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the Cabinet of the Regent was reduced to three Members, each holding two Departments.

During these last few months the change of the Government in England prevented Mr. Canning from giving much of his attention to the affairs of Portugal. When Parliament was prorogued, those of Greece were the more pressing of the two So soon, however, as the Greek treaty of July was arranged Mr. Canning turned his mind to Portugal. The particular object of his policy with respect to that Country had always been to preserve an influence with its Government, and thereby to ameliorate its internal condition. He found Great Britain bound to Portugal by the closest ties of defensive alliance, and commercial stipulation, so that British interests were deeply involved in those of Portugal. So long, therefore, as these treaties were in force, it was matter of direct concern to us that the Portugese Government should neither be under the influence of any other Nation, nor in itself indisposed to British connexion.

Since then the established Constitutional Government was acknowledged to be the legitimate Government of the Country, Mr. Canning considered that Great Britain had a right to exert Her influence in preventing its subversion by Don Miguel, who, together with his partizans, notoriously cherished towards this country an inveterate hatred.

To avert this consummation without active interference was a task of some difficulty. Nevertheless, since the Infant could not obtain absolute power without a flagrant violation both of the Constitution, to which he had sworn, and the fundamental laws of the Monarchy, Mr. Canning looked with confidence to the preservation of the then established order of things, provided only that there was steadily bestowed on its support the moral countenance of the British Government. For this end it was necessary to resolve some of the complications which then existed ; the most important of which arose, first from the separation from Brazil never having been completed, and the inclination manifested by Don Pedro to retain his hold by delaying his abdication. Secondly, by the partizans of Don Miguel and some of the European Powers maintaining that he had a right to the Regency in the ensuing October, when His Royal Highness would attain the age of twenty-five.

For the solution of these difficulties the first thing which Mr. Canning considered essential was the final separation of Portugal from Brazil, in compliance with the stipulations of the treaty of independence which had been negotiated under the auspices of Great Britain.' Till that question was settled it was impossible to decide the question of the Regency. The publick acts of Portugal all ran in the name of Don Pedro.

The Infanta was Regent, not by virtue of the Charter, but by delegation of Don Pedro; and before Don Miguel could have a right under the Charter to the Regency, it was necessary, not only that he should be twenty-five years old, but that Don Pedro should have abdicated, and his daughter should have been proclaimed Queen ; for Don Miguel's right was founded on there being a minor on the Throne, and until that contingency happened, it was clear he had no legitimate claim. Whenever the time should come when that legitimate claim was fairly established, Mr. Canning had no wish to interpose any obstacles to the assumption of the Regency by Don Miguel, “provided sufficient guarantees could be “ obtained for his performance of the conditions “ on which alone he would be entitled to enjoy " it."

The weakness arising from the uncertainty respecting the Regency was the main cause of all the embarrassments in which the question was involved; but the first step essential to terminating that uncertainty was, the completion of the separation between the two Countries and the Crown of Portugal being placed on the head of the young Princess. To obtain this complete separation England, from the part which she took in the negotiation of the treaty, had a right actively to interfere. But before she took any decided steps, Mr. Canning thought it would be

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right to wait for intelligence from Rio, as to the measures which the Emperor would take when he learnt that Don Miguel had positively declined to undertake thé voyage to Brazil.

Such were Mr. Canning's views with respect to Portugal at the period of his death. The last state paper which he composed related to this subject.

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INSTRUCTIONS TO MR. STRATFORD CANNING. COMMUNICATIONS WITH FRANCE, AUSTRIA, AND PRUSSIA. REJECTION BY THE PORTE OF MR. STRATFORD CANNING'S OVERTURE. SUCCESS OF THE TURKS IN GREECE. GREEK TREATY AND SECRET

ARTICLE. INSTRUCTIONS TO THE AMBASSADORS AT
CONSTANTINOPLE, AND TO THE COMMANDERS OF THE
ALLIED SQUADRONS IN THE LEVANT. MR. CAN-
NING's SYSTEM OF POLICY.

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Before resuming the history of the steps which were taken with reference to the Protocol on Greek affairs, signed at St. Petersburgh on the 4th of April by the Duke of Wellington, it may be well briefly to recall to the mind of the reader, the principles, by which up to this period Mr. Canning's policy had been guided, in the course of this very difficult, and intricate question.

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