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continue to be dissatisfied with the propositions of Great Britain, Mr. Stratford Canning was to be at liberty to agree to an article stipulating to negotiate hereafter respecting the territorial limits; but Mr. Canning considered it essential that Russia should in some way repeal “ Her “ unjustifiable arrogation of exclusive jurisdic“ tion over an Ocean of unmeasured extent;" which if the Russian Government would not do, then Great Britain would resort to some mode of recording in the face of the world Her protest, against the pretensions of the Ukase of 1821, and of effectually securing Her own interests against the possibility of its future operations.

For such protest, however, there was fortunately no occasion. On the 28th of February 1825, Mr. Stratford Canning signed with the Russian Plenipotentiaries a Convention, of which the following is the outline.

The first two Articles were in every respect similar to the first two, already described, as being in the convention between Russia and the United States. The third, laid down the line of demarcation, which was to commence from the Southernmost point of Prince of Wales's Island in 54° 40' N. latitude, between the 131st and 133d degree of W. longitude, and to ascend to the North along Portland channel, as far as the point of the Continent where it would strike the 56th degree of N. latitude; thence it was to

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follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the Coast, as far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree of w. longitude, and thence along that meridian line was to be prolonged to the Frozen Ocean.

The 4th Article, explained the third, as giving the whole of Prince of Wales's Island to Russia; and when the summit of the mountains should exceed ten marine leagues from the Coast, then the boundary was to be formed by a line, drawn parallel to the windings of the Coast at the distance of ten marine leagues.

The 5th Article bound the two contracting Parties not to form establishments within the limits respectively assigned to the possessions of the other.

The 6th gave to Great Britain the privilege of navigating freely all the rivers and streams which in their course towards the Pacifick, might cross the strip of land on the Coast assigned to Russia.

The 7th mutually conceded the right of trading with the respective possessions of each other for a period of ten years.

The 8th opened the port of Sitka to the commerce and vessels of British subjects for the same period, and provided that in case an extension of the term be granted to any other Power, the same extension should be granted to Great Britain.

The four remaining Articles regulate some minor points which are not of sufficient importance to be detailed.

By this Convention Great Britain secured for Herself, as far as Russia was concerned, all that was important for Her commercial interests.

The question with the United States had during the whole period of these negotiations been made the subject-matter of elaborate discussion between the respective Plenipotentiaries of the two Powers. The negotiators, however, did not succeed in arriving at any practical result, and the matter was left unsettled. But the period (1828) approaching, when the provisions of the Convention of 1818, were to cease and determine, it became necessary to arrange something; and accordingly a new Convention was signed in London, in August 1827, indefinitely extending and continuing in force the Convention of 1818, each party being at liberty to put an end to such indefinite extension, by giving due notice of twelve months of their wish to abrogate the stipulations of the new one.

The details of these discussions with the United States are for obvious reasons omitted. Nevertheless, one circumstance which occurred in the course of them it is right to mention.

The Plenipotentiary of the United States reasserted the extravagant principle already mentioned as put forth by the President, that no part of the American Continent was thenceforward to be open to colonization from Europe.

The truth and justness of this principle the British Plenipotentiaries utterly denied; and they recorded their denial in the Protocol of the same Conference, in which this principle had been insisted upon by the United States.

CHAP. XV.

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WESTERN EUROPE. STATE OF SPAIN. DIPLOMATICK

TRANSACTIONS WITH THE COURT OF MADRID CUBA. CHANGE OF MINISTRY. SIR CHARLES STUART'S PROCEEDINGS AT RIO DE JANEIRO. DEATH OF THE KING OF PORTUGAL. GRANT OF A CONSTITUTIONAL CHARTER BY DON PEDRO.

ITS RECEPTION IN PORTUGAL, AND IN EUROPE. INVASION OF PORTUGAL FROM SPAIN. BRITISH TROOPS SENT TO PORTUGAL. MR. CANNING'S SPEECH ON THAT OCCASION, AND ITS EFFECTS. CONDITION OF PORTUGAL AT MR. CANNING'S DEATH.

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We must now return to the affairs of Western Europe, and in the first place to those of Spain, the condition of which country at the close of 1824 was not the least improved from what it was at the end of the preceding year.

It has been already mentioned that on the death of M. Casa Irujo, who succeeded the Duque del Infantado, that the Condé d'Ofalia, who wished to act moderately, was placed at the

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