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9. Hume, 1822.

18. Grove, 1827. 10. Allen, 1823.

19. Rushford, 1827. 11. Scio, 1823.

20. Birdsall, 1829. 12. Andover, 1824.

21. Amity, 1830. 13. Belfast, 1824.

22. Genesee, 1830 14. Almond, 1825.

23. Clarksville, 1835. 15. Bolivar, 1825.

24. West Almond, 1835. 16. New Hudson, 1825.

25. Granger, 1837. 17. Burns, 1826.

26. Wirt, 1837. Rivers. N. Genesee River. e. Angelica Creek. i. Black. j. Cold.

0. Canascraga. p. Little Genesee. Villages. ANGELICA. Friendship. Cuba. Rushford.


BOUNDARIES. North by Wyoming and Livingston; East by Steuben; South by the state of Pennsylvania, and West by Cattaraugus county.

SURFACE. This county forms a portion of the elevated table land which extends through the southern tier of counties, but the deep channels, worn in the rocks which underlie the county, by the Genesee and other streams, and the long narrow valleys thus formed, give its otherwise level surface, a broken appear

The height of the table land is from 1200 to 2000 feet above tide water. It declines gradually toward the north.

RIVERs. The principal streams are the Genesee river, An gelica, Black, Cold, Canascraga and Little Genesee creeks.

CANAL. The Genesee valley canal has been commenced, but is not yet completed.

RAILROAD. The line of the New York and Erie Railroad has been laid out across its southern portion.

CLIMATE. The elevation of the surface produces a low temperature. The winters are long, and the snows heavy. The county is generally healthy.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. This county lies wholly within the Chemung sandstone formation, though the tops of some of the highest hills are capped with the old red sandstone, and conglomerate of the Catskill groups.

Like the rest of this formation, it possesses few minerals of interest. There is, however, some bog iron ore and hydrate of manganese, associated with calca

At Cuba is a petroleum, or Seneca oil spring, which has attracted considerable attention. The shales of this vicinity are all bituminous.

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. Much of the soil of the county is fertile, consisting of a clayey and sandy loam; but it is generally moist, and better adapted to grass than grain. The forests are quite dense, and the timber is of large size, consisting of oak, maple, beech, basswood, ash, elm, hemlock, white and yellow pine.

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Pursuits. The people are mainly devoted to Agricultural pursuits, particularly to raising cattle and sheep. The products of the dairy are quite large.

Manufactures are principally confined to lumber, flour, fulled cloths, leather, oil and potash.

Commerce. The county has little commerce.

STAPLE PRODUCTIONS. Butter, cheese, oats, potatoes, wheat and wool.

Schools. In 1846, there were in the county, 234 district schools, averaging seven months' instruction each, expending for tuition, $13,979, and attended by 13,946 children. The libraries contained 20,595 volumes.

The number of private schools was eight, with 142 scholars; of academies two, with 229 pupils.

Religious DENOMINATIONS. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Episcopalians and Unitarians. Total number of churches sixty, of clergymen, eighty-seven.

History. Allegany county was taken from Genesee, April seventh, 1806. The two western tier of towns are within the Holland Land Company's purchase. The interest of that company has been purchased by another, since formed. The rest of the county is comprised in the tract constituting the Morris estate.

It was first settled by Philip Church, in 1804. In 1838 a remarkable tornado passed over the western section; of a dense forest of 400 or 500 acres, scarcely a single tree escaped uninjured. The wind for the space of twenty miles left traces of its devastation, yet, strange to tell, though several individuals were buried under the ruins of their houses, none lost their lives.

In 1846, the towns of Eagle, Pike, Portage and Nunda, were taken from this county and added to Wyoming and Livingston counties.

VILLAGES. ANGELICA, located in the town of the same name, is the county seat. It is a pleasant village and has some manufactures. Population 1000.

Cuba is a flourishing village. In this place is a spring, from the surface of which collected the famed Seneca oil, so much used for rheumatism and sprains. It was highly valued by the Indians, and a square mile around the spring has been set apart for the Senecas. Population 800.

Friendship is a village of considerable importance, on the proposed route of the Erie railroad. Population 800.

Rushford is a thriving and important village. It is increasing in population quite raipidly. Population 1000.

Square Miles, 627.

Population, 25,808.
Organized, 1806.

Valuation, 1845, $2,087,167.


TOWNS, 1. Chenango, 1721.

7. Vestal, 1823. 2. Union, 1731.

8. Conklin, 1824. 3. Lisle, 1801.

9. Barker, 1831. 4. Windsor, 1807.

10. Nanticoke, 1831. 5. Sandford, 1821.

11. Triangle, 1831. 6. Colesville, 1821. Mountains. e. Oquaga. f. Binghamton. g. Randolph. Rivers. cc. Chenango River. G. Susquehanna River. Q. Tiough

nioga River. a. Nanticoke Creek. h. Otselic. Villages. BINGHAMTON.

BOUNDARIES. Bounded North by Cortland and Chenango; East by Delaware; South by the state of Pennsylvania, and West by Tioga county.

SURFACE. This county forms the eastern termination of the great table land of the southern tier of counties. Like the other portions of this elevated plain, its surface is much broken by numerous streams, which have worn deep valleys through the soft and perishable sandstones which underlie it. The general ele


vation of the surface is from 1400 to 1600 feet above tide water, and the valleys are depressed from 300 to 400 feet below this level. In the eastern part the Randolph, Binghamton and Oquaga mountains rise above the general level. The Susquehanna sweeps around the base of the latter, making a very extensive bend.

Rivers. The Susquehanna, Chenango, Otselic, Tioughnioga and west branch of the Delaware, are the principal rivers of the county.

Canal. The Chenango canal enters the county with the Chenango river, and terminates at Binghamton.

RAILROAD. The route of the New York and Erie railroad has been laid out through the county.

CLIMATE. The climate is salubrious, but from the great elevation of the county, necessarily cool. Large bodies of snow fall during the winter, and continue late in the spring.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. The eastern and southern parts of the county belong to the Catskill group, and are composed principally of the old red s indstone and conglomerate—the western is comprised in the Chemung group, and consists mostly of grey sandstone and slate.

Specimens of garnet, tourmaline, agate, porphyry, jasper, &c., have been collected from the pebbles on the banks of the Susquehanna and Chenango rivers. There are several sulphur and one or two brine springs.

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The broken character of the soil renders the county generally better adapted to grazing than to the culture of grain. In the valleys of the streams, oats and corn thrive well, and wheat is raised to some extent. The principal timber trees are the white and pitch pine, oak, beech, maple and hickory. Much of the surface of the county is yet covered with wood.

PURSUITS. Agriculture is the chief pursuit of the inhabitants. Much attention is paid to the products of the dairy. Some grain is also raised, and summer crops thrivé well.

Manufactures. The water power of its many streams furnishes abundant facilities for manufacturing purposes, which the people of this county are beginning to improve. The New York and Erie railroad will, when opened, give a new impetus to its manufacturing interests, by affording increased facilities for transportation.

Lumber and flour, fulled cloths and leather, constitute the chief articles of manufacture.

STAPLE PRODUCTIONS. Butter, oats, corn and potatoes.

SCHOOLS. There are in the county 170 district schools, which in 1846, averaged seven months instruction each. $8676 was


paid for tuition; and the school libraries contained 13,800 vol. umes. The number of children taught was 8285.

There are sixteen select schools, attended by 166 pupils; and one academy, with 212 students.

Religious DENOMINATIONS. Presbyterians, Baptists, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Universalists and Roman Catholics. There are forty-six churches, and sixty-one ministers, of all denominations, in the county.

HISTORY. During Sullivan's campaign, in 1779, he encamped at or near the present site of Binghamton, in this county, for several days, awaiting the arrival of the detachment under the command of General James Clinton. No settlement was made in the county, however, till 1787, when Captain Joseph Leonard removed here from Wyoming, Pennsylvania. He was soon followed by Colonel William Rowe, who emigrated from Connecticut.

The land in the southern part of the county had been granted few years previously, to Mr. Bingham, an eminent banker of Philadelphia, associated with whom was a Mr. Cox; and that now composing the northern towns of the county, was purchased in 1786, or perhaps earlier, by a company from Massachusetts. The amount of land belonging to this company was 230,000 acres. Having obtained a grant from the Massachusetts legislature, (this being a portion of the ten townships ceded to Massachusetts by New York,) they purchased the title from the Indians, by a treaty, concluded at the Forks of the Chenango.

By the enterprise and good management of General Whitney, the agent of Mr. Bingham, the settlements flourished and increased rapidly in population. In 1806, Broome county was set off from Tioga, as a separate county, and named in honor of John Broome, at that time Lieutenant Governor of the state.

A large proportion of the emigrants were from New England, and probably a majority from Connecticut.

VILLAGES. BINGHAMTON, formerly Chenango Point, is the shire town of the county. It is rapidly increasing in business, and has become already an important inland town. It is much engaged in manufactures, and furnishes a ready market for the produce of the surrounding country, which is mostly shipped by canal to the Hudson, and by the Susquehanna to Philadelphia.

The New York and Erie railroad will soon be opened to this place, and contribute still farther to its prosperity. Toll bridges constructed of wood, cross the Chenango and Susquehanna rivers, from this village. Population, nearly 4000.

Chenango Forks, Windsor and Harpersville are villages of some importance.

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