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has taken place, I have watched the movements of the culiar situation in reference to the coast of the Union. APRIL 12, 1830.)
Buffalo and New Orleans Road.
(H. OF R.
The appropriations were the neceseary result of our pechairman of the Committee on Internal Improvements, and verily believe, if ever a man was actuated by pure and i Without these fortifications one link would have been disinterested motives, having the welfare of the Union in wanting in the grand chaio of defences of our seaboard; view, and that alone, in reference to any measure, the without fortifying Newport, neither New York por the venerable head of our committee has been so influenced, Chesapeake could be defended. From the communicaguided, and directed. In addition to the recommendations tions which were made by the Executive at the commenceof this route from the several committees referred to, it is ment of the session, it appears that his eyes, the attention recommended by the officers of the engineer corps, who, of the Secretary of the Navy, and the Board of Navy it will not be pretended, could bave had any personal in- Commissioners, have been directed to the waters of Narterest in the recommendation. An examination of their ragansett Bay, in Rhode Island, as a place for one of the report will acquaint us with the reasons and grounds of grand naval establishments of the country. And why! their preference. Among other reasons by which all Because that State bad any claim for large appropriations should be influenced, we are told that, if bereafter it for her benefit? Not at all; but, owing to our location, it should be thought advisable to Macadamize the road, the bas been found that our waters, our voble and capacious expense of Macadamizing the western route would not be barbors, presented a better place for a naval depot than so great as either of the other routes, by twelve hundred was elsewhere to be found. I am still, therefore, warthousand dollars. So far, then, as expense is concerned, ranted in saying, that, in regard to any improvement of the and judging from the information which comes before me, resources of the country, nothing, or vext to nothing, together with the recommendation of the present and for- bas been done or projected for the State from which I come. mer committee, I am led to conclude that the western is Yet I am not, because the Government has been less liberal the preferable route for us to adopt. Let it be remem- in its grants than many in the State that I represent could bered, that, in settling this question, we are not to be go- wish, or perbaps all desire, to be influenced by sectional verned exclusively by a state of things which may now cousiderations or sectional designs. Is this any reason why exist, bat should look forward to the future; and although I should withhold, my support from any object which is the population on a particular route may be sparse at pre- national in its character? I trust not. A gentleman from sent, we must look to the resources of the country as they New York (Mr. MONELL] said, a few days ago, that his will exist when fully developed by the facilities which such State had knocked at your door in vain ; and because the an avenue and communication as this road will open to gentleman's State received nothing, he is pow opposed to them. We are not to legislate in this matter for to-day, this bill. He sbould recollect, more especially as he seems but for years and centuries to come. For ayself, I am, to have some constitutional scruples, that the legislature of perbaps, less encumbered in giving a vote, than some gen- bis State had none, for the appointment of agents to solicit tlemen may be. I have no constitutional scruples to im- the aid of Governmeut in constructing their great capal pede me, nor have I any difference from a foriner course was a recognition of the constitutional power to aid works to embarrass me. I shall vote pow as I have voted bereto- of this kind. Other reasous might bave induced the refufore, for my course bas, on questions of this description, sal, beside opposition to the pripciple of internal improve. been uniforin-the same yesterday, to day, and, with my ments; the party then in power might have been opposed present couvictions, will be forever. As to local feelings, to appropriations for internal improvements; but since a thank God, there are done to divert me. I have none to change has taken place in this respect, is their conduct on lead me to prefer the upper to the lower route ; my great that occasion a good reason for voting against this bill now! desire has been to ascertain which would be best for the Surely not. The Government of the United States, at the country at large; and, if I have been so fortunate as to time that application was made, might not have been in a make this discovery, I am satisfied.
situation, from inability, to grant the aid solicited. But it I might, in that spirit of selfish feeling which has been is not too late for New York to obtain the aid of this Gomanifested by many gentlemen who have addressed the vernment for enlarging her system of internal improvecommittee in relation to this road, inquire, what bas been ments, and extending them still farther than at present. done by this Government for Rhode Island? The answer She has, from all that appears, a disposition to do this ; two must be, nothing to its internal condition by appropriations bills have been reported at this session, to authorize subfor roads and canals; not a dollar to give us uew roads, or scriptions to the stock of two of her canals ; inceptive meato improve the condition of our old oues. I am happy in aures have been taken to the improvement of the naviga. saying we want no money from the public chest for that tion of the Hudson ; an appropriation bas been made to purpose ; our common roads are better than the best turn- defray the expense of a survey of a canal to be cut through pikes in this part of the couutry, and our best better than a neck of land near Hurl Gate; we have been notified that all the money in the treasury, or all the surplus fund, sometbing will be hereafter required to improve the naviwhen the national debt is paid, can make some roads here. gation of Black river. Has New York in fact received no lo relation to the general distribution, it may be said we aid ? Nothing to aid ber in constructing a national road, have had our share on other subjects, and, if it has been although a military road has been commenced at Plattsa small one, it has been in proportion to the comparative burg, and partly finished, the whole expense of which size of our State. What has it been? I was so fortunate has been borne by the United States ; another has been once, and not without a struggle, (and, in effecting what I projected from Albany to Sackett's Harbor. Has she rebad in view, I received more aid from the ober branch of ceived no money for internal improvements ? What has the legislature than this,) as to procure for the improvement become of the appropriations for "Oswego, for Black Rock, of one of the barbors in Rhode Island an appropriation for Buffalo, and other places bordering upon the lakes 1 Yet of four thousand dollars; this sum, I conteud, was not for we are told, because New York once applied and was reour exclusive benefit, aby more than the several light- fused, either because the party which then constituted a bouses on our points and promontories; it was for the majority in the House was opposed to internal improve benefit of the navigation and commerce of the whole coun- ments, or the treasury then too much embarrassed to aftry. But it may be retorted, that very important fortifica- ford the grant, now the members from that State are tions have been projected, and actually commenced in bound to refuse to contribute their aid to a design conRhode Island. It is true these works are within our State; nected with the common good of our commou country. but I do not consider Rhode Island under any special ob (Here Mr. STORRS, of New York, interrupted Mr. P., ligation to the Government, because the erectiou of these and asked wbat benefit this road would be to the people fortifications was not from any special regard to us. he represented.]
H. OF R.)
Buffalo and New Orleans Road.
[APRIL 12, 1830.
I know [said Mr. P.) this is the argument of the opposi- | make such a demand? I know, indeed, there was some tion to this bill—an argument which, if it obtains, will de- correspondence between the comptroller and the canal stroy not only this, but every bill that may be hereafter re- commissioners ; but both the late President and the Secreported, to improve the internal condition of the country, tary of the Treasury of the United States disavowed all
I hoped for better things from that gentleman, when intention to enforce such a demaud: yet we have had this he told us he was in favor of appropriations for internal old, worn out story brought forward on the present ocimprovements, and bad heretofore voted for them. Not a casion, to influence the New York delegation. It may be cent of the amount appropriated will reach my district. very good policy-thirty-four votes, this New York regiThis bas been rung through all the changes, not only by ment, as the delegation from that State were once called those who are opposed to the system altogether, and will by the predecessor of my friend, now near me, (Mr. IRWIN, be opposed, as we are told by them, as long as they have of Pennsylvania,) are not to be marched out of sight when tongues to utter their sentiments, or judgments to direct an important point is to be gained. The gentleman has their conduct, but it seems now to be adopted by the gen- supposed the case of a collision between the State autleman from New York. Not a cent of the appropriations thorities and those of the United States, which must be goes to Oneida county, New York. He would vote fur the settled by the Supreme Court, while that tribunal, he has Delaware breakwater, because that work was national, and graciously told us, would instantly settle in favor of the the State of New York was interested in it, although not Government of the United States. Why, sir, this thrust å cent of the appropriation ever reached bis district. If I at that court? Can no question be discussed without incorrectly understood the gentleman, when he addressed plicating that institution That court, it seems, can never the committee a few days ago, he labored to persuade us show the least regard to a claim, however just, of a State to withhold our support from this bill, because the appro- against the General Government. Now, sir, I ask, bas there priation required might interfere with other works; works been any thing in the decisions of that court beretofore, to perhaps in which New York might have a more direct authorize this stab at its reputation ! I repel the charge, interest.
I was going to add, with indiyoation. I will say, however, Io what do arguments of this description originate, ex- the remark is gratuitous and unfouoded. The gentleman cept that selfish sectional feeling, the fallacy and unsound- knows as well as I do, that the members of that court, ness of which I have endeavored to combat, and shall fur- whether collectively or individually, have too much selfther expose before I conclude. I should suppose the gen. respect to make any decision that will justify this insinuxtleman is more proud of bis State, in consequence of the tion. But to return to the road provided for in the bill. coustruction of the Erie canal. Is he unwilling to look Is it not such as the present circumstances of the country back to that period of time when this great work was pro- will fully warrant ! Is it not calculated to improve the conposed, and examine the objections which existed to it? dition of the country? To strengthen the bonds of union, How did they differ from the objections urged against this and brighten the chain of mutual intercourse! Will it not bill? Every county in the State through which it was not confer a benefit on the people at large? Surely the nation to pass, was opposed to it, and opposed for reasons similar is in as good a situatiou for undertakings of this kind pow, to those which are given against this bill. Long Island, as it ever has been heretofore. What, then, is the cause Delaware county, the counties upon the Hudson, the coun- of this bue and cry? Is not our national debt nearly paid i ties east of Albany were all opposed to the work, not only And, when paid, are not apprehensions expressed that the because it would confer po benefits on them, but would surplus revepue will be divided among the several States make their situation absolutely worse, lessen the price of In that event wbat is to become of internal improvements, the products of their soil, as it opened a quick and cheap or works of a pational character ? Gentlemen tell us that conveyance from the interior and extreme parts of the the States must be left to accomplish these works themState to the great market and place of deposit in the city selves; that is, when they can agree among themselves that of New York. Yet, sir, those objections to that work did a certain work is expedient and proper. And who does pot prevail
, and I trust the similar ones to this bill will not. pot see that the will of a single State is sufficient to defeat Apother gentleman from the State of New York, [Mr. every undertaking of the kiod? As an illustration of this ANGEL] visits this road, not as angel, or minister of grace, truth, gentlemen have only to look at this very road. It to give to it his aid, but to condemn this and all similar passes through seven of the States. Pennsylvania is in favor works: at a proper time he is to alter the title of the bill, of it: so is Tennessee, and so are the States farther south; and call this a road leading from Buffalo, via Washington, but all their contributions are to be rendered void, because to despotism. He does not wish any part of the State of Virginia, perchance, is unwilling to engage in the underNew York contaminated by it, although he is perfectly taking, and because New York will not pay for about one willing Pennsylvania should be. The gentleman, sir, may hundred miles of the road that may pass through her terspeak" the sentiments of the people of the district from ritory. So it will bappen with respect to every national which he comes, as that district, as I have understood, has design. The tenacity, not to say the obstinacy, of one or two been generally opposed to works of internal improvements States will defeat the whole. The case, therefore, resolves -Was opposed to the Erie canal; but I am not willing to itself into this question : sball the system of internal imadmit that he is the organ of the State of New York. Let provements continue, or shall it poti If yea, they must be this road be made, and his State will be as pure and un- done by the pation in its collective capacity—the States contaminated as she now is, as pure as Pennsylvania, and will never combine in any such scheme. Tu still further that will be saying sufficient of that State. One would prosecution of that appeal to sectional views which bas suppose that this gentleman belonged as much to Virginia characterized this debate, it bas been said by gentlemen as New York, and was a disciple of the pew school of Vir, from Tennessee, upper Virginia, and a portion of Pennsylgivia politics. A gentleman from Virginia [Mr. ARCHER] vadia, that not ope cent bas yet been granted from the seems williog to give up the glory of this opposition op treasury for their benefit. This argument is surely not a behalf of Virginia, and transfer it to New York, with a view, good one, and would not be entitled to such consideration if as one would suppose, to work on the feelings and enlist it stood alone ; but it is a useful one, as it comes home to the prejudices of the delegation of that State. Another their feelings. Did those gentlemen withhold their aid to gentleman from the State of New York, [Mr. MONELL] works of internal improvement, because they were in whose remarks I have already referred to, has called the other States? No, we are told they did not. Has upper attention of the committee to an attempt made a few years Pepusylvania ever acted on this principle? Is there one ago, as he says, to exact a transit duty from the boats on gentleinan from that, or any other part of that State, who the New York canal. But I ask, did this Government ever can witlihold his vote from this bill? Did they withbold
APRIL 12, 1830.]
(H. OF R. their votes (the gentlemen from the interior of that State), owing to the greater facilities of communication, and transfrom the Delaware breakwater? So far from it, that an portation of both the raw material and manufactured goods, honorable gentleman through whose district this road will the necessary result of the roads, railways, and canals of pass, (Mr. RAMSEY] as he now tells me, offered the reso- that country, they can be furnished at a lower price. The lution which first directed the attention of the House to a manufactures of one nation will always put down those of consideration of that work; then, as the Delaware and another where the material is cheaper, and there is a Chesapeake caval, when the question of subscription of greater facility of transportation. If it is true in England, stock to that caval was under consideration, where is the it is true here; and though there may be members of this evidence of the hostile feelings from the sectional interests House in favor of internal improvemects, and of this road, of Western Penusylvania, Tenpessee, or Kentucky? The and yet not in favor of the tariff
, the argument I have last gentlemen of those States, superior to the interests of advanced will have weight with all those who are in favor mere sectional interest, did not withhold their votes from of the tariff
. What are the main objections urged against the subscription of stock. How many days ago is it since the bill? It is truly amusing to observe the various specua bill for light-bouses, harbor improvements
, and surveys, lations which have been conjured up as arguments against passed this House, making an appropriation of more than its passage. For the purpose of addressing one peculiar half a million of dollars ? In the common language of the feeling of the House, it has been said that the Executive day--not intending to adopt it as correct--for whose bene- is wholly hostile to the design. To gain another portion fit? Of Kentucky? No, sir. Of western Virginia? No. of it, we have been told that he was warmly in its favor, Of western Pennsylvania? No; pot a ceot for either of and anxious for its success. One gentleman from Tennesthose sections of the country. Louisiana, indeed, re see (Mr. Polk) has read to us, in terrorem, a long extract ceived some partial benefit, but a greater proportion of the from his message, in which he is particular to show his money weut to New York and the eastern States. When friendly feelings to works of internal improvements. Both that bill was under consideration, it was not opposed by of the statements made in relation to bim cannot be true; the arguments now used in opposition to this, by gentle- but, for my own part, I am not to be influenced by one or men from the West, or any other quarter. And we are the other. From all that I have seen and heard, I am led called upon to refuse this road, because the money does not to believe tbat the Chief Magistrate will not, by any act go to those districts! One gentleman said the design was of his, impede the progress of this design. I think he riot national, and that it would interfere with harbor im- cannot but feel some regard for the opinion of the legisprovements
, and other works wbich be called national; Inture of his adopted State, which bas been expressed in but now the harbor bill has passed, and that gentleman favor of the undertaking. I should think it natural that represents an interest where there are no pavy yards, no he should feel some regard for the glories of bis owo adharbor improvements; has he, I must again ask him, no ministration. Peace has its glories, as well as war; and pride in the reputation of his State! And is not his sup- what, I ask, can add so bright a halo to the splendor of port due from that State ! O, do. Not a cent has been given his reigo, as the completion of this road, of the Chesapeake to his constituents, not a dollar has been appropriated for and Ohio canal, and the other works of internal improvefortifications in his district. This argument gives up the ments which have been projected! The laurels gathered Union entirely, and we may as well say so now as at any at New Orleans, plenteous as was the harvest, are " trifles other time. I again say that when our surplus revenue light as air," in comparison with the glory of having these sball have been divided among the States, no object truly na: great works of national improvement begun or perfected tional can be accomplished. Instead of being less, there will during his Presidency. On retiring from office, he might be ten times more local feelings than now: the language then say, in the language of one of the Latio poets, withof one State will be, I am in the interior of the country; the out incurring the imputation of egotism, which has been Atlantic States must take care of the seaboard ; and they, ascribed to that poet: in reply, will say, let the West and the States upon our northero frontiers protect themselves, develop their own
"Exegi monumentum ære perennius." resources, and improve their condition. I do insist that if What are the monuments of Egypt, or the pyramids any thing national is to be done, the General Government erected to perpetuate the folly or idolatry of an age, comis the power that must do it. It must be done by the pared with these works, one of which cost more than all United States, or pot at all. I have once adverted to the the money which this pation has disbursed, or will soon be operation of local feelings, even among gentlemen com- required to disburse, on account of works of internal iming from the West-the same section of country. Not a provement.* session commences that is not opened with a dance about If any one consideration more than another would make the western armory. One gentleman moves Pittsburg; a seat in this House desirable, to me it appears it would be one Beaver river, and another, the Horse Shoe bend; and that which would hereafter authorize us to say that we what is the result ! We get rid of the appropriation alto- bave, as the representatives of the nation, contributed our gether, with no disposition to withbold it, because they share to the commencement and the completion of these cannot agree where it is to be applied. I view this sub- works. Of all such it may with propriety be hereafter ject of internal improvements as necessarily connected said, in the language of another of the Latin poets, whose with another important policy of the country-I mean the sentiments I will endeavor to render in English-" Happrotection of national industry. They must go band in py, thrice happy, did you but know, did you but realize, hand, mutually aiding and reciprocating their benefits. what happiness was yours.” The measure of our glory What are some of the objects to be effected by them! would be full, and we need not aspire to any thing more Cheaper transportation and cheaper productions. Is it not to render our dames illustrious, or cause them to be held manifest that the cheaper the raw material can be trans- in grateful remembrance. Away, then, with these stories ported, the cheaper the goods can be sold i The cheaper they can be brought to market, the lower will be the
• Pyramid of Cheops. Of the pyramids of Egypt, the largest, that market price
of Cheops, is a square of seven hundred and forty-six feet, and its I have been served this session with a copy (and I pre- height four hundred and sixty-one, being twenty-four feet higher some the other members have) of a communication made than st. Paul's. The quantity of stone which it contains is calcuby an English writer, whose object is to show that the lated at six millions of tons, which is three times that employed in French manufactures cannot long sustain themselves, as the breakwater at Plymouth, and has been calculated by a French England can manufacture cheaper, and consequently up- engineer to be sufficient to build & wall round the whole of Franco,
ten feet high and one foot broad. Its area at the base iv, neat as dersell them. The main argument used is, that in England, I may be, that of Lincoln's Inn fields.
H. OF R.]
Buffalo and New Orleans Road.
[APRIL 12, 1830.
about the influence of this or of that feeling retarding a single year to one hundred and thirty thousand dollars, great national design.
and that if, instead of wasting money on this road, we It is too late now for gentlemen from the tide water of would consent to take off these duties, Virginia would be Virginia to spread before us their hair-spun theories. The richer by that amount, and that ove bundred and thirty system had made its way down the side of the mountain ; thousand dollars may then be applied by that State to the it is making its triumphant way to the South, “conquer- construction of roads and canals. He affirmed that seren ing and to conquer.” The voice raised in South Carolina millions may be dispensed with from the revepte, and that has reverberated along the highlands of Virginia, and the sum can be equally well distributed. Now, I am in favor cry of North Carolina now is, “, what shall we do to be of repealing the duty on coffee in toto ; and as Virginia will saved ” In reference to the western feelings and western then bave one hundred and thirty thousand dollars to be apclaims, such is my opinion of their equity, that even if I plied to internal improvements, taking the gentleman at his had any conscientious scruples with regard to them, 1 word, I think we may call upon that State to appropriate would at least endeavor to divest myself of them. My money to that amount. But if she shall be disposed to word for it, if you withhold from the West what she now answer the call, how can she collect the money! If sbe asks as a favor, you will hear, ere long, the same require does it at all, she must do it by direct taxation, the most ment in the form of a demand. Do gentlemen furget at odious and burdensome of all modes in which contributions what ratio the number and influence of the nioe States in of the people can possibly be rendered. How will the the valley of the Mississippi are increasing? Wby, if I collector be met! When he asks for this new duty, be is, ever had any hostile feelings towards the West and to all I suppose, to tell the people—you ought not to complaid, such feelings Rhode Island and New England are stran. your burdens have been lightened by a repeal of obe hudgers- I would endeavor to make my peace quickly, while dred and thirty thousand dollars of the revenue; and how i was in the way with her. What Bishop of Cloyne said would he be answered ? Mr. Collector, that is nothing to of North America, compared with England, may with me; that is no relief to me; I have houses and lands, I use equal truth be now said of the South or the East, viewed do coffee ; at any rate, I am not compelled to use it; I will in reference to their relative future consequence, when not pay your tax. Such must be the natural effect; an compared with the West:
effect in which doubtless the gentleman will rejoice, be“ Westward the star of Empire takes its way.
cause its tendency is to foster and strengthen a prejudice
against internal improvements. And this brings me back “Time's noblest offspring is his last.”
to the question whether we are to have any internal imWe may withhold favors from them now, or depy to provements at all. Gentlemen cannot say that they exthem what is justly their due, but, rely upon it, we shall pect by direct taxation to collect a sum such as shall avail hereafter feel their power and the weight of their influence. for the accomplishment of any work of national importAlready the West has given us one President, and unless ance. And bow shall we know when either to begin or I am greatly mistaken, she will not be satisfied with giving end, in making our exactions for revenue? We must reus one, but we shall have another, and another, and tain enough to meet contitgencies, and defray the exanother. Is it then good policy for us to throw obstacles penses of Government. And suppose you have in the nain the way of their improvements ? To the West, I say, tional treasury only one million, an amount that none will we must look for our next President. It is not my pro- say is too large, will there not be just as great a scramble, vince to designate or dame the man; he who is now at the and just as many squabbles for that single million, as there head of the nation may be the man; the late distinguished is now for ten times as great a sum. We shall bave all the Secretary of State may be the man; the late distinguished difficulties that we bave pow, while at the same time we Postmaster General may be called upon to exchange the have little or nothing to appropriate for the great objects judicial robe for the Presidential chair ; in addition to these of national policy and here let me drop one word as to illustrious men, I might point to a late distinguished Sena- an argument which is very common in this House, but tor, now a member of this House, a gentleman decked which addresses itself to the worst feelings of human nawith laurels and covered with wounds received in fighting ture—the urgument is, that other sections deeded the benthe battles of his country. To me it is morally certain efit as much as that which happens to be presented to the that South Carolina and New York might as well bang House. Admit it. Must we, therefore, refuse all ! Betheir barps upon the willow, for at least the next four cause we cannot do every thing at once, must we, thereyears, General Duff Green and Lieutenant James Watson fore, do nothing! Because we cannot benefit all the disWebb, if they please, to the contrary potwithstanding. tricts in the United States pari passu, is this any argument During this debate I have listened with great attention, why, we should not begin to benefit any? This argument and pleasure, too, to two venerable gentlemen, one from would have prevented all that we bave ever done. In the Tennessee, [Mr. STANDIFER) and the other from Penn- plan submitted to Congress for the fortifications of our seasylvania, (Mr. RAMSEY); their powerful appeals, addressed board, designed for the Union, were all reported as works to their respective colleagues, ought not to be disregarded; to be commenced at once? No; they were reported in they bave told the House that whatever we may do on this classes, and numbered from one to five. Some would refloor, the people will ere long declare for themselves quire more time to finish them than others. Might not this what is their will on this subject. The language of the argument have been used in that case ! Might not gentlegentleman from Tennessee was the language of plain, men have contended then, as now, that all these objects sound, practical common sense. He told us this bill was were needed ? that one part of the country had as good a to result in the benefit of those on whom still rested the right to be defended as another; and, as we could not go primeval curse, and who lived literally by the sweat of jon with all, we ought not to begin either? It comes to the their brow. He told us the yeomanry of the country were same thing, because we cappot do every thing we must do desirous of an opportunity to convert their toil into money: nothing. Let me now advert more particularly to the I confess that appeal from such a quarter bad a powerful constitutional argument. effect on me an effect wbieb I could not have been able It is said this road is not needed, either as a military, a to resist, bad my prejudices been enlisted on the opposite commercial, or a mail road—that the interest of the money side of the pending question.
will cost us one hundred and thirty thousand dollars a year, But we were told by ono of the gentlemen from Vir- and that sum will consequently be the expense of transginia, (Mr. P. P. BARBOUR] that the money asked for this porting the mail from Buffalo to New Orleans. This argudesign could be better used. He said that the duties on ment goes manifestly on the ground that the present blate coffeo, paid by Virginia alone, amount in the course of al of things is to exist forever, and because there is no con
APRIL 12, 1830.)
Buffalo and New Orleans Road.
[H. OF R.
merce pow immediately on the route contemplated by this House, might be pot, on the other hand, have presented to road, that there will continue to be none after the road is its view another picture, showing bow, by her works of made. So, because there is no war at present, therefore internal improvements, and her vast system of domestic the military power of the Government does not authorize industry, England bas been able to sustain the pressure of us at this time to engage in the undertaking. Gentlemen such a debt, and to remain strong and prosperous, and to might just as well say that a man cappot be a soldier un march with a bold and firm step, though pressed by such a less he is constantly fighting. The nation is not now at burden ! The Government could not have borrowed unwar, and of course it bas not any munitions of war to carry ; less ber citizens were able and willing to lend. So the but does that prove it never will have! Another gentle. gentleman's argument goes oply to prove that internal inman from Virginia, (Mr. COKE] tells us that roads are only dustry enabled the people of that little island to lend their needed where there is a dense population; but if a part of Government a million of millions of pounds sterling. Engthe country happens at this moment to be secluded from land knows where her strength lies, and she has wisely public view, it must always remain so, and its population pursued a policy to foster it. By this sbe bas been enabled must be always sparse, for the very reason it is 80 seclud. to monopolize the market for all those resources of strength ed. Why, if this country, through which, or near which which grow out of her internal improvements and active this road is to run, bad already all the benefits it would industry. By this sbe bas been enabled to subsidize all the derive from the road, it is very plain that it would not want Powers of Europe, and to make herself a party to all the the road. But the great purpose of the road is to dispense battles of the world. Every body will admit that the pre
those very benefits. Must the mail start from Buffalo and sent dynasty of France has no very particular attachment I go all the way to New Orleans in one route, in order to to the memory of Bonaparte, and yet we see them, from | constitute this a mail road! Surely not. It may be em necessity, pursuing the course of his policy, and endeaĮ ployed as a part of several routes, and the making of it voring to augment ber internal resources. When that
will be warranted by the powers of the Government, in blood-stained conqueror was chained to a rock in the midst i respect to the mail. Another argument of the modern of the sea, what was it that furnished consolation to his į Virginia school is derived from the unequal bearing of ap- reflections His thousand victories? his bloody laurels ? propriations of this kind.
No! be himself declared that it was the remembrance that This argument, if admitted, would strike at once at the be had improved the condition of France, and that his root of all the fiscal operations of the Government. It is works of internal improvement were of themselves enough is a manifest impossibility that this Government should dis- to make his name immortal. With these works, and with
tribute its funds with exact mathematical equality, as if the bis code of laws, he could have afforded to dispense with whole surface of the country was a plain, and these distri- all his victories. butions were to fall upon it as one vast sheet of water. One of the gentlemen from Virginia [Mr. Coke) repreSuch a state of things is impossible; it is forbidden by lo- sented the mountains of Tennessee as being of such a stu
cality, and the situation of our country. It cannot be ex- pendous height as to render the road to New Orleans of Npected unless you raise all the valleys, and sink all the bo practical utility: I do not pretend to an intimate ac
bills. Nor can any one appropriation be made by the Go- quaintance with the geography of that portion of the veroment, the benefits of which shall be equally felt in all Union ; but of this I am sure, that piling up Pelion upon parts of the country. All our appropriations are unequal, Ossa, will pever raise a valid objection to this design, be and must be so of necessity; and the same inequality would the mountains what they may; the road can never come exist, and does exist, in appropriations made by the State in contact with them. The gentleman has relied mainly on authorities. I would ask these gentlemen from Virginia, Dr. Morse as bis authority; (dow be could not push that whether the money appropriated for the capitol at Rich- authority very far in Rhode Island, I can tell him ;) and on mond was an equal distribution of the money of the people that authority be tells us of the wide and noble rivers of that State --whether the moneys granted for the erec which penetrate that region, and which he seems to think tion of court-houses in the several counties are not local are themselves an all-sufficient highway for commerce, appropriations ! The money for these objects is raised by mail, war, and all other purposes of travel. But what taxation over all Virginia : but what benefit did the people says the gentleman from Tennessee, who lives upon the in the western counties receive from the erection of so cost- spot! He tells you, that during three-fourths of the year ly a building at Richmond! It is all idle to talk in this these roads are of do service whatever, their channels bemanner. Inequality is inherent in the nature of all human ing often so dry as to admit walking over them. And as to society. The same argument would prove that one indi- these Alpine mountains, which seem to have towered so vidual must not be appointed to a foreign mission, because much in the gentleman's speech, they are pot so high as there are others equally fit for the place, and who have be imagines ; and, wbatever their beigbt, they are moudequal claims on the Government for the same. It might tains of ore, and contain resources which will furnish comwith equal truth be maintained that the present distin- merce for the road to carry. We bave two armories—and guished occupant of the chair should not have been chosen be tells us, if ever we have another, it will not be located Špeaker, because there are other members of this House on this road, and the road will be useless. Is the gentlewho would discharge the duties of presiding officer as well man sure that there never will be more than two armories as he does. This is the amount of the gentleman's argument in the United States ? Is he quite sure that this road will
But, in addition to this, we find the old string bas been dever be employed for the march of an army? What is pulled upon-the payment of the national debt is to be this argument but to declare that we are not in peace to retardea-a bugbear which regularly makes its passage prepare for war? Will not the same doctrine prove that over the stage whenever any useful project is moved here we are not to increase our navy? that we are not to fortify which is to cost a little money. But, sir, that debt is so our coasts ? Dearly discharged, and its payment ko entirely within our But it seems that we are to reject this bill for consistenpower, that that argument is entitled to but little weight. cy's sake. Because the Jackson party raised a hue and The gentleman from Virginia carried us back so far as to cry about Executive influence, and about the shameful the year 1688, when the public debt of England was but waste of money by employing the engineers to make surone million, and now it is more than a million of millions. veys in various parts of the Union, we must, out of conVery true, sir; and what thep? That debt, however great, sistency and pride of character, refuse this bill, and even is owed to ber own citizens; and, be it great or small, it that for the usual anual appropriation for surveys. Why, was not contracted by works of internal improvement is it an incredible thing that that bue and cry was raised But while the gentleman held up one picture to terrify the for mere political effect? Is it too much to suppose that