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Square Miles, 216.

Population, 13,258.
Organized, 1812.

Valuation, 1845, $2,929,318.

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TOWNS, 1. Kent, 1788.

4. Patterson, 1795. 2. Philipstown, 1788.

5. Southeast, 1795. 3. Carmel, 1795.

6. Putnam Valley, 1838. Mountains. FF. Highlands. U. Taghkanic Range. Peaks. c. Anthony's Nose. d. Sugar Loaf. e. Bull Hill. f. Break

neck Hill.
Rivers. C. Hudson River. S. Croton. b. Peekskill.
Lakes, &c. Mahopack Pond. i. Shaw's Pond.
Villages. CARMEL. Cold Spring.

BOUNDARIES. North by Dutchess county ; East by the state of Connecticut; South by Westchester county, and West by the Hudson river.

SURFACE. Putnam is one of the most mountainous counties in the state. The hills are not, however, generally abrupt or precipitous, but rounded and susceptible of cultivation almost to their summits. It is well adapted to grazing.

The Highlands extend across the western part of the county. The range commences at the river, in the southwest corner of Philipstown, and takes a northeasterly course, extending into Dutchess county. In Philipstown there are several considerable peaks, the most prominent of which are Anthony's Nose, Sugar Loaf, Bull Hill, Breakneck Hill, and High Peak. The highest of these peaks is 1580 feet above the level of the Hudson.

In the eastern part the Taghkanic range extends through the county, from north to south.

RIVERS. Beside the Hudson, which forms the western boundary of the county, the Croton river and its branches, and the Peekskill, are the only streams worthy of notice.

Lakes. Mahopack and Shaw's ponds, in the town of Carmel, are the only bodies of water of importance. The first is nine miles in circumference, and has two islands; the other is much smaller in extent.

THE CLIMATE is healthful, though cool.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. This county belongs to the southeastern primitive district of the state. Granite, gneiss, and primitive limestone are the principal rocks. In the town of Patterson, and at several other points in the county, beds of transition limestone occur. They are, however, of small extent.

The principal minerals of this county are iron ore, of the magnetic and hematitic varieties, in great abundance, and of superior quality ; copperas, arsenic, copper ores, chrome iron ore, serpentine, asbestus, dolomite, tremolite, pyroxene, scapolite, epidote, zircon, sphene, albite, graphite, peat, and phosphate of lime.

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. As might be expected from its geological character, the timber is principally oak, chestnut, ash, maple, hickory, &c. The soil is perhaps naturally sterile, but treated with plaster, produces luxuriant crops of blue grass, herds-grass, and clover. The appearance of the farms indicate that the owners are possessed of competence.

Pursuits. Agriculture is the principal pursuit of the inhabitants. Considerable attention is paid to the dairy, and to the rearing of cattle, sheep, swine and fowls. Much of the produce exposed for sale in theNew York markets is brought from this county.

Manufactures receive some attention.

The West Point foundry, at Cold Spring, is the largest in the United States, and employs more than four hundred men. There are one or two other foundries in the county. The other manufactures are of comparatively little importance. There , are iron mines Philipstown, Putnam Valley and Southeast.

Commerce. There is but one good landing on the Hudson in this county, that of Cold Spring. Some commerce is carried on from this point.

STAPLE PRODUCTIONS. Butter, beef, wool and mutton are the principal staples. Calves, lambs, fowls, &c., are also carried to the New York market in large quantities.

SCHOOLS. There are in the county sixty-three public schools. In 1846, these schools were taught on an average nine months ; 3245 children received instruction, at an expense of $6562. The libraries of the district contained 8618 volumes. There were also, ten private schools, with 124 pupils.

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics and Friends.

HISTORY. This county was settled at an early period, but remained attached to Dutchess till 1812. At the base of the Sugar

Loaf, in Philipstown, stands Beverly house, formerly the residence of Col. Beverly Robinson, a loyalist, who, during the revolution, went with his family to New York, and thence to Great Britain. His estate was confiscated by the legislature, and his family banished. This house was the head quarters of General Putnam, General Parsons, and the traitor Arnold. It was here that Arnold received the intelligence, that his treason was revealed, and from the landing on this estate he made his escape on board the British sloop Vulture.

From the foot of the peak called Anthony's Nose, to Fort Montgomery, a chain and boom were stretched, by order of the continental congress, in the autumn of 1776, for the purpose of obstructing navigation, and preventing the enemy from ascending the Hudson. This chain was broken the same year, by the Britishı.

In 1778, Captain Machin, the engineer who had constructed the former chain, superintended the making of anoiher, of twice its diameter, which extended from West Point, lo a battery at Constitution Island. This was never broken by the enemy, but was taken up every autumn, and replaced in the spring. It weighed 186 tons.

Villages. CARMEL, in the town of the same name, is the seat of justice for the county. In picturesque beauty, and healthfulness of situation, Carmel is surpassed by few villages in the state. Declining gradually to the shore of Shaw's lake, a beautiful sheet of water, it presents one of the loveliest landscapes on which the eye can rest. Population 350.

Cold Spring, on the bank of the Hudson, in Philipstown, is a thriving village, supported mainly by the mammoth iron foundry, about a mile from the landing. Population 1500.

Southeast is a well watered and fertile town. Joe's Hill a noted eminence, extends west from Connecticut, into the centre of the town.

Iron ore is abundant in this town, and of good quality. There are several ponds of considerable size.

Square Miles, 912.

Population, 14,908.
Organized, 1813.

Valuation, 1845, $976,433.

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TOWNS. 1. Queensbury, 1788.

6. Hague, 1807. 2. Luzerne, 1792.

7. Chester, about 1309. 3. Athol, about 1800.

8. Caldwell, 1810. 4. Bolton, about 1805.

9. Warrensburgh, 1813. 5. Johnsburgh, 1805.

10. Horicon, 1838. Mountains. EE. Kayaderosseras. HH. Clinton. m. Luzerne. Rivers. C. Hudson. e. Jessup's Creek. f. Schroon Branch. Lakes. X. George. 1 Schroon. d. Brant. Falls. k. Hadley. n. Glen's. 0. Baker's. Battle Field. Caldwell. Fort. Fort George. Villages. CALDWELL. Glen's Falls.

BOUNDARIES. North by Essex; East by Washington; South by Saratoga, and West by Hamilton county.

SURFACE. This county, with the exception of a small portion on the south, has a very elevated and rugged surface. The Luzerne or Palmertown range of mountains traverses the eastern section, the Kayaderosseras the central, and the Clinton range the western portion of the county. Many of their summits attain an altitude of from 800 to 1200 feet. The towns of Warrensburgh and Luzerne, are comparatively level.

RIVERS. The Hudson, Schroon Branch and Jessup's creek, are the principal streams. They have a southerly direction through the county:

Falls. Hadley, Jessup's, and Glen's falls, are on the Hudson.

Lakes. Lake George, which has already been described, and Schroon lake are the most important.

CLIMATE. Cold but healthy.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. With the exception of a small bed of Trenton limestone, in the valleys, in the southeast part of the county, the whole county is primitive-composed of gneiss, with some hypersthene, granite and primitive limestone. Serpentine is also found in veins between the predominant rocks.

Iron is considerably abundant. The magnetic ore is frequent, but does not occur in large masses; porcelain clay, black marble of very fine quality, (from the vicinity of Glen's Falls,) verd antique, black lead or graphite, and peat, are the most important of the useful minerals. Besides these, fluor, zircon, pyrites, massive feldspar, tourmaline, rutile, rhomb spar, quartz crystals of great beauty, und calcareous spar occur in several localities.

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The soil of the greater part of the county is sterile. Some fertile land, however, is found in the narrow valleys, and in the level portions above mentioned. A heavy growth of timber covers its hills, consisting of pine, spruce, fir, cedar, oak, maple, beech, elm and ash.

PURSUITS. Agriculture is the leading pursuit; but the settlements are sparse, and in many sections the gigantic timber is not yet felled. Many of the inhabitants are engaged in preparing lumber for market. The county seems to be adapted to grazing; corn, oats and potatoes also succeed well.

The manufactures are those common to a new country ; lumber, leather, potash, flour and fulled cloths. At Glen's Falls, marble is also largely manufactured. The quantity of lumber sent to market from this county is very great.

The commerce of the county is mostly confined to the trans. portation of its own productions to market, by the Champlain canal.

THE STAPLES are lumber, corn, potatoes, oats, butter and wool.

very well

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