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Square miles, 923.
Valuation, 1845, $5,332,085.
1. Mexico, 1792.
12. Granby, 1818. 2. Redfield, 1800.
13. Hastings, 1825. 3. Williamstown, 1804.
14. Albion, 1825. 4. Volney, 1806.
15. Sandy Creek, 1825. 5. Hannibal, 1806.
16. Boylston, 1828. 6. Richland, 1807.
17. Parish, 1828. 7. Constantia, 1808.
18. Amboy, 1830. 8. Scriba, 1811.
19. Palermo, 1832. 9. New Haven, 181.3.
20. Schroeppel, 1832. 10. Orwell, 1817.
21. West Monroe, 1833. 11. Oswego, 1818.
22. Greenboro, 1844. Rivers. a. Oswego River. i. Oneida Outlet. b. Little Sandy Creek.
c. Salmon River. d. Salmon Creek. e. Deer Creek. h. Oswego
f. Little andy Creek Bay.
BOUNDARIES. North by Lake Ontario and Jefferson county ; East by Lewis and Oneida; South by Oneida Lake, Onondaga and Cayuga counties, and West by Cayuga and Lake Ontario.
SURFACE. The southeastern, southern and western portions of the county are level, the interior rolling, and the northern portion rising into hills. A ridge, 110 feet in height, runs westerly through the county, about eight miles north of the southern boundary, forming the watershed or dividing line between the northern and southern waters. The Oswego breaks through this at the great falls at Fulton in the town of Volney.
RIVERS. The Oswego is the principal river of the county. The other important streams are Salmon river, Salmon creek, Little Sandy and Catfish creeks, flowing into Lake Ontario ; Scriba and Bay creeks, flowing into Oneida Lake, and Scott and Black creeks, tributaries of the Oswego. The west branch of Fish creek, from Oneida county, drains some of the eastern towns of this county.
LAKES, Bays, &c. Lake Ontario washes the whole northwestern boundary of the county. Oneida lake forms nearly onethird of its southern boundary. Fish lake, and several other small ponds add to its picturesque beauty. Mexico bay is an indentation of Lake Ontario some ten miles broad. Little Sandy Creek bay is a small land-locked inlet from the lake in the northwestern part of the county.
The Oswego canal, which connects the Erie canal with Lake Ontario, passes through the southwestern portion of the county, following the valley of the Oswego river.
CLIMATE. The climate, influenced by its proximity to the lake, is more uniform than in some of the other counties. Fruits thrive well. It is considered healthful.
GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. The geological formations of this county are v ry simple. The basis rock is a slaty sandstone, making its appearance on the surface in the northwest section of the county. Grey sandstone overlies this on the east, extending into Lewis county. Red sandstone comes next in order, and covers the southern portion of the county, except a narrow strip along the south border. The Clinton group, (limestone,) occurs in several sections of the county, but is generally thickly covered with alluvial deposits.
The county has no minerals of importance. There is a single locality of bog iron ore, and some weak brine springs, in the red sandstone formation.
SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The soil is generally rich and fertile, but better adapted to grazing than the growing of grain. The timber is oak, pine, beech, basswood, ash, butternut and hemlock. The grass crops are very large and of fine quality.
PURSUITS. Agriculture is the pursuit of a majority of the inhabitants. The culture of grain and the rearing of cattle, sheep, and swine, each receive a large share of attention. The county is usually reckoned one of the first of the grazing counties. Oats and corn are raised to a greater extent than wheat.
Manufactures. Some attention is paid to manufactures, and such is the amount and convenience of the hydraulic power of the county, that we may anticipate a great increase in this respect, when the county becomes more fully settled. At present, flour, leather, and fulled cloths, are the principal articles produced.
Commerce. The commerce of this county is large, Oswego being one of the best ports on Lake Ontario. Much of the Canada trade enters the state from this direction, as well as that from Lake Erie by the Welland canal. The commerce on the canal is also very large.*
STAPLE PRODUCTIONS. Butter, cheese, wool and oats.
Schools. There are 272 district school-houses in the county. In 1846, schools were taught on an average eight months. 17,143 children received instruction, at an expense of $17,838. The district libraries contained 24,511 volumes.
There were in the county, twenty-two private schools, with 403 pupils, and three academies, with 178 students.
Religious DENOMINATIONS. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Dutch Reformed, and Roman Catholics. There are fifty-two churches, and seventytwo clergymen of all denominations in the county.
History. In 1722, under the direction of Governor Burnet, a trading hous was erected at Oswego, on the east side of the river. In 1726, in order to prevent the encroachment of the French, Governor Burnet erected old Fort Oswego, on the west side of the river. In 1755, Fort Ontario, on the east side of the river, was constructed, under the direction of Governor Shirley. On the 14th of August, 1756, both these forts, with a garrison of 1600 men, and a large quantity of ammunition, were surrendered to the French, under Montcalm, who had besieged them with a well appointed force of 5000 men, and met with stubborn and long continued resistance.
In 1759, the pentagonal fort, called Fort Oswego, was built. The post was surrendered to the United States, by the British Government, by the treaty of 1794. During the late war, its garrison, commanded by Lieutenant
* TABLE OF COMMERCE OF OS w BGO COUNTY. Tonnage enrolled and licensed, 1845,
tons, 11,410 Flour shipped at Oswego, 1845,
44.560 Property shipped for other states by way of Oswego,
71,416 Tolls on the Oswego canal, 1845,
Colonel Mitchell, with an effective force of less than 300 men, sustained an attack from the British force, which consisted of more than 3000 troops, for two days, and fi ly retreated in good order, with a loss during the whole conflict of o ly fortyfour in killed and wounded, while the loss of the enemy was 235. The British, chagrined at their want of success, ei acuated the fort in about twelve hours.
Fort Oswego, on the east of ' e river, occupies a station a little north of Fort Ontario, and has recently been repaired by the United St it government. It is one of the most important military posts on the lake.
The settlement of the county did not commence till after the Revolution. The towns west of Osw. go river belonged to the Military Tract, and were granted by the state to oíficers and soldiers of the New York line.
The townships of the east side of the river constitute a part of “Scriba's patent." These lands were originally granted by the state to Nicholas Roosevelt, of New York, but he not com. plyi ith the terms of the purchase, a large portion of them were sold to George Scriba, a native of Germany, and then an opule merchant in New York. The town of Richland, part f Volney, and about o e half of Scriba, were purchased by Messrs. Alexander Hamilton, J. Lawrence, and J. B. Church.
VILLAGES. Oswego village, siluated o sides of the Oswego river, in the towns of Oswego and Scriba, is the half shire town of the county. As the terminus of the Oswego canal, it is a place of considerable importance, having an extensive forwarding trade. It has an inexhausti" ile water power, and is largely engaged in manufactures. Its flour Is are of great size. The harbor is rtificial, and is formed by two piers, extendin from the mouth of the river, one 1250 feet long, the other 250. These were erected by the general government, at an expense of $93,000. The village is regularly laid out and well built. Population about 5000.
PULASKI, the other county seat, is a small but thriving village, in the town of Richland. It has valuable water privileges, as yet but partially improved. Population 800.
Mexico, in the town of the same name, is a thriving village, situated on Salmon creek. It has some manufactures, and an academy of some note. Population 600.
Orweil. The falls of the Salmon river at this place are worthy of notice. The stream is about ten rods wide, and after rushing over rocks for about two miles, plunges perpendicularly 107 feet. The banks of the stream are eighty feet high above the falls, and about 200 below them.
Fulton is a large and busy village, in the town of Volney, engaged in manufactures, for which the falls in the Oswego, furnish ample facilities. Population 2400.
XLIX. TOMPKINS COUNTY.
Valuation, 1845, $4,001,719.
TOWNS. 1. Ulysses, 1801.
6. Hector, 1812. 2. Dryden, 1803.
7. Groton, 1817. 3. Caroline, 1811.
8. Lansing, 1817. 4. Danby, 1811.
9. Enfield, 1821. 5. Newfield, 1811.
10. Ithaca. 1821.
BOUNDARIES. North by Seneca and Cayuga counties; East by Cortland and Tioga; South by Tioga and Chemung, and West by Chemung county and Seneca lake.
SURFACE. Tompkins county forms a portion of the great table land of Western New York. Its southern portion is most ele