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THE COMMONWEALTH AT WAR

BY THE SAME AUTHOR. THE WAR: ITS HISTORY AND MORALS. 8vo,

paper covers, 6d. net. HENRY VIII. Crown 8vo, 5s. net. THE REIGN OF HENRY VII. FROM CONTEM

PORARY SOURCES. Selected and Arranged with an Introduction. Crown 8vo, ios. 6d. net each. Vol. I. Narrative Extracts. Vol. II. Constitutional, Social, and Economic History. Vol. III. Diplomacy, Ecclesiastical Affairs, and Ireland. FROM THE ACCESSION OF EDWARD VI. TO

THE DEATH OF ELIZABETH (1547-1603). 85. net. (The Political History of England, Vol. VI.)

LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO., LONDON, NEW YORK, BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, AND MADRAS.

AT WAR

BY

A. F. POLLARD, M.A., Litt.D.

FELLOW OF ALL SOULS AND PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH HISTORY IN THE

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
FOURTH AVENUE & 30TH STREET, NEW YORK

BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, AND MADRAS

1917

PREFACE.

Half of the following essays have been published as leading articles in “ The Times ” Literary Supplement, and of the remainder most have appeared in the “ Yale Review," the “ Contemporary Review,” the “ Westminster Gazette,” and “ History”; and I am indebted to the proprietors of these various periodicals for permission to reprint these papers. Their republication may serve to illustrate, among other things, that deceitfulness of human wishes and fallibility of human judgment which a great crisis inevitably enhances. But the history of erroneous opinion is an integral part of history; and the future historian of the great war will make little of its history if he confines his attention to actions, and ignores the public and private opinion which impeded or inspired them. Conventional history limits itself too much to what men and nations have done, and takes too little account of what they hoped to do and thought they were doing. For deeds and thoughts react upon one another and together make up the human factor in human affairs.

It is in the hope of assisting the study of history that these essays are reproduced in a more permanent and accessible form than those in which they first appeared ; and the value of contemporary history is

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