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SURFACE. This county occupies, for the most part, the second of those elevated tableaux, or plains, which stretch from Lake Ontario to the southern border of the state, and which are divided from each other by steep and almost perpendicular precipices. The table land on which most of Wyoming cou y lies, commences with the ledge, which runs through the southern towns of Genesee county, and over which the waters of Allen's creek are precipitated in Le Roy, and rises wit i an ascent not exceeding ten or twelve feet to the mile, to the ledge over which the Genesee river falls, at Portageville.
There are no mountain ridges in the county, and the declivity of the land is but just sufficient to drain it.
Rivers. The Genesee river fornis the southeastern boundary of the county, for a distance of nearly twenty miles, and in its fall over the ledge, at Genesee falls, furnishes a valuable hy
The other principal streams of the county are Allen's creek, (named from the ferocious villain known, for many years, in this region, as Indian Allen,) Tonawanda, Cayuga, Seneca, Wiskoy, and Nunskoy creeks.
LAKE. Silver lake, ying partly in Perry and partly in Castile, is a beautiful little sheet of water, five eighths of a mile wide, and three miles long, elevated several hundred feet above the Genesee river.
The CLIMATE is generally salubrious. The prevailing diseases are of a bilious type.
GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. The county lies almost entirely within the bounds of the Erie gruup. In the north the Ludlowville shales predominate. In the south the Chemung sandstone is the prevailing rock.
Carbonate of lime, crystallized in fantastic and sometimes beautiful forms.* sulphate of lime, or gypsum, and iron pyrites are abundant. There is some sulphate of barytes, and small seams of anthracite, but, as might be expected in the geological formation of this section, in too small quantities to be of any practical value.
The fossils are mainly vegetable, consisting mostly of fucoides, or mosses. There are also, in some portions of the county, fossil shells, but not in great variety.
SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. The soil is generally fertile, particularly along the Genesee valley. The forest trees of this county are, in the north part, the beech, maple, hemlock and elm, with some oak. In the southern portion, pine, basswood and ash.
The principal crops are oats, wheat, potatoes, corn, flax, barley, peas and buckwheat.
Among the most singular of these forms are masses, weighing from ten to three hundred pounds, bearing a striking resemblance, in form, to the turtle. Their homogeneous structure, and some peculiarities in their form, preclude the sup. position that they are fossil animal remains.
PURSUITS. Agriculture is the principal pursuit. The eastern and northern towns are largely engaged in the culture of grain, particularly wheat and oats. The southern towns are better adapted to grazing.
Manufactures are increasing in the county, but as yet are in their infancy. Flour, leather, lumber, pot and pearl ashes, and woollen goods are the principal articles. The entire value of the goods manufactured in the county, in 1845, was estimated at $412,000.
There are no mines or quarries, of importance, in the county.
The Genesee river canal, affords a convenient mode of transportation for the produce of the eastern towns of the county.
STAPLE PRODUCTIONS. Oats, wheat, potatoes, butter, cheese, wool, beef, pork and lumber.
Schools. There were, in 1846, 198 district schools, in this county. The average amount of instruction given in these was eight months. 20,479 volumes were reported in the district school libraries; and $12,946 was the amount paid for the instructi, of 11,517 children.
There were also eight private and select schools, with 220 pupils, in the county, and three incorporated seminaries, with 132 students.
RELIGIOUS ENO INATIONS. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Co gregationalists, Universalists, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics and Dutch Reformed. There are in the county fiftyfour churches and sixty-four clergymen, of all denominations.
History. The first settler in this county was Mr. Elizur Webster, who removed from New England, and settled in the present town of Warsaw, in 1803. Eis daughter, (now the wise of Hon. A. W. Young of this county,) was the first child born in the county. Many of the early settlers were from Washington and the adjacent counties in Vermont. These generally settled in the vicinity of Warsaw.
As a part of the Genesee valley, its fertility attracted a host of emigrants to its borders, and though the youngest county in the state in its organization, it occupies a middle rank in population.
Much of the land was formerly owned by the Holland Land Company, but it has, within a few years been very generally purchased by actual settlers.
The Gardeau tract, or flats, was a tract of about 10,000 acres, lying on the Genesee river, partly in the town of Castile, which the Indians reserved in a treaty with Robert Morris, in 1797, as a gift to the Seneca white woman, Mary Jemison.*
This extraordinary woman was a native of Ireland, and was taken prisoner by the Indians, when a child twelve or thirteen years of age. She was adopted by an Indian fainily, and embraced the Indian faith, habits and customs. She was
Wyoming county formed part of Genesee county, till 1841, when it was organized as a separate county, and, in 1846 the towns of agle and Pike, and that portion of Portage lying west of Genesee river, wer taken from Allegany county and an nexed to it. The lås town received the name of Genesee Falls.
VILLAGES, &c. WARSAW, ul.e county seat, in the town of the same name, nas stled by emigrants from New England, who were highly intelligent and religious, and to this day it is characterized by the intelligence and morality of its inhabitants. It is situated in the midst of a fine agricultural district, and has some manufactures. The first church edifice erected west of the Genesee river, was a tanding in Warsaw a few years since. Popu a 01 00.
Perry is a thriving and ! usy town, considerably engaged in manufactures. T ere ar two villages in the town, Perry and Perry Centre. here is an academy at Pers', of some note, and a number of manufacturing establishments. Population 1200.
At Perry Centre a literary institution, called the Perry Centre Institute, has recently been established.
Middlebury has a flourishing academy, incorporated in 1817, located in the village of Wyoming, which is situate in a pleasant valley, has a population of about 600.
Genesee Falls, in the town of the same name, formerly called Por geville, is situated at the falls of the Genesee river, one of the ost romantic and interesting locations in western New York. In the space of two u iles there are three distinct falls, of 60, 90, and 110 feet, each possessing beauties of a character peculiar to itself. The banks of the river tower up in stupendous perpendicular walls, more than 400 feet in height, and are crowned with gigantic evergreens, which, from their venerable appearance, seem to have maintained their position for ages.
Notwithstanding the immense depth to which the bed of the river has been worn, its turns are short and graceful, giving the admiring visitor new, though limited views, at every stage of his progress.
In June, 1817, a land slide of about fifteen acres took place from the side of a hill in this town, into the river, which for some time completely dammed it, leaving a perpendicular bank more than 100 feet in height.
The hydraulic power furnished by the falls of the Genesee, is improved to a considerable extent. Population 800. married twice to Indian chiefs, and died in September, 1833, at the age of ninety or ninety.one years. Since her death, most of her extensive property has been sold by her heirs.
The following Tables compiled with great care, from the state census of 1845, and other authentic sources,
Oats. wheat. Barley
260,190 31,144 101,140 503,134 61,995 38,132
81,388 37,049 172,713 331,425 75,019 1,032
Beans. Potatoes. Turnips.
6,518 19,622 1,981 623,844 25,459 9,250
22,384 943 166, 162 6,287 50,812
190,364 5,888 230,781 517,789 24,445 229,606 31,312 2,063 393,989 7,399 42,232|
187,905 1,841 72,191
301 25 6,085) 6001
30 332 173,018 24,623 15,350
213,703 236,743 8,528 16,872| 45,589 3,001 276,433 11,119 13,681
3,497 541,737 25,529 57,034
62 318 74,430 24,506 2,832
272 44,230 7,559 100
33 49 59,080 6,2071 863