« ПретходнаНастави »
Boblink, or Ricebird. SPipnated grouse,
Family 7. Phalaropodid. Family 17. Fringillida. or Heath hen, prairie hen,Red Phalarope, Finches.
Spruce grouse. Blue Grosbeak,
Hyperborean lobefoot, or
Order IV. GRALLÆ.
Wilson's Holopode. Fox colored sparrow,
Order V. LOBIPEDES. Bay winged,
Family 1. Charadridæ. for grassbird,
(Lobe footed birds.) White throated
American ring plover,
Family 1. Podicipide.
Coot or Dipper tribe.
American coot, Yellow winged
Horned grebe or dipper,
Dipper or pied dobchick. Tree bunting,
American oyster catcher. Savannah
Family 2. Gruidæ. Blue striped "
Order VI. NATATORES. Seaside finch,
Family 1, Alcido.
or Marre, Lesser redpole,
Colymbida. Chewink or
Great loon or diver,
Family 3. Tantalidæ.
Red throated loon
Family 3. Procellarida.
SLarge shearwater, or
Family 4. Scolopacidæ,
Puttin, Horned lark,
SWilson's Petrel, or
Mother Carey's chicken,
Fork tailed Petrel.
Family 4. Pelicanida.
Double crested cormorant,
Family 5. Laridcc.
Great black backed gull,
Common American Carolina turtle dove.
S Three toed
or Family 5. Rallidæ. Family 1. Phasianida.
Arctic hawk gull,
Family 6. Anatide. cated.
Goose and Duck tribes. New York rail, Peacock,
Butt breasted shelldrake,
Creek Common partridge,
American Avoset. Ruffed grouse,
Broad billed coot, or
American widgeon, or
Class III. Reptiles.
1st, Chelonia. The turtle tribe. Among the animals belonging to this order are the green turtle, which, though a native of warm climates, occasionally makes its appearance in the waters of New York bay, and Long Island sound; the leather turtle, a gigantic species; the soft shell turtle found in the Mohawk, and in the lakes; the snapping turtle; the salt water terrapin, or mud turtle; the smooth terrapin, which resembles the preceding in its appearance and habits; the painted tortoise ; the spotted tortoise or speckled turtle; the wood or fresh water terrapin; the red bellied terrapin; Muhlenburg's tortoise; the geographic, and the pseudo-geographic tortoise, both distinguished by the geometric lines upon their shells; the mud tortoise, found only in the southern counties; the musk tortoise, also called mud turtle, and mud terrapin; the cominon box, or checkered, tortoise, also called box turtle ; and Blanding's box tortoise.
2d, Sauria. The lizard tribe. There are but two species of this tribe, known to exist in this state, viz. the blue tailed skink or lizard, called also the striped lizard, found in the southern counties; and the brown swift, frequenting the woods, in every part of the state.
3d, Ophidia. The serpent tribe. Most of these are harmless, only two species being venomous.
Of the harmless species, we have the common black snake, from three to six feet long; the pilot black snake, or racer, found in the Highlands and Fishkill mountains; the chain snake, also called racer; the milk or chicken snake, also called house snake, checkered adder,
the striped snake; the ring snake, black and red, small; the grass or green snake; the brown water snake, or water adder-this snake has its tail tipped with horn, and is frequently regarded with dread, but without cause; the striped water, green water, or water garter snake; the yellow bellied snake; the small brown snake: the ribbon snake; the red snake, very small, and found under stones and logs; the hog nosed snake, called also deaf adder, spreading adder, &c
The two venomous species are, the copper head, called also red adder, dumb rattlesnake, red viper, &c.; and the northern rattlesnake. The popular belief that the latter add a new rattle every year is erroneous. Instances have been known where there were forty-four of these fibulæ or rattles on the tail of a single snake, and that not of a very large size. They are found abundantly, in the rocky and unsettled portions of the state. The deer and the hog destroy them rapidly—the latter eating them.
Class IV. Amphibia. Animals living both on the land, and in the water. There are but four families of amphibia, in the state.
1st, Ranide. The frog tribe. The following are all the species of this family in the state: The common bull frog; the large northern bull frog, found in lakes George and Champlain, and their tributaries ; the spring frog, the kind most usually eaten; the marsh or pickerel frog, used for bait, and called also, from its spots, tiger, and leopard frog ; the shad frog, which makes its appearance in the early spring; the wood frog, a very nimble animal; the hermit spadefoot, a singular animal, between a frog and a toad; the common American toad, a harmless and useful animal ; Pickering's hylodes, a very small toad; the peeper or cricket frog, called in Savannah, the Savannah cricket; the northern, or common tree toad; and the squirrel tree toad.
2d, Salamandride. The salamander tribe. These are usually, though incorrectly, called lizards. Among them are the yellow bellied salamander; the violet colored, the red backed, the painted, the salmon colored, the blotched, the long tailed, the granulated, the striped back, the red, the scarlet, and the blue spotted salamander.
3d, Sirenide. The triton tribe. Of these we have the tiger triton, with a tongue like a fish; the common spotted; the dusky, and the grey triton.
4th, Amphiumide. The proteus tribe. The banded proteus, or great water lizard, a very singular animal, having the body of a lizard, and the gills of a fish; and the Alleghany hell-bender, another curious amphibious animal, very voracious, and from 12 to 24 inches in length, are the only species of this family in New York.
Class V. Fishes. The fishes, belonging to the state, are very numerous. Fishes are divided into two sub-classes, BONY and CARTILAGIN
The first sub-class has six orders, viz. 1st, Pectinibranchi, having gills arranged regularly, like the teeth of a comb. This order embraces many of our common fish, both in fresh and salt water. Those best known are the perch, bass, bullhead, sheepshead, porgee, pilot fish, mullet, black fish or tautaug, cunner, sucker, mackerel, &c. &c. In all the fishes belonging to this order the rays of the fin are bony. The same arrangement of the gills occurs in the three succeeding orders.
2d, Abdominal, those having belly fins and ventrals. This order includes the shad, herring, salmon, trout, catfish, pipe fish, dace, shiner, carp, pike, pickerel, minnow, &c.
This, and the four succeeding orders, have soft rayed fins.
3d, Jugular, having shoulder fins, and ventrals attached to the bones of the shoulder. It includes the cod, haddock, hake, halibut, flatfish, flounder, turbot, sole, lumpfish, &c.
4th, Apodal, without fins. This order includes the eel and conger.
5th, Lophobranchi, those having tufted gills. This order is small, comprising two species of pipe fish and the Hudson river sea horse.
6th, Plectognathi, those having the gills concealed under the
skin. The balloon fish, puffer, and globe fish are examples of this order.
Sub-class II. CARTILAGINOUS Fishes. These are divided into three orders, viz. 1st. Eleutheropomi, those having free gills.
This order is represented in the state only by the sturgeon.
2d, Plagiostoma, those having the gills attached. This includes the shark and ray tribes.
3d, Cyclostomi, those having circular openings on each side of the neck for respiration. This includes the lamprey, frequently called lamper eel.
Fossil FISHES. Twenty-five species of these have been enumerated by the Messrs. Redfield. A number of them are extinct species.
The following catalogue contains the names of all the fishes as yet discovered in the waters of this state:
Sub-class I. Bony Fishes.
Hair finned blepharis, or (Spine rayed.)
Family 3. Scienidæ. Hair finned dory,
Blunt nosed shiner, or
Bottle headed dolphin,
Long finned harvest fish,
Family 7. Teuthida. Black Huron or black bass, Speckled redmouth,
Yellow finned “
Family 8. Atherinidæ.
Slender Tesselate darter,
Black triple tail. Groper,
Family 4. Sparidæ.
Family 9. Mugilide.
Mullet family. Black sea bass,
Porgee family. Growler, Sheepshead,
Rock Black do.
Family 10. Gobidæ.
Family 5. Chetodontide. Sea weed blenny,
Three tailed porgee,
Six banded chasmodes,
American butter fish,
Thick lipped eel pout,
Family 11. Lophide.
Toad fish family.
Gibbous mouse tish,
Silvery hair tail, or Short nosed malthea,
Common toad fish, 8mall sea scorpion, Northern crab-eater,
Two spined toad fish. Spotted Carolina lichia,
Family 12. Labridæ. Northern sebastes, Silvery trachinote,
SCommon bergall, or Little star gazer,
Cunner, American Aspidophore, Spinous dory,
do. Spotted wrymouth, Black pilot,
New York tautaug, or Two spined stickleback, Southern caranx,
Black fish. New York
Order it. ÅBBONINAL. Spotted pipe fish,
Rusty flat fish, (Soft rayed fishes.)
Family 5. Salmonidæ. Toothed,
Salmon Family, Oblong Flounder,
Long toothed "
New York sole.
Family 3. Cyclopterida,
Family 4. Echineide.
White tailed remora,
Family 1. Anguillida: New York chubsucker, Striped
American Alewife, New York ophidium; Pale
Mossbonker, Mullet Autumnal Herring,
American sand launce,
Order V. LOPHOBRANCHI, Black nosed dace,
River moon-eye, pawn cater, Lake
Family 1. Syngnathida.
Banded pipe fish,
Family 7. Sauride.
Hudson river sea horse. Black beaded "
Buffalo bony pike,
Order VI. PLÉCTOGNATH),
Order III. JUGULAR. Family 1. Chymnodontidæ. Corporaalen,
Balloon fish family. Sheepshead lebias,
Family 1. Gadida. Spot.striped balloon fish, Striped killifish;
Small globe fish,
Bhort head fish,
Family 2. Balistido, Common pickerel, New York Pollacks
File fish family.
Long tailed unicorn fish; Single bearded
Family 2. Planidæ. Dusky balistes. Double
Flatfish family. Family 3. 08tradeonida. Family 4. Fistularidæ. Halibut,
Sub-class II. Cartilaginous Fishes.
Broad sting ray:
Common saw fish.
Family 2. Raiado.
American sea lamprey, Threshing shark,
Colored mud lamprey,