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TOWNS. 1. Amenia, 1788.

10. Stanford, 1788. 2. Beekman, 1788.

11. Dover, 1807. 3. Clinton, 1788.

12 Redhook, 1812. 4. Fishkill, 1788.

13. Milan, 1818. 5. Northeast, 1788.

14. Hyde Park, 1821. 6. Pawling, 1788.

15. La Grange, 1821. 7. Poughkeepsie, 1778.

16. Pleasant Valley, 1821. 8. Rhinebeck, 1788.

17. Pine Plains, 1823. 9. Washington, 1788.

18. Unionvale, 1827. Mountains. F. F. Highlands. T. Matteawan, or Fishkill Moun

tains. U. Taghkanic range. e. Old' Beacon. f. New Beacon, or

Grand Sachem. Rivers, Creeks, &c. C. Hudson river. a. Ten Mile creek. b.

Fishkill. c. Wappinger's. Lakes, &c. g. Stissing's Pond. h. Whaley's. Villages. POUGAKEEPSIE, Fishkill, Matteawan, Fishkill Landing,

Pleasant Valley, Hyde Park, Rhinebeck.

BOUNDARIES. North by Columbia county ; East by the state of Connecticut; South by Putnam county; and west by Hudson river.

SURFACE. The surface is diversified, -but generally mountainous, or hilly. Two great valleys intersect the county; the eastern bounded by the Taghkanic and the Matteawan, or Fishkill mountains ; the western, lying between the latter and the high banks of the Hudson river. Beside these, there are numerous rolling ridges of less elevation, running through the valleys parallel to the mountain ranges.

The mountains rise in some places to the height of about 1700 feet. The river range presents some of the highest peaks of the Highlands. The Old Beacon, near the Fishkill landing, is 1471 feet, and the New Beacon,* or Grand Sachem, half a mile farther south, 1685 feet, above tide water. The prospect from the top of the latter is very extensive and beautiful.

RIVERS, &c. The principal streams are, Ten Mile, Fishkill, Wappinger's, and Crom Elbow creeks, with their tributaries; several of the smaller streams also possess valuable mill sites. The Fishkill is about twenty miles in length. Wappinger's creek is about thirty-five miles long.

CLIMATE. The climate is agreeable and healthful, though, from the elevations of some ortions of the county, it is colder than some of the adjacent counties.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. The eastern part of the county is primitive. Granite and gneiss are the prevailing constituents.

* These mountains received their names from the signal fires lit upon their tops during the Revolution.

West of these, the country belongs to the Taconic system; slate and limestone being the principal underlying rocks, and frequently cropping out upon the surface.

The county abounds in minerals. Iron ore, of rare purity and in extraordinary abundance, exists on the western slopes of the mountains ; both the hematitic and magnetic ores occur in the county. Lead and zinc are also found in considerable quantities. Graphite, or black lead, is obtained in great abundance from a mine in Fishkill. Marble, peat, and marl, are found in almost every part of the county. Garnet, green actinolite, talc, anthophyllite, granular epidote, and Gibbsite are the other principal minerals.

In Dover is a cavern which, from its almost perfect Gothic arch, has received the name of “the Stone Church."

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The soil in general, is very fertile, though portions of the mountainous districts are somewhat sterile.

Gypsum is too much relied upon as a fertilizing agent, while the equally valuable lime and marl upon, and beneath the soil are neglected; a beneficial change is however taking place in this respect. The timber is principally oak and chestnut with some hickory. The county is well adapted to the rearing of cattle and sheep, and the culture of grain.

PURSUITS. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the inhabitants of this county. In the production of corn and oats, it stands first in the state, and maintains a respectable rank in the production of other grains. In the growth of wool and the production of butter, it occupies a high rank; in the number of its swine too it exceeds any other county in the state. Flax and potatoes are also raised in great abundance.

Manufactures. Dutchess county is extensively engaged in manufactures: The most important articles are cotton and woollen goods, including prints, iron ware, flour, malt liquors, cordage, leather, oil, paper, &c. The entire value of manufactured products in 1845, exceeded two and half millions of dollars.

Commerce. The whale fishery is prosecuted from Poughkeepsie, and employs several large ships. Some eight or ten steamboats, and a considerable number of sloops, schooners and barges, are employed in the coasting trade.

Mines, fc. In Beekman, Dover, Fishkill, and Pawling, are extensive iron mines; in Fishkill a large mine of Plumbago; in Dover extensive quarries of white and black marble; and in Poughkeepsie numerous and extensive lime-kilns.

STAPLES. Corn, oats, butter, wool, beef, and pork.

Schools. In the county are 210 district school-houses, in which, in 1846, schools were maintained an average period of nine months. 12,854 children received instruction at an expense for tuition of about $27,962. The district libraries contained about 28,000 volumes.

There were also in the county, eighty-three private schools, with 1155 scholars ; four academies, and two female seminaries, with 298 pupils, and one collegiate school, with about 120 pupils.

ReligiouS DENOMINATIONS. Methodists, Friends, Baptists, Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed, Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Roman Catholics, Universalists, and Unitarians. There are 103 churches, and ninety-four clergymen of all denominations in the county.

History. The precise period when Dutchess county was first settled, does not seem to be satisfactorily ascertained. The first settlement was made at Fishkill, by the Dutch. In 1683, the number of its inhabitants was sufficient to authorize its organization, as a separate county. It was however very small, and, for nearly 20 years, was considered in the light of a dependency upon Ulster county.

In 1689, its inhabitants, like those of Ulster, took part against Leisler, but afterward submitted to his administration.

A large tract, extending from the Hudson to “the Oblong," and some eight or ten miles in width, comprising part of the towns of Hyde Park, Pleasant Valley, Washington, and Amenia, was granted to nine proprietors at a very early date, probably about the commencement of the eighteenth century. It was called the “Great Nine Partners."

In 1711, one Richard Sackett lived on this tract, and with his family remained the only settlers upon it till 1724, when some German families, from the East Camp, on Livingston's Manor, in Columbia county, removed here.

In 1702, the first house was built in Poughkeepsie by Myndert Van Kleek, a Dutchman, and one of the early emigrants to the county.

In 1731, the boundary difficulties which had long existed be. tween New York and Connecticut, were terminated by a compromise; Connecticut relinquishing to New York a tract called "the Oblong," lying mostly in this county, and containing about 60,000 acres, in consideration for which, she received a tract on the southwestern corner of her territory, extending into Westchester county.

Two patents were issued for “the Oblong," one in London the day after the settlement, to Sir Joseph Eyles and others, the other in New York, some few months later, to Hawley & Co. These two patents were the subject of much litigation, and the source of no small amount of party animosity.

In 1741, several families from Connecticut emigrated to the northern part of the county. About the same time a considerable number of Friends from Long Island settled in the eastern section.

In the troublous times which preceded the Revolution, Dutchess county took the side of liberty, and furnished from among her citizens, some of the most brilliant and useful actors in that


fearful conflict. Such were Montgomery, the hero of Quebec, the Schencks, and others of imperishable renown.

During the revolutionary war, a part of the American army were stationed for a considerable time at Fishkill, under the command of General Putnam, and afterwards of General Par.

Their barracks were about half a mile south of the village.*

VILLAGES. PourHKEEPSIE, the county seat, in the town of the same name, is finely situated on the elevated bank of the Hudson, about equally distant from New York and Albany. During the Revolution, and after its close, the legislature of the state frequently held its sessions here. The convention of the state, which adopted the Federal Constitution, also met here in 1788. The building occupied by that body has since been used as a brewery.

Poughkeepsie is regularly laid out, and has many elegant public and private buildings. It has considerable commerce with New York and other home ports.

It is also largely engaged in manufactures. Of these, machinery, malt liquors, four, carpets, cutlery, fire arms, silk, pins, iron and brass ware, sash and blinds, and bricks in large quantities and of superior quality, and the principal.

The Poughkeepsie collegiate school is a fine institution, unsurpassed in the beauty of its situation, and the elegance of its edifice. This building is 77 by 137 feet, modeled after the Parthenon at Athens, and surrounded by a massive colonnade. Its cost, exclusive of the extensive and beautiful grounds, was $40,000. The Dutchess county academy, also located in the village, is an excellent chartered institution. Beside these there are four female seminaries. Population about 9000.

Fishkill Landing, in the town of Fishkill, is situated on the Hudson, directly opposite Newburgh. It has much delightful scenery, and is a place of considerable trade. Population about 1000.

Fishkill Village, in the same town, is a picturesque and beautiful hamlet. The Fishkill academy, located here, is a flourishing chartered institution. Population 800.

Matteawan, in the same township, is an important manufacturing village. Large quantities of moleskins, beaverteens, and fustians are produced here. It has also an extensive iron and brass foundry, several machine shops, flouring mills, and other manufactories. The Highland Gymnasium, a celebrated boarding school for boys, is located here. Population about 2000.

* In the old stone church in the town of Fishkill, Enoch Crosby the pedlar spy, (the “Harvey Birch" of Cooper's novel, “The Spy,"] was confined, and from thence he made his escape in an extraordinary and mysterious manner.

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