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Here, on the 17th of June, 1625, Sarah, eldest daughter of George Jansen de Rapalje, was born. She was the first child of white parents born within the limits of the state of New York. *

Within the succeeding thirty years, settlements had been made in Brooklyn, Flatbush, Flatlands, Gravesend, New Utrecht, and Bushwick.t

Gravesend was settled by English emigrants, who fled from persecution in New England. Of these, the most distinguished was the Lady Moody, and her son, Sir Henry Moody.

These towns were each organized under a separate government, administered by an officer, or officers, appointed by the Director General.

None of them enjoyed any thing like a representative government, and in the days of Governor Stuyvesant, any attempt on their part, to claim a share in its administration, was frowned down, with the utmost severity. After New York fell into the hands of the English, they were allowed to participate in the imperfect representative government of that period.

During the early part of the Revolution, Kings county was the scene of many interesting incidents. Here occurred, on the 27th August, 1776, the battle of Long Island, which threw such gloom upon the rising hopes of our countrymen, in the outset of the revolutionary struggle.

The British ministry, determined, if possible, to close the war by a single blow, had concentrated a large force in the neighborhood of New York, well equipped, and furnished with all the munitions of war.

Congress had assembled a force of near 27,000 men upon Long Island, but they were undisciplined militia. More than onefourth of them were invalids, and the remainder but scantily supplied with guns and ammunition.

On the 22d of August, the British fleet approached the Narrows, and landed the troops at Gravesend and New Utrecht, without resistance.

Dividing here, into three sections, under the guidance of inhabitants of these and other towns, who loved the gold of the British, more than their own country, they proceeded, by three distinct routes, to invest the American camp, which lay principally on Brooklyn heights.

* There is a tradition extant, that during the infancy of this Sarah Rapalje, Minuit, the Dutch Governor, being on a hunting_excursion, with some associates, near the Wallabout bay, entered the cabin of Rapalje, to find something to satisfy his hunger. Finding no one at home, and no food, except an Indian dumpling, they devoured that, when the wife of Rapalje, with her infant in her arms, entered, and berated them soundly for their intrusion, and particularly, for devour. ing the food she had reserved for her infant. The Governor, to appease her an. ger, promised her a milch cow, on the arrival of the ships from Holland, as a compensation for her dumpling. On their arrival, in addition to the cow, he gave her iwenty morgen, (nearly forty acres,) of land, for pasturage for her cow.

† These towns were named by the Dutch, Breukelen, Midwout, Amersfoort, Gravenzande, Nieuw Utrecht, and Boswyck,

One division of the British army took the road leading along near the Narrows, another, that passing through the village of Flatbush, and the third passed by the way of Flatlands.

Descending, on the morning of the 27th, to the village of Bedford, General Clinton, who commanded one wing of.the British army, carried an important point, and an attack was made on the three sides of the camp at once. Suitable precautions seem not to have been taken, by the American officers, to avoid surprise, and although, when thus surrounded, they fought bravely, defeat was inevitable.

Attempting to retreat, they were driven upon the enemy's forces on every side, and those who fought were slain, while those who attempted to fly were made prisoners.

The loss of the Americans was variously estimated at from 1100 to 3200, in killed, wounded, and prisoners. The British loss was less than 400. On the night of the 29th, General Washington silently drew off his troops to New York, and from this time till the close of the war, Kings county was in the hands of the British.

The prison ships, in which the American prisoners of war were confined, during the revolution, were stationed in Wallabout bay. In these ships, nearly 11,000 American citizens perished, from disease and starvation, through the inhumanity of the British officers who had charge of them.

They were crowded into these ships in such numbers that to obtain fresh air was impossible ; robbed of their clothing, fed upon the most loathsome and putrid provisions, and scantily supplied even with these, allowed no drink but the most fetid bilge water, and when sick, unattended by either physician or nurse.

Yet, amid the horrors of such a condition, the most distressing of which it is possible for the human mind to conceive, our noble countrymen preferred death, with all its horrors, to a traitor's life, with plenty; and very few of them could be persuaded to enlist in the British army, although they were assured that they should be amply provided with food, and suitable clothing. Their heroism, and the brutal inhumanity of their jailors, should go down to the latest posterity.

Cities, VILLAGES, &c. BROOKLYN city, the seat of justice for Kings county, is situated at the west end of Long Island, directly opposite the lower portion of New York city. Its location is a commanding and delightful one, and its growth, within a few years past, has been rapid, beyond precedent in the state.

It is the residence of very many of the business men of New York city, who prefer its pure air, and quiet streets, to the more crowded and bustling squares of the great metropolis. It is remarkable for the neatness and taste displayed in its private residences.

The city has a number of literary and scientific institutions of a high order. The principal of these are the Brooklyn Institute, formed by the union of the Brooklyn Apprentices' Library Association, the Brooklyn Lyceum, and the City Library; this institution has a large library, and is in a highly flourishing condition; the Lyceum of Natural History, which is engaged, with commendable zeal, in the investigation of the physical sciences; the Hamilton Literary Association, and the Franklin Literary Association, both composed of young men desirous of improvement. There are also several academies and female seminaries of distinction.

The United States Government have a navy yard at Wallabout bay, covering forty acres of ground, and well provided with all the necessaries, for the construction of the largest ships of the line. They are constructing a dry dock here, at an immense expense. Connected with the yard, is a Naval Lyceum, composed of officers of the United States navy, and possessing a large library and museum.

The Greenwood Cemetery, situated in the south part of the city, contains more than 200 aưres of land. Its situation is delightful, and comprises every variety of surface, which is calculated to make it attractive, as a place of repose for the dead.

The harbor of the city is extensive, and its depth sufficient to allow the largest vessels to come to its wharves. The Atlantic dock, now in progress of construction, is a stupendous work, and one of the most remarkable monuments of private enterprise and wealth, in the country. Population, 62,000.

Williamsburgh, taken from Bushwick, and organized as a distinct town in 1840, is favorably situated for business, and from its proximity to New York, has had a rapid growth. It is the residence of many of the business men of the metropolis, and is fast increasing in population and wealth. It is connected with New York by three steam ferries. Population about 12,000.

Flatbush, in the town of the same name, is a pleasant though small village. Erasmus Hall, located here, and incorporated in 1737, is one of the oldest and most ably conducted academies in the state. The battle of Long Island was fought mostly within the limits of this town.

Square miles, 396.

Population, 31,849.
Organized, 1683.

Valuation, 1845, $11,568,350.

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TOWNS. 1. Flushing, 1788.

4. Newtown, 1788. 2. Hempstead, 1788.

5. North Hempstead, 1788. 3. Jamaica, 1788.

6. Oyster Bay, 1788. Rivers, &c. D. Long Island Sound. E. Atlantic Ocean. B. East

River.
Bays. j. Oyster Bay. r. Jamaica Bay. k. Flushing Bay. l. Cow

Bay.
Villages. North HEMPSTTAD, Flushing, Jamaica, Newtown.

BOUNDARIES. North by Long Island sound and the East river; East by Suffolk county; South by the Atlantic Ocean, and West by Kings county.

SURFACE. The northern portion of this county is rolling, but with no high hills. Harbor Hill, the highest elevation in the county, is 319 feet above the ocean. The great Hempstead plain extends through the central portion of the county.

RIVERS, &c. The county is well watered, but none of the streams are of considerable size.

BAYS AND HARBORS. These are numerous, both on the northern and southern coasts. The principal on the north, are Flushing, Hempstead, Little Neck, Cow, Oyster, and Cold Spring, bays. On the south, are Jamaica, Rockaway, and part of the Great South bay.

These bays abound with a great variety of fish, oysters, &c., and at certain seasons, large numbers of wild fowl congregate here, the taking of which affords ample amusement to the sportsman.

Islands. Riker's island, on the northern coast, Hog island, Cow island, and several others in Jamaica bay, on the southern, are the principal.

Ponds. Success, or Sacut pond, in Flushing, is the only one worthy of special notice.

This pond is very deep, and its waters of remarkable purity and coldness. Perch are very abundant in it. They were first put into its waters by Doctor Samuel L. Mitchell.

CLIMATE. Like that of the Island generally, it is mild, equa'ble and healthy. The seasons are early, and the frosts occur late in autumn; consequently, fruits attain great perfection.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. The geological character of the county alluvial and diluvial, the boulders are mostly granitic. In the southern portion of the county, there are no rocks, nor even stones, of more than a few ounces weight. There are few minerals of importance.

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The soil of the northern portion is very fertile, and perhaps under as high cultivation as that of any other part of the state. The southern part is sandy and naturally sterile, but by judicious management, it has been made to produce tolerable crops.

The timber is principally oak, hickory, chestnut, and locust in great abundance. The latter was originally introduced from Virginia. In the northern part, the apple, pear, peach, cherry, &c., thrive well. Wheat, corn, and grass, are also favorite crops.

PURSUITS. Agriculture and horticulture are prominent pursuits of the inhabitants of this county. Large quantities of corn and oats are raised. Butter, pork, and wool are produced in abundance. Shrubs, fruit trees, and rare exotic plants are sent from the numerous gardens and nurseries in the county, to all parts of the Union.

Fishing, and.fowling, are also the employments of many of the inhabitants. Manufactures are not extensive. The most con- . siderable are flour, woollen cloths, distilled liquors, and leather.

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