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List of Members of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States,
PENNSYLVANIA-James Buchanan, Richard CoulMAINE-Joho Holmes, Peleg Sprague:
ter, Thomas H. Crawford, Joshua Evans, Chauncey ForNEW HAMPSHIRE-Samuel Bell, Levi Woodbury.
ward, Joseph Fry, Jr., James Ford, Innis Green, Joba MASSACHUSETTS-Nathaniel Silsbee, Dan't Webster.
Gilmore, Joseph Hemphill, Peter Thrie, Jr. Thomas Irwin, CONNECTICUT_Samuel A. Foot, Calvin Willey.
Adam King, George G. Leiper, H. A. Muhlenburg, Alem RHODE ISLAND-Nehemiah R. Knight, Asher Robbins. Marr, Daniel H. Miller
, William McCreery, William RamVERMONT-Dudley Chase, Horatio Seymour.
say, John Scott, Philander Stephens, John B. Sterigere, NEW YORK-Nathan Sapford, Charles E Dudley.
Joel B. Sutherland, Samuel A. Smith, Thomas H. Silk
25. (One vacant.) NEW JERSEY—Theodore Frelinghuysen, Mablon Dick
DELAWARE-Kensey Jobps, Jr.-1.
MARYLAND-Elias Brown, Clement Dorsey, Benja. PENNSYLVANIA-William Marks, Isaac D. Barnard. DELAWARE-Johp M. Clayton, (Vacant.)
min C. Howard, George E Mitchell, Michael C. Sprigg,
Benedict I. Semmes, Richard Spencer, George C. WashMARYLAND-Samuel Smith, Ezekiel F. Chambers. VIRGINIA-L. W. Tazewell, John Tyler.
ington, Ephraim K. Wilson.-9. NORTH CAROLINA—James Iredell, (Vacant.)
VIRGINIA-Mark Alexander, Robert Allen, William SOUTH CAROLINA-William Smith, Bohert Y. Hayne. P. Barbour, J. T. Boulding, Richard Coke, Jr. Nathaniel H.
S. Archer, William Armstrong, Joho S. Barbour, Pbilip GEORGIA-George M. Troup. Joba Forsyth. KENTUCKY-John Rowan, George M. Bibb.
Claiborne, Robert B. Craig, Philip Doddridge, Thomas TENNESSEE—Hugh L. White, Felix Grundy.
Davenport, William F. Gordon, Lewis Maxwell, Charles OHIO_Benjamin Ruggles, Jacob Burdet.
F. Mercer, William McCoy, Thomas Newton, Jobo Roane. LOUISIANA- Josiah S. Johoston, Edward Livingston.
Alexander Smyth, Andrew Stevenson, John Taliaferro,
James Trezvant.-22. INDIANA-William Hendricks, James Noble.
NORTH CAROLINA-Willis Alston, Daniel L. BarMISSISSIPPI-Powbatan Ellis, (Vacant.)
ringer, Samuel P. Carson, H. W. Copner, Edmund Dem ILLINOIS-Elias K. Kane, John McLane.
berry, Edward B. Dudley, Thomas H. Hall, Robert Pot ALABAMA-John McKinley, William R. King.
ter, William B. Shepard, Augustine H. Skepperd, Jesse MISSOURI-David Barton, Thomas H. Benton.
Speight, Lewis Williams.-12. (One vacant.)
SOUTH CAROLINA-Robert W. Barnwell, James
Blair, John Campbell, Warren R. Davis, William Dray. Rufus McIntire, James W. Riply, Joseph F. Wingate-6 ton, William D. Martin, George McDuffie, William T.
Nuckolls, Starling Tucker.-9. (one vacant.) NEW HAMPSHIRE-John Brodhead, Thomas Chand. Wilson Lumpkin, Henry G. Lamar, Wiley Thompson,
GEORGIA–Thomas F. Foster, Charles E. Haynes, ler, Joseph Hammons, Jonathan Harvey, Henry Hubbard, Richard H. Wilde, James M. Wayne.—7. John W. Weeks.-6.
KENTUCKY-James Clark, N. D. Coleman, Thomas MASSACHUSETTS_John Bailey, Isaac C. Bates, B. W. Crowdinshield, John Davis , Henry W. Dwight, Ed- Chilton, Henry Daniel
, Nathan Gaither, R. M. Johnson, ward Everett, Benjamin Gorham, George Grenvell
, Jr. John Kincaid, Joseph Lecompte, Chittenden Lyon, Robert
P. Letcher, Charles A. Wickliffe, Joel Yancey-12. James L. Hodges, Joseph G. Kendall, John Reed, Joseph
TENNESSEE-Johą Blair, John Bell, David Crockett, Richardson, John Varnum.-13. RHODE ISLAND-Tristam Burges, Dutee J. Pearce.-2. James K. Polk, James Standifer.-9.
Robert Desba. Jacob G. Isaacs, Cave Johnson, Pryor Lea, CONNECTICUT—Noyes Barber, Wm. W. Ellsworth,
OHIO—Mordecai Bartley, Jos. H. Crane, Wm. OreighJ. W. Huntington, Ralph J. Ingersoll, W. L. Storrs, Eben. ton, James Findlay, Jobo M. Goodenow, Wm. W. Irwin, Young.-6. VERMONT-William Cahoon. Horace Everett, Jona- Shields, John Thonison, Joseph Vançe, Samuel Ě. Vinton,
Wm. Kennon, Wm. Russell
, William Stanberry, James than Hunt, Rollin C. Mallary, Benjamin Swift.-5.
LOUISIANA--Henry H. Gurley, W.H. Overton, EdThomas Beekman, Abraham Bockee, Peter I. Borst, C.
ward D. White.-3. C. Cambreleng, Jacob Crocheron, Timothy Childs, Henry
INDIANA-Ratliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, John B. Cowles, Hector Craig, Charles G. Dewitt, John V.
Test.-3. Dickinson, Jonas Earll, Jr. George Fisher, Isaac Finch,
ALABAMA-R. E. B. Baylor, C. O. Clay, Dixon H. Michael Hoffinan, Joseph Hawkins, Jebiel H. Halsey, Per
Lewis.-3. kins King, James W. Lent, John Magee, Henry C. Mar
MISSISSIPPI- Thomas Hinds1. tiadale, Robert Monell, Thorpas Maxwell, E. É. Norton,
MISSOURI-Spencer Pettis.- 1.
FLORIDA-Joseph M. White.-1
21st Cong. 1st SESS.] Message of the President, at the Opening of the Session. (SEN. AND H. OF REPS. MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT,
of the policy which the presept Cabinet of Great Britain
designs to pursue towards this country, I indulge the TO BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS,
hope that it will be of a just and pacific characler; and if At the commencement of the First Session of this anticipation be realized, we may look with confidence the Twenty first Congress.
to a speedy and acceptable adjustment of our affairs.
Under the Convention for regulating the reference to DECEMBER 8, 1829.
arbitration of the disputed points of boundary, under the
fifth article of the Treaty of Ghent, the proceedings have Fellow-Citizens of the Senate
bitberto been conducted in that spirit of candor and libeand of the House of Representatives :
rality which ought ever to characterize the acts of bove
reigo States, seeking to adjust, by the most unexceptionIt affords me pleasure to tender my friendly greetings able means, important and delicate subjects of contentionto you on the occasion of your assembling at the Seat of The first statements of the parties bave been exchanged, Government, to enter upon the important duties to which and the final replication, on our part, is in a course of you have been called by the voice of our countrymen. preparation. This subject has received the gttention deThe task devolves on me, under a provision of the Con. manded by its great ad peculiar importance to a patriostitution, to present to you, as the Federal Legislature of tic member of this Confederacy. The exposition of our twenty-four sovereiga States, and twelve millions of hap- rights, already made, is such as, from the high reputation py people, a view of our affairs; and to propose such of the commissioners by whom it has been prepared, we measurel as, in the discharge of my official functions, had a right to expect. Our interests at the court of the have suggested themselves as necessary to promote the Sovereign who has evinced bis friendly disposition, by objects of our Union.
assuming the delicate task of arbitration have been comIn communicating with you, for the first time, it is, to mitted to a citizen of the State of Maine, wbose charaeter, me, a source of upfeigned satisfaction, calling for mutual talents
, and intimate acquaintance with the subject
, emi. gratulation and devout thanks to a benign Providence, pently qualify bim for su responsible a trust. With full that we are at Peace with all mankind, and that our coun confidence in the justice of our cause, and in the probity, try exbibits the most cheering evidence of general wel. intelligence, and "uncompromising independence of the fare and progressive improvement. Turping our eyes to illustrious arbitrator, we can have nothing to apprehend other Nations, our great desire is to see our brethren of from tbe result. the human race secured iu the blessings enjoyed by our From France, our ancient ally, we have a right to exselves, and advancing in kpowledge, in freedom, and in pect that justice which becomes the Sovereigo of a pow. social bappiness.
erful, intelligent, and magpanimous People. The beOur foreign relations, although in their general charac- neficial effects produced by the Commercial Convention ter pacific and friendly, presents subjects of difference of 1822, limited' as are its provisions, are too obvious not between us and other Powers, of deep interest, as well to make a salutary impression upon the minds of those to the country at large, as to many of our citizens. To who are charged with the administration of her Governeffect an adjustment of these shall continue to be the ob ment. Should Ibis result induce a disposition to embrace, ject of my earnest endeavors; and notwithstanding the to their full extent, the wholesome principles which condifficulties of the task, I do not allow myself to apprehend stitute our commercial policy, our Minister to that Court unfavorable results. Blessed as our country is with every will be found instructed to cherish such a disposition, aod thing which constitutes national strength, she is fully ade- to aid in conducting it to useful practical conclusions. quate to the maintenance of all her interests. In dis- The claims of our citizens for depredations upon their charging the responsible trust confided to the Executive property, long since committed, under the authority, and, in this respect, it is my settled purpose to ask nothing that in many instances, by the express direction of the theo is not clearly right, and to submit to nothing hat existing Government of France, remain unsatisfied; and is wrong; and I fatter myself, that, supported by the must, therefore, continue to, furnish a subject of unpleaother branches of the Government, and by the intelligence sant discussion, and possible collision between the two and patriotism of the People, we shall be able, uuder the Governments. I cherish, bowever, a lively hope, founded protection of Providence, to cause all our just rights to be as well on the validity of those claims, and the established respected.
policy of all enlightened Governments, as on tbe known of the unsettled matters between the United States integrity of the French monarch, tbat the injurious delays and other Powers, the most prominent are those which of the past will find redress in the equity of the future. bave, for years, been the subject of negotiation with Eng. Our Minister bas been instructed to press these demands land, France, and Spain. The late periods at which our on the French Government with all the earnestness Ministers to those Governments left the United States, which is called for by their importance and irrefutable render it impossible, at this early day, to inform you of justice; and in a spirit that will evince the respect which what has been done on the subjects with which they have is due to the feelings of those from whom the satisfaction been respectively charged. Relying upon the justice of is required. our views in relation to the points committed to negotia Our Minister recently appointed to Spain, has been aution, and the reciprocal good feeling which characterizes thorized to assist in rem ving evils alike injurious to both our intercourse with those nations, we bave the best rea-countries, wither by concluding a Commercial Convention son to hope for a satisfactory adjustment of existing dif. up. in liberal and reciprocal terms; or by urging the ferences.
acceptance, in their full extent, of the mutually broeficial With Great Britain, alike distinguished in peace and provisions of our navigation acts. He has also been inwar, we may, look forward to years of peaceful, bon-structed to make a further appeal to the justice of Spain, orable, and elevated competition. Every thing in the in behalf of our citizens, for indemnity for spoliatious upon condition and history of the two nations is calculated to our commerce, committed under her authority-an apinspire sentiments of mutnal respect, and to curry convic- peal which the pacific and liberal course observed on tion to the miuds of both, that it is their policy to preserve our part, and a due confidence in the honor of that Gothe most cordial relations : Such are my owu views, and vernment, authorize us to expect will not be made in it is not to be doubted that such are also the prevailing vain. sentiments of our constituents. Although neither time With other European Powers our intercourse is on the por opportunity has been afforded for a full development most friendly footing. In Russia, placed by her territo
21st Cong. 1st Sess.] Message of the President, at the Opening of the Session. [SEN. AND H. or REPS. rial limits, extensive population, and great power, high | appearances strongly indicate, that the spirit of indepenin the rank of nations, the United States have always dence is the master spirit; and if a corresponding sentifound a steadfast friend. Although her recent invasion ment prevails in the other States, this devotion to liberty of Turkey awakened a lively sympathy for those wbo cannot be without a proper effect upon the councils of were exposed to the desolations of war, we cannot but the mother country. The adoption, by Spain, of a paanticipate that the result will prove favorable to the canse cific policy towards ber former colonies an event consolof civilization, and to the progress of human happiness. ing to humanity, and a blessing to the world, in which she
The treaty of peace, between these Powers, having been berself cannot fail largely to participate may be most ratified, we cannot be insensible to the great benefit to reasonably expected. be derived to the commerce of the United States, from The claims of our citizens upon the South American unlocking the navigation of the Black Sea, a free passage Governments, generally, are in a train of settlement; while into which is secured to all merchant vessels bound to the principal part of those upon Brazil have been adports of Russia under a flag at peace with the Porte. This justed : and a Decree in Council, ordering bonds to be advantage, enjoyed upon conditions, by most of the Pow- issued by the Minister of the Treasury for their amount, ers of Europe, has hitherto been withheld from us. Dur bas received the sanction of his Imperial Majesty. This ing the past Summer, an antecedent, but unsuccessful at- event, together with the exchange of the ratifications of tempt to obtain it, was renewed, under circumstances the Treaty negotiated and concluded in 1828, happily which promised the most favorable results. Although termicates all serious causes of difference with that Power. these results have fortunately been thus in part attained, Measures have been taken to place our commercial re. further facilities to the enjoyment of this new field for the lations with Peru upon a better footing than that upon enterprise of our citizens are, in my opivion, sufficiently which they have hitherto rested ; and, if met by a proper desirable to ensure to them our most zealous attention. dispositiou on the part of that Government, important be
Our trade with Austria, although of secondary impor- netits may be secured to both countries. tance, has been gradually increasing, and is now so ex Deeply interested as we are in the prosperity of our tended as to deserve the fostering care of the Govern- sister Republics, and more particularly in that of our imment. A negotiation, commenced and nearly completed mediate neighbor, it would be most gratifying to me, with that Power by the late Administration, has been con- were I permitted to say, that the treatment which we have summated by a treaty of amity, navigation, and commerce, received at her hands has been as universally friendly as which will be laid before the Senate.
the early and constant solicitude manifested by the United During the recess of Congress, our diplomatic relations States for her success gave us a right to expect. But it with Portugal have been resumed. The peculiar state of becomes my duty to inform you that prejudices, long inthings in that country caused a suspension of the recog- dulged, by a portion of the inhabitants of Mexico against nition of the Representative who presented himself, until the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of an opportunity was bad to obtain from our official' organ the United States, have had an unfortunate influence upon there, information regarding the actual, and, as far as the affairs of the tiro countries; and have diminished that practicable, prospective condition of the authority by usefulness to his own which was justly to be expected which the representative in question was appointed. This from bis talents and zeal. To this cause, in a great deinformation being received, "ibe application of the esta-gree, is to be imputed the failure of several measures blished rule of our Government, in like cases, was no equally interesting to both parties; but particularly that longer withheld.
of the Mexican Government to ratify a treaty negotiated Considerable advances have been made during the pre- and concluded in its own capital and under its own eye. sent year, in the adjustment of claims of our citizens upon Under these circumstances, it appeared expedient to Denmark for spoilations; but all that we have a right to give to Mr. Poinsett the option either to return or not, demand from that Government, in their behalf, has not yet as, in his judgment, the interest of his country might rebeen conceded. From the liberal footing, however, upon quire; and instructions to that end were prepared ; but, which this subject has, with the approbation of the claim- before they could be dispatehed, a communication was ants, been placed by the Government, together with the received from the Government of Mexico, through its uniformly just and friendly disposition which has been Chargé d'Affaires here, requesting the recall of our Minevinced by His Danish Majesty, there is a reasonable ister. This was promptly complied with; and a repreground to hope that this single subject of difference will sentative, of a rank correspondiog with that of the Mexi. speedily be removed.
can Diplomatic Agent near this Government was appointOur relations with the Barbary Powers continue, as they ed. Our conduct towards that Republic has been unihave long been, of the most favorable character. The formly of the most friendly character, and, having thus policy of keeping an adequate force in the Mediterranean, removed the only alleged obstacle to barmonious interas security for the continuance of this tranquility, will be course, I cannot but hope that an advantageous change persevered in; as well as a similar one for the protection will occur in our affairs. of our commerce and fisheries in the Pacific,
In justice to Mr. Poinsett, it is proper to say, that my The Southern Republics of our own hemisphere have immediate compliance with the application for bis recall
, not yet realized all the advantages for which they have and the appointment of a successor, are not to be ascribbeen so long struggling. We trust
, however, that the ed to any evidence that the imputation of an improper day is not distant wbeu the restoration of peace and in- interference by bim, in the local politics of Mexico, was ternal quiet
, under permanent systems of Government, well founded ; nor to a want of confidence in bis talents securing the liberiy, and promoting the happiness of the or integrity; and to add, that the truth of that charge citizens, will crown with complete success their long and has never been affirmed by the Federal Goveromeat of arduous efforts in the cause of seli-government, and ena Mexico, in its communications with this. ble us to salute them as friendly rivals in all that is truly I consider it one of the most urgent of my duties to great and glorious.
bring to your attention the propriety of amending that The recent invasion of Mexico, and the effect thereby part of our Constitution which relates to the election of produced upon her domestic policy, must bave a con- President and Vice President. Our system of Governtrolling 'pfluence upon the great question of South Ame- ment wag, by its framers, deemed an experiment; and rican emancipation. We have seen the fell spirit of civil they, therefore, consistently provided a mode of remedying dissention rebuked, and, perhaps, forever stifled in that its defects. republic, by the love of independence. If it be true, as To the people belongs the right of electing their Chief
21st Cong. Ist Sess.]
Message of the President, at the Opening of the Session.
(SEN. AND H. OF REPs.
Magistrate : it was never designed that their choice and the necessity of securiog in the Cabinet and in diplo should, in any case, be defeated, either by the intervention matic stations of the highest rank, the best talents and of electoral colleges, or by the agency confided, under political experience, should, perhaps, except these from certain contingencies, to the House of Representatives. the exclusion. Experience proves, that, in proportion as agents to execute There are perbaps few men who can for any great the will of the People are multiplied, there is danger of length of time enjoy office and power without being their wishes being frustrated. Some may be unfaithful: more or less under the influence of feelings unfavorable all are liable to err. So far, therefore, as the People can, to a faithful discharge of their public duties
. Their inwith convenience, speak, it is safer for them to express tegrity may be proof against improper considerations imtheir own will.
mediately addressed to themselves ; but they are apt to The number of aspirants to the Presidency, and the acquire a habit of looking with indifference upon the diversity of the interests which may influence their public interests, and of tolerating conduct from which claims, leave little reason to expect a choice in the first an unpractised man would revolt
. Office is considered instance : and, in that event, the election must devolve as a species of property; and Government rather as a on the House of Representatives, where, it is obvious, means of promoting individual interest, than as an instruthe will of the People may not always be ascertained; or, ment created solely for the service of the People. Cor. if ascertained, may not be regarded. From the mode of ruption in some, and, in others, a perversion of correct voting by States, the choice is to be made by twenty- feelings and principles, divert Government from its legifour yotes; and it may often occur, that one of these timate ends, and make it an engine for the support of the may be controlled by an individual representative. Ho few at the expense of the many. The duties of all pubnors and offices are at the disposal of the successful can- lic officers are, or, at least, admit of being made, so plain didate. Repeated ballotings may make it apparent that and simple, that men of intelligence may readily qualify a single individual holds the cast in his hand. May he themselves for their performance; and I cannot but benot be tempted to name his reward ! But even without lieve that more is lost by the long continuance of men in corruption---supposing the probity of the Representative office
, that is generally to be gained by their experience. to be proof against the powerful motives by which he I submit, therefore, to your consideration, whether the may be assailed--the will of the People is still constantly efficiency of the Government would not be promoted, and liable to be misrepresented. One may err from igno- official industry and integrity better secured, by a general rance of the wishes of bis constituents; another from a extension of the law which limits appointments to four conviction that it is his duty to be governed by his own years. judgment of the fitness of the candidates : finally, al lo a country where offices are created solely for the though all were inflexibly honest-all accurately inform- benefit of the People, no one man has any more intrivsic ed of the wisbes of their constituents-yet, under the right to official station than another. Offices were not present mode of election, a minority may often elect the established to give support to particular men, at the pubPresident; and when this bappens, it may reasonably be lic expense. No individual wrong is therefore done by expected that efforts will be made on the part of the ma- removal, since neither appointment to, por continuance jority to rectify this injurious operation of their institu. in office, is matter of right. The incumbent became an tions. But although no evil of this character should re officer with a view to public benefits ; and when these sult from such a perversion of the first principle of our require his removal
, they are not to be sacrificed to private system that the majority is to govern--it must be very interests. It is the People, and they alone, who have a certain that a President elected by a minority cannot eo- right to complain, when a bad officer is substituted for a joy the confidence necessary to the successful discharge of good one. He who is removed has the same means of obhis duties.
taiping a living that are enjoyed by the millions who never In this, as in all other matters of public concern, policy held office. The proposed limitation would destroy the requires that as few impediments as possible should exist idea of property, now so generally connected with official to the free operation of the public will. Let us, then, station; and, although individual distress may be someeodeavor 80 to amend our system, as that the office of times produced, it would, by promoting that rotation which Chief Magistrate may not be conferred upon any citizen constitutes a leading principle in the republican creed, give but in pursuance of a fair expression of the will of the healthful action to the system, majority.
No very considerable change has occurred, during the I would therefore recommend such an amendment of recess of Congress, in the condition of either our Agriculthe Constitution as may remove all intermediate agency ture, Commerce, or Manufactures. The operation of the in the election of President and Vice President. The Tariff has not proved so injurious to the two former, nor mode may be so regulated as to preserve to each State as beneficial to the latter, as was anticipated. Importations its present relative weight in the election; and a failure of foreign goods have not been sensibly diminished, while in the first attempt may be provided for, by confining the domestic competition, under an illusive excitement, bas second to a choice between the two highest candidates. increased the production much beyond the demand for In connection with such an amendment, it would seen home consumption. The consequences have been low advisable to limit the service of the Chief Magistrate to a prices, temporary embarrassment, and partial loss. That single term, of either four or six years. If, however, it such of our manufacturing establishments as are based should not be adopted, it is worthy of consideration whe- upon capital, and are prudeptly managed, will survive ther a provision disqualifying for office the Representatives the shoek, and be ultimately profitable, there is no good in Congress on whom such an election may bave devolved, reason to doubt. would not be proper.
To regulate its conduct, so as to promote equally the While members of Congresa can be constitutionally ap- prosperity of these three cardinal interests, is one of the pointed to offices of trust and profit, it would be the prac- most difficult tasks of Government; and it may be retice, even under the most conscientious adherence to gretted that the complicated restrictions which now emduty, to select them for such stations as they are believed barrass the intercourse of nations, could not by common to be better qualified to fill than other citizens ; but consent be abolished, and commerce allowed to flow in the purity of our Government would doubtless be pro- those channels to which individual enterprise-always its moted by their exclusion from all appointments in the gift surest guide-might direct it. But we must ever expect of the President in whose election they may bave been selfish legislation in other nations, and are therefore comofficially concerned. The nature of the judicial office pelled to adapt our own to their regulations, in the man
21st CONG, 1st Sess.]
Message of the President, at the Opening of the Session.
(SEN. AND H. OF REPs.
Der best calculated to avoid serious injury, and to barmo-, four buodred and five thousand and five dollars and eigbnize the conflicting interests of our agriculture, our com- ty cents ; redueing the wbole debt of the Government, on merce, and our manufactures. Under these impressions, I the first of January next, to forty-eight millions five hubinvite your attention to the existing Tariff
, believing that dred and sixty-five thousand four hundred and six dollars some of its provisions require modification.
and fifty cents, including seven millions of five per cent. The general rule to be applied in graduating the duties stock, subscribed to the Bauk of the United States. The upon articles of foreign growth or manufacture, is that payment on account of the publie debt, made on the first which will place our own in fair competition with those of of July last, was eight millions seven bundred and fifteen other countries ; and the inducements to advance even a thousand four hundred and sixty-two dollars and eightystep beyond this point, are controlling in regard to those seven cents. It was apprehended that the sudden wităarticles which are of primary necessity in time of war. drawal of so large a sum from the banks in which it was When we reflect upon the difficulty and delicacy of this deposited, at a time of unusual pressure in the money operation, it is important that it shonld never be attempt- market, might cause much injury to the interests depened but with the utmost caution. Frequent legislation in dept on bank accommodations. But this evil was wholly regard to any branch of industry, affecting its value, and averted by an early anticipation of it at the Treasury, by which its capital may be transferred to new channels, aided by the judicious arrangements of the officers of the must always be productive of hazardous speculation and Bank of the United States. loss.
This state of the fipances exhibits the resources of the In deliberating, therefore, on these interesting subjects, nation in an aspect bigbly flattering to its industry and local feelings and prejudices should be merged in the auspicious of the ability of Goverument, in a very short patriotic determination to promote the great interests of time, to extinguish the public debt. When this shall be the whole. All attempts to connect them with the party done, our population will be relieved from a considerable conflicts of the day, are necessarily injurions, and should portion of its present burthens, and will find, not only new be discountenanced. Our action upou them should be motives to patriotic affection, but additional means for the under the control of higher and purer motives. Legis, display of individual enterprise. The fiscal power of the lation, subjected to such influences, can never be just, and States will also be increased, and may be more extensivewill not long retain the sanction of a People whose active ly exerted in favor of education and other public objects, patriotism is not bounded by sectional limits, por inser, while ample means will remain in the Federal Governsible to that spirit of concession and forbearance which ment to promote the general weal, in all the modes pergave life to our political compact, and still sustains it. mitted to its authority. Discarding all calculations of political ascendancy, the After the extinction of the public debt it is not probaNorth, the South, the East, and the West, should unite ble that any adjustment of the tariff, upon principles sain diminisbing any burthen, of which either may justly tisfactory to the People of the Union, will, until a remote complain.
period, if ever, leave the Government without a copsiThe agricultural interest of our country is so essentially derable surplus in the Treasury, beyond what may be reconnected with every other, and so superior in importance quired for its current service. As, then, the period apto them all, that it is scarcely necessary to invite to it your proaches when the application of the revenue to the payparticular attention. It is principally as manufactures and ment of debt will cease, the disposition of the surplus will commerce tend to increase the value of agricultural pro- present a subject for the serious deliberation of Congress; ductions, and to extend their application to the wants and and it may be fortunate for the country that it is yet to be comforts of society, that they deserve the fostering care of decided. Considered in connexion with the difficulties Government
wbich bave heretofore attended appropriations for purLooking forward to the period, not far distant, when a poser of internal improvement, and with those which this sinking fund will be no longer required, the duties on those experience tells us will certainly arise, whenever power articles of importation which cantiot come in competition over such subjects may be exercised by the General Govwith our own produetions, are the first that should engage eromeat, it is hoped that it may lead to the adoption of the attention of Congress in the modification of the Tariff. some plan which will reconcile the diversified interests of these, tea and coffee are the most prominent: they enter of the States, and strengthen the bonds wbich unite' largely into the consumption of the country, and bave be- tbem. Every member of the Union, in peace and in war, come articles of neeessity to all classes. A reduction, will be benefited by the improvement of inland navigatherefore, of the existing duties, will be felt as a common tion and the construction of highways in the several benefit; but, like all other legislation connected with com- States. Let us, then, endeavor to attain this benefit in a merce, to be efficacious, and not injurious, it should be mode which will be satisfactory to all. That hitberto gradual and certain.
adopted has, by many of our fellow.citizens, been deprecated The public prosperity is evinced in the increased revenue, as an infraction of the Constitution, while, by others, it arising from the sales of the public lands, and in the steady bas been viewed as inexpedient. All feel that it has been maintenance of that produced by imposts and toonage, employed at the expense of barmony in the legislative Dotwithstanding the additional duties imposed by the act councils
. of 19th of May, 1828, and the unusual importations in the To avoid these evils, it appears to me that the most early part of that year.
safe, just, and federal disposition wbich could be made The balance in the Treasury on the 1st of January, 1829, of the surplus revenue, would be its apportiooment was five millions dine bundred and seventy two thousand among the several States according to their ratio of refour hundred and tbirty-five dollars and eighty.one cents presentation; and, should this measure not be found warThe receipts of the current yeur are estimated at twenty- rapted by the Constitution, that it would be expedient four millions six bundred and two thousand two hundred to propose to the States an amendnient authorizing it. I and thirty dollars, and the expenditures for the same tin regard an appeal to the source of power, in cases of real at twenty-six millions one bundred and sixty-four thousar d doubt, and where its exercise is deemed indispensable five hundred and niuety-five dollars ; leaving a balance Do the general welfare, as among the most sacred of all the Treasury on the 1st of January next. of four million sour obligations. Upon this country, more than any other, four hundred and ten thousand and seventy dollars, eighty. Has, in the providence of God, beeu cast the special guarone cents.
dianship of the great principle of adherence to written There will have been paid, on account of the publ o constitutions. If it fail here, all hope irr regard to it will debt, duriog the present year, the sum of twelve milliorBl be extinguished. That this was intended to be a Gov