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H. OF R.)

Removal of the Indians.

[May 19, 1830

point put forward as its recommendation, the permanency, become degenerate and wretched, they will form an ex of the new abode. There is no well grunded hope of perception, not merely to all their brethres, with a single ermanency in it, and our experience shows it is delusive. ception, who have preceded them in tbis course, bet te The Cherokees of Arkansas remained unmolested ten the laws of nature. The eardest volition to go, is the years. If the lands to which you remove them are what great spring of the emigrant's success. He summons op you describe them to be, you may as well push back the his soul, and straips his nerves, to execute his owo por tide in the Bay of Fundy, as keep out the white population. pose; but drive a heart-sick family, against their will, from Its progress onward is sure, and as surely will it push the their native land, put them down in a distant wilderness

, Indian before it. This new wilderness which you parcel and bid tbem get their living, and there is not obe ebank out to themn, is uot a permanent home. It is a mere balting in fifty that they would live two years, while you feed place-a half way house on the road to the desert.

them they will subsist, and no longer. General Clark We talk of pledges, guaranties, and patents. Now, sir, tells you that those who were in comfort twenty yean I have not the least doubt of the good faith of the Presi. ago, must now be fed. Sir, they cannot live in these dis dent, of his cabinet, of every gentleman in this House friend. mal steppes. They inust starve; we know they must ly to the bill, and of every bonest man in the community General Clark tells us they do starve ; and when the m who supports it. They all honestly mean that the Indians ther starves to death, they put the living child into the should be safe in their new residence; and if they are not grave with her. To palliate this terrific occurrence, fe Bafe, it will not be the fault of the friends of the bill. Hav- are told it is common, it is incident to Indian life. Bet ing said this, I must be permitted to add, that I would not surely among the southern Indians. And if it is not give one farthing for the best pateut that could be is meant only that it is commou beyond the Mississippi tha bued to this new country, with the seal of every member wbat an image does it not give us of the country into which of the Government. I would not pick up the womeaning we are driving these victims! If it were not as sterile » scrawl from the earth. What, take a patent to secure my the desert of Arabia, it would yield enough to prevent the title west of the Mississippi, when fifty treaties on the east recurrence of such horrors. side, signed by all your Presidents, sanctioned by all your View the subject in another light. What is to keep Congresses, bave proved themselves not worth what it cost these Indians, after their removal, from making war to engross them! I would regard the offer of it as an in- each other! This danger was instantly pereeived by the sult. Treaty and patent; what is the difference, save that intelligent traveller whom I have already cited.* *Sox the former is the more solemo and authentic pledge of the this period," says be, "hostilities, as might have been er public faith? Are they not both of the like parchment, pected, bave again commenced between these restless and Bigned and sealed? What is there in a patent to give it a warlike tribes, (the Cherokees and Osages.) who a bindiug power! Is there any principle of obligation in it; perhaps never be prevailed upon to live in friendship, s any life or voice to upbraid its violators! There is nothing they will be perpetually transgressing each other's bunt in it. It is a word, a name. It signifies nothing-it can ing grounds." At a very recent date, (1821) four hoc do nothing. It is meant well—and that is well-uod that dred Osage warriors appeared before the garrison at Belle is all.

Point, on their way against the Cherokees, aceompanied But, sir, these Indians could vot live in this country, by a party of the Sac and Fox Indians, and killed for not even if your advancing populatiou would let them Qunpaws hunting in the neighborhood. Such is the ef alone, and the country itself were a pretty good ove. It fect of the imprudent and visionary policy of crowding the requires some of the highest qualities of civilized man to uatives together, is the hopes of keeping them at penee. emigrate to advantage. I do not speak of great intellectu. These seventy-five thousand Indians whom you propust al elevation ; not of book learning, dor moral excellence; to collect in this region, are not one tribe ; they are on though this last is of great importance in determining the cognate tribes. We are told in some of the papers wbie prosperity of a new settlement. But it is only the chosen have been laid on our tables, that the four southern tribes portion of a community, its élite, that can perform this speak the same language. It is not so. The Cbootass! great work of building up a new country. The nervous, ar. and Chickasaws speak substantially the same; the Creek dent young man, in the bloom of opening life, and the pride speak a different language; and the Cherokees still of health, can do it. It is this part of the population that other. With

these southern tribes and the north resten, bas done it. This is the great drain of New England and there is no affinity. There are betweeo various tribes o the other Atlantic States. But take up a whole popula. Indians hereditary feuds. Mr. McCoy's Indians were u tioo; the old, the feeble, the iofant, the inefficient, and war with the Osages, aud had been for years. You por helpless, that can hardly get through life anywbere, to them down side by side. You bid them bunt in the earth take them up by a sweeping operation, and scatter them waste. You grant the same land two or three times over over an unprepared wilderuess, is madness. It is utterly to different tribes. The lands granted to the Cheroes impossible for them, I do not say to prosper—but even to of Arkansas, had been in part given, the year before, të subsist. Such a thing was never heard of. How parrow- the Creeks. The Chickasaws are to be put down on the i ly did the pilgrims of New England escape destruction, Choctaw lands. The new Cherokee territory rubs over the although their ranks were made up of men of the sternest reservatiou of the Kansas and Osages; and into this ter moral qualities, well provided with pecuniary resources, ritory, thus pre-occupied, you are going to pour dona and recruited for several years by new adventurers! The from fifty to seventy-five thousand more. I will eite, Indians are to be fed a year at our expense. So far is well, this subject, a paragraph from an Arkansas paper. I pre because they will not starve that year. But are the prai- tend not to claim for it any other weight than what it deries to be broken up, houses built, crops raised, and the rives from the manifest reasonableness of its purpnri. timber brought forward, in one year! 'Sir, if a vigorous Proposed residence of the Indians.—The whole act young man, going into the prairie, and commenciog a set- try west of Missouri and Arkansas, (including the forty tlement, can raise a crop to support himself the second miles severed from the latter,) is already parcelled out to year, I take it he does well. To expect a community of the different tribes that pow oecupy it. The Cherokes Indian families to do it, is beyond all reason. The chair- and Creeks are already murmuring on account of their man of the committee tells us it would be cruel to cast restricted limits, and complain that the Government has them off at eod of one year; they must be helped along assigned to both the same tract of country. The prodige Doubtless they must. And, in the progress of this way of tious of the babitable parts of the country, under the art living, partly by the chase, partly by busbandry, and partly þy alms, if a people naturally improvident do pot speedily * Nuttall, p. 212.

May 19, 1830.]

Removal of the Indians.

(H. OF R

ca.

less culture of the Indians, will be fouud not more than Sir, these alarms of war are not imaginary. A hostile sufficient to supply the wants of the present population. incursion was made as late as last January into the south If the proposition respecting the formation of au Indian western corner of the Territory of Arkansas. Que citizen colony, coutained in the report of the Secretary of War, was killed while at work, and the neighboring rettlements should be adopted by the Government, we will have, ac thrown into confusion, and threatened with being broken cording to the Secretary's calculation, seventy-five thou up. Afidavits proving the fact are on your table. A sand at ove litter, in addition to those already in the coun- letter is before me from a bighly respectable source in the try, Will he tell us where he will put them i and how he Territory of Arkansas, stating it to be now “ ascertained will support them under existing circumstances ? I believe that the Indians are preparing to make a general attack this plan rational and practicable, if the Texas country on our frontiers in the month of May or Juve Dext.” belonged to the Government; but, otherwise, the restricted While I speak it, sir, the savage is perhaps on your fronlimits in which he would bave to plant his colony, would tier settleinenta. Will he spare your own Indians, whom render it a perfect Iodian slaughter-house."

you propose to throw as a barrier between him and these There is only one way in which we can prevent this settlements ? No, sir, he will consider these new comers mutual havoc. and that is, by the constant presence of a as intruders on bis own domain. The vast region to which powerful armed force, and on that I shall presently say a we bave extinguished the title of the Osages and Kapzas, word.

and over wbich we propose to scatter our tribes, is claimed But the difficulty does not stop here. There are two as their own hunting ground, by the Pawnees aud Caboundaries to this new territory. There is Arkapsas on mancbes; and you are not to suppose that, wbile their war one side, a part of our Union, from which, of course, no parties are insulting the regular troops of your own army, violence will be perpetrated against the Indians. But, on they will respect your enfeebled Indians. Let gentlemen the other side, they will be open to the desert. Is that read the account of the expedition set out to overawe desert empty Is it occupied only by the buffalo ? Sir, these war parties during the last summer, and they will it is the hunting ground of the Pawnees and Camanches- see this is to be no trifling business. the fiercest tribes of the continent. These are the masters Do gentlemen forget that we have already been called in civilization, to whom we are going to send our hopeful on for strong measures of defence? There is now a bill pupils, to complete their education. Our Indians bave on our tables, from the Sevate, to mount ten companies for made some progress in the arts of life; and now we are the protection of the frontier; and it is not alone against going to put them down by the side of these dreadful the unreclaimed savages of the desert, that we are called hordrs, who are a terror even to our owu armed traders, upon for protection. I find, sir, amoug the papers accom. and still realize that frightful picture of Indian ferocity and papying that bill, a Memorial from the Legislature of Mispower, which fills the early pages of the history of Ameri. souri

, setting forth the danger to be feared trom the Indians What must be the consequence! The answer is collected by ourselves in the region beyond the Mississippi. short: they will be destroyed. When these wild suvages Corning in a form so authentic and respectable, I shall be of the desert shall take our civilized red brethrea in band, pardoned for citing a few sentences from it. It was adoptthey will most probably crush them.

ed by the Legislature of Missouri on the 26th of DecemThis event can only be averted by another. If the In- ber, 1828. dians wbom you congregate in these prairies, can (wbich “ There is another consideration equally forcible. The I do not believe) ward off starvation; if they take root and Government of the United States has caused various powflourish; and if they withstand the power of the untamed erful tribes of Indians to be removed from the east of the tribes in their neighborhood, it must be by resuming them- Mississippi river, and located on our western frontier. It is selves the savage character. If they fight the Pawnees believed that these Indians, while on their hunting parties,

and Camanches, it must be by themselves again becoming pay as little respect to the property of the wbites, as do | A warlike race. I have no faith whatever in their being the wandering and less civilized tribes of the western terri

able to sustain themselves, but if they do, what have you tory. The Government having thus located these Indians, | effected? You have built up a community of near one it is expected that every reasouable precaution will be | hundred thousand Indians, obliged, in self defence, to as taken to secure the citizens of our State from Indian de

sume a warlike character, and provided, by your annuities, predations. Savages are restrained by nothing but force; | with the means of military annoyance. And wbat sort of and we have good grounds to apprehoud, that, unless a

Deighbors will they be to your own white settlements i military force be placed among them, they will not only

What sort of a barrier will you have raised to protect Ar- repeat their aggressions on our trading parties, but that |kapsas from the Camanches; for this is one of the pro ere long they will make iproads on our frontier settlements.

spective benefits which have been set forth as likely to re. We bave the authority of an experienced Indian agent for

sult from this measure. The im politic character of the saying that the Pawnee Indians, a powerful tribe, are now ' measure, in this view of it, did not escape the observation much disaffected towards us, and are determined to spare

of the most judicious person who bas visited that country. no white man who falls in their way." " It is now, also,” says Mr. Nuttall, “ the intention of the In consideration of facts and representations like these, United States to bring together, as much as possible, the you bave now before you a bill for mounting ten com pasavages beyond the frontier, and thus to repder them, ip nies, a force equal to one-tentlı part of the army of the all probability, belligerent to each other, and to the civil. United States. You are actually obliged to turn one-tenth ized settlements on wbich they border. To strengthen of your army into rangers to protect that frontier, beyond the bands of the enemy, by conceding to them positious which you are going to congregate your Indian neighbors. favorable to their designs, must certainly be far removed If one-tenth are now required, can any one doubt that our from prudence and good policy. To have left the abo. whole army would be little enough to repress the incurrigines on their ancient sites, revidered venerable by the en- sions of the wild tribes, and keep the peace among seventy. dearments and attachments of patriotisni, and surrounded five thousand of our own Indians, pent up in their new by a condeuscd population of the whites, must either have districte, and protect the frontier from both! There is held out to them the necessity of adopting civilization, or little doubt in my mind, that it would require the standing at all events, bave most effectually checked them from army to be doubled in order to effect these objects. committing depredations. Bridled by this restraint, there And now, bir, let us count the cost. Let us count the would bave been no necessity for establishing among them cost ! I do not say this is to be the governing consideration. an expensive military agency, and coercing them by ter- I do not say, that, if the object could be fairly, and ri ,btror."

I fully, and with good faith, attained, I would not go with

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H. OF R.]
Removal of the Indians.

[MAY 19, 1830. gentlemen who have expressed their readiness, on the, expel them. If we do this, as we are bound, in equity like supposition, to take a bundred millions of dollars from and in common justice, to do, we shall bave to pay, fa the treasury, and pledge the public credit for a century the gold region alone, a sum equal to the whole of what I in advance. I will decide that, when the case comes up. bave estimated for the entire extinguishment of the Indian But I will know, first, what this movement is really to title. I am, therefore, amply warranted in taking the cost. I will not vote in the dark. I will not be amused price of the Creek cession as the standard of the estwith a vote of five hundred thousand dollars, to execute a mate, and putting down the first item at more than seved project, of which the expense will fall little, if any, sbort millions of dollars. of five times five millions. There are several items in the expenditure requisite to we are to pay for such as add real value to the land. The

The next item is improvements. The bill provides that effect such a movement, which, though heavy in amount, are contingent in their nature, and difficult to calculate. its import. But the promises which we have held out to

term, improvements, is an expression somewhat vague in I shall take only such as admit of being brought to a stand these Indians, as well as the dictates of the barest justice, ard of calculation : 1st. The first item is the original pur- will require us to make the Indians in the dew country

, chase money; the price we are to give for the title which the Indians have (whatever we call that title) to the lands good. If we force them from their houses, we mus they occupy. This bas ever been a beavy charge in our mieed we will. We shall be barbarians ourselves, if we Indiap treaties. What will it cost to extinguish the Indian

do pot. We must rebuild for them, in the far distant title to more than fifty millions of acres of land, the quan- wilderness, where wood is scarce, even for fuel, houses tity occupied by the Indians to be removed 1 Here we can have no safer estimate than experience. I shall take, mills, and workshops

, such as they have left

. They

have as the basis of the calculation, the last considerable treaty Stall we set them down in the pathless desert

, and de

in thousand acres of land. The amount paid for this cession, closures to their fields : ve must replace these in the By that treaty. we acquired four million seven hundred nothing to open avenues of communication to it, and be

tween its different parts? They have here extensive & 1 including a principal sum, whose interest would equal tbe perpetual annuity

of twenty thousand dollars, was six bun prairie. They have wagons, ploughs, looms, and boats. dred and fifty thousand nine hundred and thirty-three dol their value. They must be paid for, or replaced to thera

.

These canvot be transported but at an expense beyond lars. This sum does not include the expenses tion, the value of improvements relinquished, nor the They have a large amount of live stock, most of which purchase of the territory west of the Mississippi. The will be an entire loss to them, unless we purchase it, ce amount of land to be acquired exceeds fifty millions of put it in their power to replace it in the desert. All this acres; say eleven times the cession

made by the treaty of furnishes a vast amount. "I will not undertake to make Washington, or fifty-one million seven hundred thousand an estimate of my own; but I will take one furnished from acres. Eleven times the price paid for the Creek ces to the Chickasaws. After a detailed

enumeration of the

the War Department, by Colonel McKenney, in reference sion amounts to seven million ovo bundred and sixty items of the estimate, he gives the aggregate sum at kur thousand one hundred and thirty-three dollars. I deem it hundred and eighty-four thousand seven hundred and fity fair, on every ground, to suppose that we shall have to dollars for the Chickasaws alone, a tribe amounting to far pay, at least, as much for the other cessions as we did for thousand souls. Nor, it is perfectly well known that that of the Creeks. The Creeks are the least civilized of this is not the most advanced tribe in civilization. They the southern tribes, and consequently place the least do not exceed the Choctaws, and they fall bebind the value on their lands. The Cherokees and Choctaws could Cherokees. I consider it, then, safe to take this estimate not, in reason or fairness, be expected to sell a cultivated of the War Department, for the Chickasaws, as the standcountry for anything like what is paid for the bunting ard of the estimate for the Indians to be removed. This grounds of uncivilized tribes. If the bill is passed the will give us as the value of the property of seventy-fire Indians, in general, will feel and know that their lands will be purchased, at whatever price. On all these grounds, nine million and seventy-five thousand dollars.

thousand Indians, to be paid for, reimbursed, and replaced, I am warranted in taking the treaty of Washington as, & safe standard for the calculation. I might, with great pro tion. Here we have not merely official estimates, but er

The next item is the cost of collection and transporta priety, go above it; for it is now ascertained that a consi- perience to guide us

. Two parties of Creeks have been derable region of 'these Cherokee lands is rich in gold. sent

over. That headed by Mr. Brearley, the agent of We are informed that four or five thousand persobs are the emigrating Creeks, cost fifty-two thousand tvo hraengaged in wasbing gold within the Indian couptry, and dred and vinety-seven dollars, for one thousand two that they get two dollars each per diem. It may not be hundred individuals. The other party, headed by Colonel half that : but if it is only a quarter, or fifty cents a day, Crowell, cost twenty-seven thousand five hundred and (wbich is likely to be nearer the truth,) it makes the couptry an exceedingly rich gold region. * ? Hosts of intruders eighty-five dollars, for one thousand three hundred indi are already pouring into the country, to rob the Indians lars and fifty-eight cents per head; that of the seable

viduals. The expense of the first party is forty-three col of their gold. We surely shall not imitate their example; twenty-one dollars and twenty-two cents per head; su we surely shall not take froin them gold mines, yielding average of thirty-two dollars and forty cents. Nors whole movement is not to be high-banded force, in its are told from the department, that the price may be stal most offensive form, we shall pay them something like the fair experiments, the only reasonable mode of procedure

further reduced. Why! If we form an estimate on tva value of the treasure, from the possession of which we is that of average ; otherwise, we may make fancied esti

More gold.-One of our townsmen has brought, from Habersham mates that it will cost pothing, supposing it may be de county, a piece of gold, recenty found there, worth one hundred and for less and less each time. But we are to more then by fifty dollars. We begin to be of the opinion, generally entertained in contract, says the Second Auditor. Not, sir, with my cucthe upper counties of this Stute, that Georgia is extremely rich in the sent. Though I deprecate beyond mensure the passage region begins to attract more attention than the sugar region. How of this bill, I will liberally and cheerfully vote the app: strange, that the discovery of gold in this state was not inade at an priations to carry it bumanely and equitably ioto executin. earlier period! Thousands are now profitably employed in searching But I will pot vote a dollar for this dreadful contract Sx, prudent citizens will have their heads turned by " golden dreams. send these Indinus off by contract, and their removal til Milledgeville Recorder.

present a scene of suffering, unequalled by sbat of a flying

MAY 19, 1830.]

Removal of the Indians.

[H. Or R.

army before a triumphunt foe. It will be the direct inte. year, at less expense. I say nothing of the support which rest of contractors to stiut them in every supply and the Government, unless it leaves them to starve, will inaccommodation, and to hurry them to the utmost limits of dubitably be compelled to furnish them, at the end of the buman strength. I cast no imputations on the contractors ; year, and for years to come. I know not who they are to be. But they are meo, en Then, sir, we have titles to extiuguich. The Chickagaging in this business as a money-making speculation ; saws are to be put down on the Choctaw lands, Will this and the most ordinary principles of buman nature show, cost nothing ? The basis of all our operations bas hitherto that, if transported in this way, many of these Indians been to give acre for acre. The Cherokees are to be eswill be destroyed on the march. Let us have no con- tablished on lands already granted either to the Creeks or tracts; but send them under the guidance of men of high to the Arkansas Cherokees. Something must be done to responsibility, and let us cheerfully pay the necessary ex- quiet the claims of the Osages and Kanzas, on whose repense. The average expense of the two parties of Creeks, servations we are already encroaching; and very extensive which have already emigrated, is thirty-two dollars and extinguishments must be made for the northwestern forty-eight cents, taking the statement of the department, tribes. I say nothing of the claim of the Pawnees and in which many things are omitted, fairly chargeable to the Camanches, whose rigbt to bunt in the whole region we account. I will then take the cost of collection and must either buy out or fight out. For this purpose nutransportation at thirty dollars per head, an expense merous treaties are to be held; and the whole nggregate less than the actual average. The result is two million expense, estimating the present value of the appuities, two hundred and fifty thousand dollars for the whole pum- which will probably be the form of the payment, cannot ber to be removed.

be less than one million and a half. We have tben the folThe next item is subsistence for one year. I have made lowing items of the expevditure incident to removing some efforts to estimate this correctly. I am convinced several nations of Indians from their native homes to the that in the statements made iu debate, ou this floor, it has western wilderness : been very much underrated, from not adverting to the cir

$7,160,133 cunstance which most directly affects the cost of the ration, First purchase of their title which, we are told, is not to exceed eight cents. On appli- Expense of improvements to be paid for or

replaced

9,075,000 cation at the proper department, I learn that the cost

Collection and transportation of the ration at our several military posts west of the

2,250,000 Subsistence for one year

4,106,250 Mississippi, is as follows:

Cost of new lands in the West At Cantonment Jesup, twenty-five miles from

1,500,000 Natcbitoches,

134 cts. Cpntonment Gibson, six bundred miles up the

$24,091,383 Arkansas,

101 Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis,

64 But, sir, we have not done, even at this rate. We have And that “the great facility of transportation is the cause promised these Indians, that, if they remove, we will keep of the difference in price of the ration, in favor of the up their schools, now existing in considerable numbers. last bamed place.” This is obvious; and, in calculating We have a territorial government to support among them, the value of the ration, at any given spot, we must take which we are told by the department will cost as mueh as into cousideration, not merely the price of beef, and pork, that of Florida, wbich is about twenty-five thousand dol. aud coro meal, but that of transportation, which makes a lars per annum. It musl be much more expensive, condifference of two hundred per cent between St. Louis sidering the materials to be governed, and that the Goand Natchitoches. Now, it is to be remembered that this vernment is to descend to such details as counting off the subsistence is to be furvished in the interior of a very re-trees which ench Indian family is to have in its wood lot. mote inland country. At Cantonment Gibson, which is But I take it at twenty-five thousand dollars. Then there perhaps the farthest point on the route, to wbich there is is the expense of the military establishment to be kept up. navigation, the ration is ten and a half cents. The coun- I will go into no considerations to show that a very large try where the rations are to be distributed, is, as Mr. military force, beyond any thing proposed or contemplatMcCoy says, one in which the privileges of navigationed hitherto, will be required to keep these Indians at will be very moderate. Should the territory prosper, the peace with each other; to defend them against the unretime will come when this circumstance will be felt as a claimed tribes ; and to protect the frontier. I will confine serious inconvenience." We see bow greatly the cost of myself to the expense of the ten companies of rangers tbe ration is enhanced at Cantonment Jesup, which is but already asked for. I have examined the report of the twenty-five miles from Red River. These provisions are Quartermaster General, of the 8th of last March, containto be carried by land, where they are DO roads. The ing an estimate of the first cost of mounting ten companies, chairman of the Indian Committee tells us that there are and their annual support. Taking the cost of the horses fine drøves of cattle on the head of the waters of the at one hundred dollars each, which we are told by General Washita. But the Wasbita does not penetrate this region, Jesup“ it will be safer to assume,” the first year's expense and there is a range of bills between. The ration will will be eighty-three thousand seven hundred and fifty dolunquestionably cost more in the recesses of this country, lars, and the appual charge. thirty-nine thousand eight than it does at Fort Jesup, within twenty-five miles of hundred and seventy five dollars. So that the civil goNatchitoches. It is there thirteen and a half cents. I be vernment of the new territory, and the military defence lieve it will be twenty cents on a average, throughout of the frontier, will amount to sixty-four thousand eight this pathless wilderness, without rivers--without roads hundred and seventy-fire dollars per annum, according to without population ; but I will take it at only fifteen, being these estimates. But no man can believe it will rest withbut one cent and a half beyond the military ration withio in any such limits. twenty-five miles of steamboat navigation. Taking the I return to the cost of the operation, wbich I have calration at fifteen cents, one year's subsistence, without any culated on official estimates. It is twenty-four inillions. extras or any contingencies, would be four million one Almost just two dollars per head for the estimated populabundred and 'six thousand two hundred and fifty dollars. tion at the census of this year. This enormous sum is to Does this seem a vast amount! The operation is vast. be raised by a tax on the people. Let us see wbat proporHere is an army of seventy-five thousand souls. Looktion of it is to be paid by some of the States. I take the into the accounts of war operations, and see if such an estimated nambers from a document submitted to the army can be subsisted in an untravelled wilderness, for a House, in refereuce to the apportionment of Representa

H. or R.)

Removal of the Indians,

(May 19, 1830

tives, under the new census. On that basis, there will be, which is to send a Government agent to every Indian i paid for removing the Indians, by

the country, in order to tempt bim off; which is ta sp Maine,

$748,000 praise the value of every Jodian habitation, from the cos New Hampshire,

564,000 fortable dwelling of the Cherokee to the wretched calm Massachusetts,

1,152,000 of the fugitive Seminole ; which is to establish a home Rhode Island,:

184,000 the western prairie for every Indian who has left ode esit Connecticut,

380,000 of the Mississippi-ande to do all this, merely under the Vermont,

648,000 discretion of a department, is a thing upbeard of in legi New York,

4,080,000 lation. Sir, it must of necessity be a scene of corruptice, New Jersey,

650,000 without example. Your commissioners may be neu Pennsylvania,

2,800,000 hotior and probity; but the nature of the operation willst Delaware,

156,000 quire an army of agents and sub-agents, contractors and auto Maryland,

652,000 contractors, appraisers and sub-appraisers. Were it be Virginia, 1,400,000 for its effect on the morals of the country, in this respect

, Nurth Carolina,

920,000 the passage of the bill ought to be earnestly deprecated South Carolina,

570,000 And now, sir, what is the necessity of this measure! Georgia,

476,000 What is the necessity of removing the Indians Stail I Kentucky,

1,120,000 copfees my weakness, sir? I have really tried to fiada Tennessee,

926,000 necessity for passing this bill

. So great has been the ,

2,000,000 sensibility manifested in the States' most particularly i Louisiana,

200,000 terested ; 80 strong their urgency; 80 alarming the core Mississippi,

120,000 quences denounced upon us if we do not pass it, that I Indiana,

664,000 bave tried to feel myself under a moral necessity to pas Illinois,

390,000 it. I would gladly have gone for it, as the least of eva. Alabama,

396,000 But I cannot catch a glimpse of any such Becessity. I Missouri,

290,000 look in vain, in all the documents from Georgia and els I ask gentlemen from every state in this Union, if they where to find a positive, strong reason why the Indiass feel justified in laying such a tax on their constituents for should be removed. I find nothing but vague propose such an object. I will not admit that my constituents are

tions, to wbich (with the utmost willingness to feel ile less liberal than those of any other member. They are

force) I can attach no clear, cogent meaning. They tel a frugal people, sir, and their frugality enables them to us, that, till the lodians are gone, they cannot consolidate provide honorably for all just and equitable demands of their society, por complete their improvements. These the Government. But if we should go home, and tell the generalities carry no meaning to my mind; at least, Dose people of Massachusetts that we have voted away eleven to warrant such stern legislation. * Consolidate their hundred thousand dollars of their money to remove these society.” Is not the social systein as solid in Georgia as Indian nations, I believe they would call us to a very strict anywhere else? “I would not bear ber enemy says: account--an account which I, for one, should not know how And what obstructs her improvement ? Not, surely, the to meet. Şir, I solemnly believe that I have not estimated presence of a handful of Indians in a corner of the state. the expense of removing this host one dollar too high: but What is the population of Georgia, where there is no real take it at a half; take it at a quarter, (and the chairman of for these few. Iodiaps! It is less than seven to the square the committee tells us it may amount to five millions of mile. We, sir, ip Massacbusetts, have seventy-four to the dollars,) is there a gentleman here, who thinks that his square mile, and space for a great many more. And yet State, if the question were fairly put, would agree to be Georgia is so crowded, that she must get rid of these is taxed. to such an extent, for such an object 1 The State of dians in her northwestern corner ! New York will have to pay one million of dollars as her

Sir, my eye was arrested this morning by a paragraph in share of the expense, on its admitted cost. Let a resolution the paper, said to be an extract from a letter of a most be introduced at Albany, approving such a tax, for such a

worthy and estimable gentlemap, remembered with regard purpose, and what would be its fute ?

by many who hear me, as by myself--the Governad But the amount of this expenditure is not my greatest Georgia. As it contains potbing but what I sincerely hape objection to it. The mode of its disbursement is still and believe is true, I will quote it : more exceptionable . The bill provides no check upon of Philadelphia, says:We have no such class as the poet,

“ The Governor of Georgia, in a letter to a gentleman it. It is placed within the uncoutrolled discretion of the Our lands are so cheap, and the absolute necessaries of department. Whatever confidence any gentlemon may place in that department, such a discretion is at war with life so easily obtained, that the number of dependent par the character of our institutions, and peculiarly so with are scarcely sufficient to give exercise to the virtue d. the principle of specific appropriations, which has been so

charity in individuals. A beggar is almost as rare with a strongly urged upon us as the rule of our conduct. or as a prince. Children, instead of being an incumbru all the various objects connected with this bill and com

to the poor of our country, are their riches." prehended under it, no one is specified. We cannot pass

(Mr. WAYNE, of Georgia, bere said, “ It is troe"}, our appropriation bill for the

support of Government

, glad of it; I hope it will always be true ; and I wish I bad

My friend from Georgia tells me it is true. I am beartis without specifying the lowest officer who is to receive a known it a week or two ago, when I was trying to prete salary, and the amount of that salary; and this, too, oot that the tariff had not ruined the southern States. withstanding the existence of previous laws creating the office. Here we have a vast operation, extending to tribes

Being true, sir, I appeal to that high-minded people to and nations, to tens of thousands of souls, purchasing and be as liberal as they are prosperous, and leave these peer exchanging whole regions, building fifteen thousand babita- Cherokees in the possession of their native ladds. tions in a distant wilderness, and putting seventy-five thou

I have been struck, sir, with the propbetie import of: "Band individuals in motion across the country, and pot an

speech that was uttered by a celebrated Cherokee Chål officer or agent specified; not a salary named; not ope item on occasion of the first cession that was made by treaty of of expenditure limited; the whole put into the pocket of the lands of that tribe, in the bow powerful and flourishin: one head of department, to be scattered at his will!

Slate of Tennessee. I wish the bistorian* had given it in Sir, I impute do corruption por purpose of corruption to any officer, 'high or low. But I sny, a bill like this, ! nessee, p. 45.

Judge Haywood's Civil and Political History of the State of Tee

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