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Exercise 12. VIGOROUS ENUNCIATION. Utter the element o eight times; increase in force and volume to the end.

Exercise 13. THE TREMOLO. Give forth tremulous emissions of the breath; utter passages in this voice.

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There are many more exercises for the development and strengthening of the organs of speech; but these, faithfully practised, will accomplish all that any person can desire in this direction. It is not the number that we practice which benefits, but a judicious use of the few more important ones.


Purity of tone is absolutely essential to good speaking; without it distinct articulation is impossible. In presenting this point we shall quote from the excellent work, by Russell and Murdock, upon vocal culture:

"It is important that the pupil, at the very outset of vocal study, should have the ability of appreciating purity of tone. Unless he has some distinct perception of it, — in other words, unless a model of pure tone has been formed in his own mind, all merely physical effort to acquire it will be likely to fail.

"The practice of the scale in swelling tones, is chiefly relied upon by teachers of vocal music, for developing the voice, and for acquiring purity, mellowness, flexibility, and an adequate breadth of tone.

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"Immediately before singing cach sound, breath should be taken so as completely to inflate the lungs; and after pausing an instant with the chest well expanded, the sound should commence with firmness, but with great softness, then gradually augmented to the loudest degree, succeeded by being as gradually diminished to the degree of force with which it began. Each tone should be prolonged from eighteen to twenty seconds.

"This exercise, as a general rule, should be continued for about two months, singing the scale daily about four times.


"In the delivery of the tones of the chest register,' the air ought to escape without touching the surfaces of the mouth; the tones of the 'medium register,' are best acquired by directing the air a little above the upper front teeth in those of the head register,' the air is directed vertically."

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Under this head is embraced Articulation, Syllabication, and Accent. The two last particulars will not be considered, as they are sufficiently understood by most .readers. With regard to the first, attention will be directed mainly to the errors so common and difficult to remedy. A few special rules will also be given for the correct pronunciation of certain particular letters and words.

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Errors in articulation are in consequence of the omission of one or more elements in a word, or from the sounding of one or more clements that should not be sounded, or from substituting one element for another.




for and.

ev en ❝ ev'n.

heav en



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frien's for friends.


❝ sit. ❝siuce.

rav el

sev en




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get, &c.

To these few examples of mispronunciation the student may add others, and by repeating them correctly, learn to avoid them. There is no better exercise for improvement in elocution. Especially may distinctness in utterance be attained by pronouncing properly words ending with g, t, ds, st. It is well to often repeat all the sounds of the letters in the alphabet. Much attention should be given to this in the early stages of education, where at present it is generally neglected.

Hail! heavenly harmony.

Up the high hill he heaved a huge round stone.

Heaven's first star alike ye see.

Let it wave proudly o'er the good and brave.

The supply lasts still.

And gleaming and streaming and steaming and beaming,
And rushing and flushing and brushing and gushing,
And flapping and rapping and clapping and slapping,
And curling and whirling and purling and twirling,
Retreating and beating and meeting and sheeting,
Delaying and straying and playing and spraying,
Advancing and glancing and prancing and dancing,
Recoiling, turmoiling and toiling and boiling,
And thumping and flumping and bumping and jumping,
And dashing and flashing and splashing and clashing,
And so never ending, but always descending,
Sounds and motions for ever and ever are blending,
All at once and all o'er, with a mighty uproar;
And this way the water comes down at Lodore.
It is the first step that costs.

The deed was done in broad day.

None now was left to tell the mournful tale.
Take care that you be not deceived, · dear friends.
Lie lightly on her, earth! her step was light on thee.
Thou wast struck dumb with amazement.

Can no one be found faithful enough to warn him of his danger? No one dared do it.

A good deal of disturbance ensued.

He gave him good advice which he did not take.

A dark cloud spread over the heavens.

Had he but heeded the counsel of his friend, he might have been saved.

He came at last too late to be of any service.

The magistrates stood on an elevated platform.

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1. Articles a, the, and the letter u. a is pronounced as a in at.

EXAMPLE. - There was ǎ man, ă Loy, and ă cat.

2. The is unemphatic before words commencing with

a consonant sound, and is pronounced thu.


3. U in such words as constitution, duty, is generally mispronounced, having the sound of o in do, when it should be soft like eu in beauty.

The unemphatic

- Thu people, the senators, thŭ king.



Pauses are introduced for a variety of purposes mark surprise, expectation, uncertainty; also to make emphasis effective. Their importance may be overrated, as in a work entitled 'The Human Voice,' where we are told that they, used with propriety, constitute the beauty of clocution, while emphasis destroys it. The number of them depends upon the character of the composition.

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1. After a compound nominative or a single emphatic nominative, a pause is necessary.


Joy or sorrow, moves him not. No people, can claim him. 2. Pause after words in apposition and opposition.


James, the clerk at Richmond's. Armington is wrong, not I.

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