 2,305 feet, and the latter 2,407 feet long. The effect onder water, and occasions very heavy breakers in certain the bottom between the piers has perhaps fully realized frequent winds. A pier was first built upon this island the most sanguine hopes: the channel is now straight, (from C 10 D)) of timber: this was thrown down by the and bas a depth of 11 feet in the shoulest place. Where surf-and the operations of this year bave been the sub. Documents accompanying the President's Message.
[23d Cong. 1st Sess.
stitution, in part, of a mole of large stones. The funds and fastened togetber, and filled with stones, and to conavailable under the last appropriation are, however, in- struct that part of it which will be above low-water mark adequate to such a construction as will insure its stabili- of massy stones, the side walls being laid in hydraulic ty. The exposure is such, that only a work massive in mortar, and in such a manner as effectually to resist the itself, and made up of large stones, laid on the exterior operation of the surf and ice. side, with great care, in the manner adopted at the Buf- The expense of constructing the pier may be estimated falo mole, can be expected to withstand the violent ac- at twenty thousand dollars. tion to which it will be exposed. At the eastern extrem- Total estimated expense of completing Black Rock ity of this mole there must be erected a beacon-light. harbor, twenty-three thousand dollars. This beacon, aided by the neighboring light-house at Baf. Buffalo harbor.-The works at this harbor consist (see falo, will afford safe conduct into the harbor, in almost plan) of a mole, chiefly of stone, which runs from near any state of weather. The additional appropriation need- the old light-house, northerly about 290 feet, to the south ed for completing the mole C D, and for' erecting the shore of Buffalo creek, and'thence (making an angle of proposed beacon-light, is estimated to be $3,000.
about 120 degrees with this first part) about N. 73 deThe appropriations by Congress for this barbor were grees W. say 1,500 feet into the laké. The top of so founded on a project submitted by Major Maurice in the much of this mole as projects into the lake is 16 feet year 1828; which project, besides suggesting the works above the water, and 12 feet wide. This top, near the now finished or in progress, contemplated the erection of end, gradually curves to the south, and swells out into a a pier or mole to commence on the east shore, within the breadth sufficient to afford room for a light-house ; the jaws of the harbor, and extend obliquely into the lake, in part of the mole which lies upon the shore is but 12 feet the manner represented at E. One object of this mole higher than the surface of the water, and does not exceed was to render the harbor more safe and tranquil, by ma- 9 feet in width at the top. On the exposed side, that is king it more close, and preventing the recoil of the surf to say, on the south, a varying slope, gentle every where, into it from the adjoining beach; but another, and prin- but becoming more and more gradual as the distance from cipal object, was to arrest the sand moving along the the shore is increased, extends from the summit of the shore, and prevent its entrance and accumulation in the structure to the bottom of the lake. By a gradual change harbor. The sand thus borne along was, before the of direction, this slope is made to enclose the mole-head formation of the basin, carried away by the rapid current and foundation of the light-house in such a manner as to of the river; now, it is deposited just within the mouth. cause a considerable enlargement at this part of the work. And although it has not as yet produced any serious in. At the foot of this slope has been driven a row of contig. convenience to the navigation, it threatens seriously to uous piles, and another similar row bas been driven at the obstruct it, unless arrested by some suitable means. The intersection of this slope with the surface of the water. proposed mole, it is thought, will be an effectual barrier. Between these two rows the mass is to be made up of
The fact of a progressive motion of the sand along the large stones thrown in without particular regard to the shore is evident, in a greater or less degree, in many positions respectively occupied by them. Within the inplaces on the lake. The cause is not obscure, and serves ner row the surface is to be formed of large flat stones, to explain the shutting up of certain rivers in the summer, placed carefully in courses upon their ends or edges, bethe wearing away of points of land, &c. Taking the pressing thus deeply imbedded, giving to each other mutual ent case-suppose the wind to blow in the direction a b. support, and exposing their edges only to the action of (See sketch.) Let c be the point at which a wave, roll. the sea. This portion of the work is well advanced. The ing up along the line a l, first begins to disurb the bot- summit of the mole is now in part, and will be wholly, tom, and d the highest point on the shore to which the covered by a horizontal layer of large fat stones, accu. wave is driven; a particle of sand may, therefore, berately adjusted to each otber, and well bedded on the transported by the wave from c to d. The wave was con. smaller stones beneath. On the inner or channel side of strained to pursue the course c d, by the direction of the the top there is a vertical fall of 12 feet down to the sur. wind, but, in r-coiling, it will obey only the law of gray. face of what is denominated the tow.path; this fall being ity; and instead of retracing its path, and leaving the par. effected by a wall laid in mortar. Access is gained to the ticle of sand where it was taken up, it must retire by the top from the tow-path by several sets of stone steps proline of greatest declivity of the shore, which is dé (atjecting from the wall. The channel side of the tow.path right angles to the shore,) leaving the particle at é, ad. was built of "crib work," and part of the operations of vanced by the distance c e, on its journey towards the this year has been the substituting a strong stone wall (or mouth of the barbor. The succeeding wave lifts the the upper parts of this crib work. particle from e to f, and falls with it from f to g, and so On the north side of the channel is a timber pier, filled
All winds (as a b) blowing into the quadrant eh, in with stones. It is nearly parallel with the mole, and is tend to move the sand towards the harbor, while such as distant from it, in the narrowest part of the channel, about blow into the quadrant e i, for example, kd, tend to cause 200 feet. This pier is about 1,250 feet long, the outer an opposite motios. But the for are the prevailing end being about 600 feet less advanced into the lake than winds of the year; and having, moreover, an extensive the end of the mole. This pier is about 15 feet broad. range along the lake, they drive a heavy surf upon the It is designed to give to this pier the permanent cbarshore in question: while the latter winds are but occa- acter which already belongs, for the greater part, to the sional, ani, blowing off the land over only a narrow sur-mole; and, for this purpose, to raise a wall on the chanface of water, cannot produce at this point waves of much nel side, from a little below the surface of the water to comparative force. The balance of tendencies is, there three teet above water; to pave the summit with large fore, very decidedly towards the Black Rock harbor. It stones, making it 20 feet broad, and to form a slope of may here be observed that ihis motion of the sands must two to one on so much of the north side as extends beyond be at the expense of the shore towards the mouth of Buf- the beach, at the same time driving a row of contiguous falo creek, because the mole at the mouth of that creek piles along the inner side. prevents a supply of material from being furnished by the At the end of the mole stands a lofty stone light-house, beach further south.
of most beautiful and substantial workmanship. It is proposed to extend the new pier from the shore to The expenditure of existing appropriations, which must about 20 feet water, which will give it an average depth, probably be carried somewhat into the next year, will, it under water, of about 13 or 14 feet, 10 form it as high as is supposed, complete the north pier, the inclined surface the water's edge, of cribs of strong timber, well framed and summit of the mole and the light-house, deposite the
VOL. X. -D
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
23d Cong. 1st Sess.]
stones still required in the space marked w, excavate the mediate entrance by a beacon, which, of spaces marked x y z to a depth of 10 feet, and, in short, wood, will cost, say
2,700 00 do all that was contemplated when the estimate of Sep. tember 30, 1832, was made.
Making the additional expenditure, re. The progress of operations and the present condition of quired to complete works in their presthe works have, however, suggested other matters of ent form, amount to
$19,700 00 importance. 1st. To prevent undermining, either by the swell or by freshets in the creek, it is proposed to drive a row of contiguous piles along the side of the
No appearances give reason to doubt the stability of the tow.path for the whole length of the mole, and as far present works; but they cannot be said to be complete so the United States ground extends; cost
long as the parts above water are of materials rapidly de
$2,400 00 2d. The last estimate contemplated for the
caying. It will be absolutely necessary, in some few tow.patb wall dry stone masonry. It is
years, to build, above water, strong stone walls in lieu of now proposed to build this wall with hy
The present timber facings, and to cover the tops of botis
pier and breakwater with pavements of large flat stones, draulic mortar, which will cost, in addi
all laid in hydraulic mortar. Data for an estimate are not tion,
at hand. 30. Instead of loose, small stones for pave
Erie harbor - This harbor, about four miles long and ment of tow-path, it is now recommended
nearly two miles broad, is formed by what has long been to use large flat stones; these, with the
denominated “Presqu'Isle." This is a low, sandy tract extra labor, will cost
7,140 00 of ground, stretching out from the main shore, first being 4th. It was last year proposed to extend the tow-path 100 feet further up the
quite narrow, in a northeasterly direction, then gradually creek; it seems necessary now to extend
increasing in breadth, and turning more and more easiit to the limit of the United States land,
terly, and finally, having acquired a breadth of more than wbich will cost
a mile, terminating abruptly nearly north of the town of $2,160 00
Erie. This tract has several deeply indented bays at its Deduct last year's estimate
eastern end, encloses several ponds, and is, in general, for the 100 feet,
thickly covered with woods. (See plan.)
1,360 00 5th. Easterly of the boundary of the United
At the time the improvements of this harbor were first States land, there is a point projecting
projected, there existed but one inlet. This was at the into the creek, (marked z,) and forming
east end, and through it there was one crooked and in
tricate channel, of about 5 feet water. After the works animpediment lothe navigation just where the creek makes a considerable bend.
of improvements were well advanced, and had already
been attended by the most happy results, giving a draught This should be so excavated that there
of 12 seet ibrough a straight channel, a new inlet was unmay be a depth of 10 feet water in a con. linuous line with the same depth along
expectedly made through a narrow part of the Presqu' the side of the mole; estimated expense,
Isle, near the west end of the harbor. Before adverting 6,200 00
to the probable consequences of this breach, it is proper
to describe the actual condition of the works at the east. Supposed cost, over and above the present
ern entrance, and such further operations as may be there appropriation, of bringing the works at
called for. Buffalo to entire completion,
From a point on the main sbore, which considerably
narrows the entrance, (see plan,) a line of harbor pier, Dunkirk harbor.– Dunkirk harbor is an open bay, of six feet wide, was run N. 19 w. 1,700 feet towards the more than a mile across from cape to cape, and offering southeastern point of the Presqu'Isle; pursuing the same no natural shelter from winds blowing from the northern course, the pier, with a breadt of 10 feet, was prolongquarter. To provide this shelter, a breakwater has been ed 317 feet further. At this point began the south chanbuilt on a shoal which lies off the middle of the bay, and nel pier, which was run, first, N. 35 E. 482 feet, being a pier bas been run off towards the breakwater from the 10 feet broad, and then, N. 63 E. 302 feet, with a breadth western shore. The former is about 1,400 feet long, and of 12 feet. On the prolongation of the south harbor pier, the latter 1,564 feet long. Both these are strongly framed the distance across the channel is 600 feet; and at ibe timber structures, filled with stones. (See the sketch.) east end of the south channel pier the channel is 375 feet
About $4,800, which was available for this year, will / wide. The north channel pier projects into the lake a have been expended in the construction of the outer 320 distance of 1,017 feet beyond the prolongation just menfeet of the pier.
tioned, and into the harbor a distance of 246 feet, the The original design for this harbor, made by Major course of the whole pier being N. 63 E.; its width is gen. Maurice, is said !o have contemplated the extension of erally 13 feet. the pier about 300 feet, the breakwater about 600 feet The north harbor pier was extended in the first infurther eastward. The protection afforded by the present stance N. 17 W. 673 feet, to a low point. This point, works would, it is thought, be improved by such exten- however, by the action of waves and current, changed sions to a degree fully proportionate to the additional cost; its place; thus making it necessary to connect the pier at the same time that the eastern channel would not be with it, in its new position, which was done by extending changed, and the western channel would be left of ample the pier N. 27 W. 1,050 feet. In consequence of still depth.
further changes in the forin and position of this point, it To extend the pier 300 feet, is estimated to
became at last necessary to diverge, and to carry the pier cost
$6,006 80 a further distance of 1,284 feet, to be tbere united with To extend the breakwater 600 feet, is esti
another point more inland, leaving the outer point as an mated to cost
9,511 50 exterior breakwater. This harbor pier is six feet wide. Add for contingencies, &c. near 10 per
The last-mentioned length of 1,284 feet falls within the cent.,
1,481 70 operations of the present year, during which it will be The works, thus arranged, will afford a very
completed. The amount now available will also fill the excellent anchorage, having, by daylight,
barbor and channel piers entirely full, wherever there is an easy entrance. It is, however, be.
a deficiency of stones; will, besides, cause a deposite of lieved io be indispensable to light the im.
stones to be made for the security of the east end of the
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
(23d Cong. 1st Sess. south channel pier, and will supply all deficient planks in Up to this moment, this project for the improvement of the tops of the piers.
the harbor has never been brought to bear fully upon its In regard to a portion of the future operations on the object. The line across the inlet has, indeed, been comharbor, perhaps the most distinct idea can be formed plete; that is to say, it has connected the two shores once from the instructions which, in reference thereto, were or twice; but, before sufficient time had elapsed to give left with the agent. They are, therefore, in part, bere the maximum result as to the channel, either the waters transcribed.
had worked a passage round the south end of the harbor “A very careful sounding should be made along both pier, or they bad found an outlet through the breach, sides of the piers and breakwater, (harbor and channel ibereby materially weakening the action in the channel. piers,) and off at the several distances of say 15, 30, and Notwithstanding these divisions of the current, however, 45 feet. These soundings should be laid down upon a plan the experiment, as has been stated, is successful; a deep of the works drawn on a very large scale. Lines of sound- and direct channel into the barbor having been substiings should also be run across the channel at about every tuted for one that was both shallow and intricate. But it 50 feet, and entered upon the same drawing:
will not anwer to leave the works in their present state, “Wherever these soundings show that the sand has because the breach will be progressively enlarged by the been grooved out next the works, stones should be thrown undermining of more and more of the piers, and at last in until they rise 3 or 4 feet above the proper bottom, the current through the channel will be so reduced, that and have a slope of 2 base to 1 altitude.
the passage may be closed by a new deposite of sand. “In certain places it may be advisable to throw in The first object then must be to bring the piers, in these stones upon a stratum of brush wood. In case their present form, to entire completion, by connecting these stones are thrown into a place exposed to a heavy them securely with the shores, so that no water shall pass swell, they should be large; if not so exposed, they may around them; by fully loading them with stones, so as be small. The east end of the south channel pier should to give strength to resist the shocks of waves, ice, &c.; be reinforced with a mass of large stones without delay. by protecting their bases from the undermining force of
“ It is considered very important that the soundings the current; and by closing the breach, so that all the above mentioned should be taken and protracted on the passing water at the end of the barbor shall be limited to plan with great accuracy; so that, being done from time the channel. to time, (the dates always being entered,) the progress As before stated, the estimated expense of these opeof every change in the bottom may be distinctly seen. rations, over and above the sum now available, is $3,045. What will it cost to place these stones? Can they be Before the formation of the new inlet at the west end Ibrown in this year?”
of the harbor, especially after some progress bad been As no estimate is made by the agent, in a letter lately made in the works, there was no visible reason to doubt received from him, for throwing stones along the sides of the bappy issue of the experiment. Is there any reason the piers, it is presumed the soundings above directed to doubt it now? This is an important question, and one showed the bottom next the piers to be undisturbed. which at this moment does not, probably, admit of an The above-mentioned reinforcement of the east end of the answer. If the new inlet is to cause a diminished depth south channel pier will be effected by the funds in hand. of water through the eastern entrance, this new inlet
“One of the most important future operations will be must be closed; if, on the other hand, no sensible effect the closing the present breach at the junction of the south is produced on the eastern entrance, and none upon the pier and south breakwater, (south channel pier, and depth in the barbor, then two things may be done: 1st, south harbor pier.)
precautions may be taken to guard the Presqu’Isle from “To do this, I would recommend that two rows of a further spread of the inlet, or, 2d, a western entrance piles be driven, as in this sketch; the piles being about 8 may be formed with part of, if not all, the qualities of the or 9 feet apart in each row, and the rows being from 20 eastern; and should the latter result be obtained, the valto 30 feet apart, according as they can be made to em uable properties of this harbor would be greatly enhan. brace, more or less closely, the ruins of the old work; ced. Can this question be solved now? In other words, but wbatever may be the separation of the rows, the sev. can the best mode of operation be hit upon now, with eral parts of the rows should be accurately straight. that degree of certainty which would warrant the conThese rows should overlap upon the present fixed parts, siderable expenditures required? It is thought not. from 15 to 30 feet. The piles being driven, and secured There is good authority for stating that the depth through to each other at the top by temporary ties, small stones the new inlet is less now (by about 2 feet in the deepest) should be thrown into the hole at and near the breach, than it was some months ago: there is also good authoriuntil a level surface has been formed there with, 15 feet ty for stating that the current through the eastern chanbelow the surface of the water. Curbs of strong timbers, nel has not greatly lessened, and it is certain that the well secured by cross ties, should then be sunk in close depth through this channel is still quite sufficient; and, contact with the piles, and so as to occupy all the space though there is no mode of ascertaining accurately whebetween the piles. These cribs being filled with słones, ther this channel remains unchanged, has somewhat les. a bank of stones, about 6 feet high and 12 feet broad, sened, or increased its depth, there is, at least, no direct should be added on each side of the crib work. A sec- evidence that the draught has been at all reduced. If, tion of this work is here given. Wbat will it cost?" then, no injurious consequences have resulted to the old
The estimate furnished for this object amounts to inlet, from the new, while the former has been in a state $3,045.
not admitting the full display of its improving tendencies, The breach just described was made by the very same it seems advisable to wait for this display before a decision action of the water as is relied on to maintain a straight is bad on the project to be applied to the western en. and deep channel between the piers. The action, how-trance. While there was but one shallow and sluggish ever, at this particular point, was greater than was look. channel into the harbor, it would bave been a bold scheme ed for; a portion of the pier work was undermined, up- that contemplated the formation of two artificial chanset, and ruined; and so great, at times, was the current nels, wrought to considerable depths solely by the ra. tbrough the breach, that the sand of the bottom was pidity of the current. One such channel bas, however, scooped out to a depth of 30 feet. This breach must already been produced; and present appearances, and now be repaired with such precautions as will avert any circumstances which have developed themselves during similar accident for the future. These precautions are the present progress of the operations, show that a sec. indicated in the instructions just quoted.
ond is certainly not beyond the scope of possibilities,