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among the great public, whose support means so much for the aims and aspirations of trade unionism.
The exhibit that is traveling from city to city in the east is also well fulfilling its mission. At local tuberculosis exhibits it has been one of the star attractions and has received praiseworthy comment in the daily press. It is now at one of three great summer resorts, Asbury Park, Ocean Grove and Atlantic City, and will also be exhibited at the other two, and will be viewed by hundreds of thousands of people. The model tent and appurtenances that were used at Washington and are now part of the exhibit of the National Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis have been pictured in several weeklies and in the monthly magazines. Our active association with the national campaign against tuberculosis has not only been of assistance in that campaign, but has been of tremendous value to our international organization as such.
there will shortly be speedy betterment. As I have said in several reports, and repeatedly in addresses to our local unions, "What profit is it to the membership that they have high scales, if the condi. tions under which they work produce disease and early death?"
Committee Not Appointed. At the Boston convention the New York delega. tion recommended the following resolution:
Resolved, That in view of the excessive mortality among the members of the International Typographical Union from tuberculosis, due almost solely to lack of proper safeguards in their places of employment and insufficient legislation, both national and state, the president of the International Typographical Union be requested to appoint a special committee, to be known as the committee on healthful working conditions, such committee to consider and report upon methods of prevent. ing the spread of tuberculosis among printers; to obtain competent medical advice as to what stages of incipient pulmonary tuberculosis are most susceptible to successful treatment at the Union Printers Home at Colorado Springs, Colo., and to make recommendations thereon; to endeavor to
uniform sanitation and ventilation laws throughout North America; to promote the establishment of local committees on the prevention of tuberculosis by subordinate unions, and to enlist the co-operation of employers' associations and health and labor departments.
The foregoing resolution amended by changing the name of the committee from "committee on healthful working conditions” to "committee on promotion of health.” The president of the International Typographical Union as not appointed the committee designated, inasmuch as it can be conclusively demonstrated that the appoint. ment of such a committee would simply add to the expense of conducting the International Typographical Union without in any way increasing the results accruing in our campaign for the pro. motion of health. The International officers are continually considering and reporting upon methods for the prevention of the spread of tuberculosis among printers; medical journals are watched for articles on the subject. It is a well-known fact that our members afflicted with tuberculosis should go to the Union Printers Home, if successful treatment is to follow, in the first stages of the disease. Our campaign for uniform sanitation and ventilation of composing rooms is bringing better results than any special laws on the subject could secure.
If we go into the business of attempting to bring about the enactment of laws for special application to composing rooms, then we will meet with the united resistance of publishers' associations and master printers' associations, and friction and ill feeling will inevitably result. As it is
present, we act through local unions, and our continual agitation for better sanitary conditions, better working conditions and better ventila. tion is producing results in every new composing room that is being constructed.
Nearly every convention directs the appointment of some special committee to handle work that is properly the function of the International officers,
of the International executive council. In most instances where these committees have been appointed the work has gone backward instead of
Convincing Because Apparent. The great national campaign against tuberculosis has opened the eyes of countless thousands of our fellow citizens, for the reason that the exhibi. tions conducted by national, state and city associa. tions have given ample demonstration of the ravages of the great white plague. Our participation in these exhibits has been of value in the general movement, and has also interested our members in the necessity for intelligent study of the prevent. ive methods that can and should be made effective, and the application of these methods to composing
We are gradually creating a healthy senti. ment that is reaching the employer and is causing him to remodel and rearrange his composing room, and when constructing a new composing room to see that it is sanitary and well arranged, according to the latest and most approved standards. If we can not bring the employer to this way of thinking and acting in any other manner, we can impress on him that it is to his financial interest to supply commodious and well-arranged working quarters. If the employer will not even then take an interest, and will not eliminate features of his composing room that rival the worst conditions in military prisons established in war time-conditions so horrible to contemplate and so terrible in their effect that they constitute a crime against humanity--then our unions will be justified in making particular scales for these exceptionally unhealthful composing rooms-scales materially higher than those that apply to the modern, healthful and up-to-date composing room. If the employer can not be reached through a sense of decency, through a sense of conservation of his own best interests, through the impress on him of the duty that he owes his workmen, because he believes the financial outlay can be avoided and that his men can be driven to produce results notwithstanding their surroundings, then this type of master printer can be affected in the way describedthrough an increased scale to apply to his composing room alone, or to all composing rooms in like class. Our membership can then rest assured that
progressing, and in the end the committees have been discharged and their duties referred to the executive council, where they should have gone in the first place. It was believed by the International president that the appointment of a mittee for the promotion of health, as mended at the Boston convention, would be a case of history repeating itself, and, therefore, he submits his action in failing to appoint the committee to the St. Joseph convention for approval or disapproval, as the convention may see fit.
A Valuable Pamphlet. Thousands and thousands of copies of a pamphlet entitled “International Typographical Union: Its Battle Against Tuberculosis. Measures Made Effective by a Great Trade Union in the General Crusade Against the White Plague–The Product of the Press a Most Effective Agent in Furthering the Reform" have been distributed at tuberculosis exhibits and other places where such literature was appropriate. Copies of this pamphlet are being distributed at the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle, and we will continue to circulate it so long as its effectiveness is apparent. It certainly has produced good results for the International Typographical Union thus far. The of. ficial magazine from time to time contains articles relative to tuberculosis, one notable and recent instance occurring in the May issue, where, on page 520, under the caption, "Tuberculosis Treatment at the Home,” the Home physician sets forth the mode of treatment at our magnificent institution in Colorado Springs.
to hand. Replying thereto, I am pleased to state that President Roosevelt signed the new copyright bill, and the same is now a law.
It is certainly surprising that the bill passed by the last congress, for it had not been introduced until within a day or two before the end of the session. It had to pass the house under suspension of the rules, and it did not make its appearance in the senate until the second last day before adjournment. We have in the new bill
extensive and practical manufacturing clause covering virtually all the workers in the printing industry. This clause now includes typog. raphers, stereotypers, pressmen, bookbinders. lithographers and photo-engravers, and the affidavit feature over which such bitter contention raised by publishers and authors, and which originally was only intended to apply to the typeset. ting and plate-making features of the book, has been extended and now applies equally to the pressmen, bookbinders, lithographers and photoengravers.
As the representative solely of the International Typographical Union, and with authority only to speak for the typographers, I have always sought to conduct my efforts on the broadest fraternal lines, and have endeavored, while securing legisla. tion for my own craftsmen, to secure legislation also for all the workers in the printing industry and allied trades.
The old law was practically worthless so far as the manufacturing clause was concerned, and the affidavit feature which had been added alone makes it practical and of great value.
The legislation now on the statute books has not been secured without great effort and considerable expense. For seventeen years the International Typographical Union has taken an active part in copyright legislation, and to that great organization alone is due the credit for the practical, thor. ough and effective protection which today covers the interests of all the trades included in the manufacturing clause of the law; and that organi. zation alone is the only labor body that has paid a dollar of the great expense incidental to securing this legislation. The bookbinders, pressmen, stereotypers and photo-engravers have expressed their appreciation of these efforts on the part of the International Typographical Union representatives, and I am enclosing herewith a letter from the president of the latter organization, expressing his appreciation of my efforts in protecting the interests of his craftsmen, while, as you know, the bookbinders have publicly thanked me in their official publication. I also enclose herewith copies of letters received from Senator Smoot and Representative Currier, as well as copies of letters forwarded by me to them, and both these gentlemen are deserving of the thanks of all the workers in the printing industry, for their resolute stand on the manufacturing clause of the law in the face of persistent and powerful opposition.
I believe the new bill is a fair, just and practi. cal measure covering the interests of all entitled to copyright protection; and I hope it will prove satisfactory to all concerned, and that the benefits expected from its faithful execution will be fully realized.
In conclusion, I wish to say that I have labored hard and watched unceasingly to see this legislation secured, as I realized its full importance, and the only reward that I ask or hope for is the knowledge that my constant efforts are appreciated by my own craft, as well as by all those for whom I have sought to secure protection.
I will see Senator Smoot in a day or two. Fraternally,
J. J. SULLIVAN, Copyright Representative, International Typograph
In a letter received by Mr. Sullivan from Senator Smoot the latter says: “I hope this copyright act will be unanimously approved by the interests which you represent."
Representative Currier, in a letter to Mr. Sullivan,
says: “I desire to avail myself of this
A SATISFACTORY COPYRIGHT LAW.
For years the International Typographical Union, through a copyright committee, and later through a copyright representative, has worked for the passage of a copyright law that would protect our interests. We were directly concerned in the manufacturing clause of the law. Repeatedly the hearings on the copyright bill, and the consideration of the bill by the congressional committees, have proceeded to the point where it was expected that the bill would be reported favorably and passed, but each time some new interestsome dissatisfied interest--has prevented action on a plea for further time. During the closing hours of the last congress Representative Currier, chairman of the house committee on patents, called up the copyright bill in the house and secured its passage under suspension of the rules. Senator Smoot, chairman of the committee on patents for the senate, took similar action; the bill was passed by the senate, was signed later by President Roosevelt, and will be a law on July 1.
Appended hereto is the official report of J. J. Sullivan, copyright representative of the International Typographical Union, which further explains:
WASHINGTON, D. C., March 14, 1909. Mr. James M. Lynch, President International
Typographical Union, Indianapolis, Ind. :
by the army of inspectors. Those regulations which have succeeded in keeping “millions of copies out of the mails" (vide departmental reports) did not escape the attention of the dele. gates, who reprobated the action. Hereafter those who are administering postal affairs will hear from labor if, in order to work out a pet theory, they deprive men of employment. Above all other de. partments, that of the postoffice belongs to and is in close touch with the masses, and we should not allow its usefulness to be impaired by false notions as to its functions. Any legislative or bureaucratic regulation that makes it more difficult or more expensive to send printed matter through the mails should be resisted by all the people, and more especially by those of small incomes, who appear to have been overlooked at Washington. In persistently keeping an eye on this department, and dragging its legislation and actions into the light of day, members of the typographical union are performing a public service.
ORGANIZERS AND THEIR WORK.
opportunity to say that you have been of material aid to the committee, and certainly have been of invaluable aid to the members of the typographical union."
President Woll, of the International PhotoEngravers' Union, in a letter written some time ago to Mr. Sullivan, expressed the thanks of his organization for the consideration shown in the protection of the interests of the photo-engravers in the copyright act.
Writing Representative Currier in reply to his courteous note, Mr. Sullivan said:
As the representative of the union printers of the United States on copyright legislation, I am exceedingly grateful for the passage by congress on the third of March of the new copyright bill, which has been for so long a period under consideration, and which I believe and hope will prove satisfactory to all concerned. I also appreciate how steadfastly yourself and the members of your committee guarded the interests of the union printers in the United States, as well as the interests of the other allied crafts of the printing industry; and, while I can not speak officially for any craft but the typographers, I feel that I am but expressing the thanks of all concerned in tendering you those of my own organization. I believe that the new bill is a fair, generous and practical measure, covering the interests of all entitled to copyright protection.
The so-called manufacturing clause provides, among other requirements, as follows:
That of the printed book or periodical specified in section 5, subsections (a) and (b) of this act, except the original text of a book of foreign origin in a language or languages other than English, the text of all copies accorded protection under this act, except as below provided, shall be printed from type set within the limits of the United States, either by hand or by the aid of any kind of type. setting machine, or from plates made within the limits of the United States from type set therein, or, if the text be produced by lithographic process, or photo-engraving process, then by process wholly performed within the limits of the United States, and the printing of the text and binding of the said book shall be performed within the limits of the United States, which requirements shall extend also to the illustrations within a book consist. ing of printed text and illustrations produced by lithographic process, or photo-engraving process, and also to separate lithographs or photo-engravings, except where in either case the subjects represented are located in a foreign country and íl. lustrate a scientific work or reproduce a work of art; but they shall not apply to works in raised characters for the use of the blind, or to books of foreign origin in a language or languages other than English, or to books published abroad in the English language seeking ad interim protection un. der this act.
Naturally, Mr. Sullivan feels quite jubilant over the successful ending of his many years of work in connection with copyright legislation, and in this he is joined by the executive officers of the International Typographical Union, and, we feel sure, by the entire membership.
As a part of the volume containing the annual reports there appear the presentations of the organizers, covering their official duties for the
As has been frequently pointed out, the term “organizer" is considerable of a mis
The organizer does very little organizing. Ninety-nine per cent of his work embraces the negotiation of new scales, or the effort to reclaim non-union offices. It might be much better, and certainly much less misleading, if the term “organ. izer” were changed to "representative," or some other equally appropriate designation. Typographical unions to a large extent are organized by card men working in unorganized localities, or, when the time is ripe, through that desire that springs up in the human breast for closer association through organization in the effort to better trade conditions. At times the services of an organizer are necessary in order to give force and direction to this new-born desire, and when opportunity occurs of this character the organizer is promptly furnished. It remains true, nevertheless, that this work is only a small part of that allotted to the organizer, and that his main duties consist in the negotiation of new scales, the smoothing out of threatened difficulties and the straightening up of non-union offices. The delegates are requested to read the reports made by these painstaking and loyal officials.
It has been the aim of the International president to retain the experienced organizers, believing that in this line of activity, as is true with almost every other avenue of human effort, experience educates the organizers, that the International Typographical Union pays for this education, and that it is part of a business proposition to retain the skilled and highly trained organizers just so long as their services give satisfaction. In this connection it may be well to repeat the observation that was made in the report to the fiftieth session, held at St. Louis in August, 1904:
"It has been
EYE ON POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENT.
The Boston convention adopted resolutions which showed it had its eye on the postoffice department. The committee on press voiced the protest against the tendency to interfere with the free. dom of the press, which is being encroached on
In the report of the executive council, the organi. zation work in Cuba is also discussed.
Organization Work in Southeast. The Boston convention adopted a resolution urging the executive council to begin at once a move. ment looking to the thorough organization of the craft in the southeast. In accordance with the recommendation, Organizer T. C. Parsons was del. egated to undertake the work outlined, and the re. sults are embraced in the report submitted by that organizer, and which appears as a part of this volume. The work is by no means concluded, and will be kept up so long as the need is felt for an organizer. In
with this particular phase of our activity, it may be well to state that Organizer Parsons, or some other representative, will attend the national convention of the Farmers' Co-operative and Educational Union, which meets in Birmingham in September, as the representative of the International Typographical Union, and will, if permitted, address that convention, which will represent the greatest organization of farmers that modern times have known.
my aim to retain in the service of our International experienced representatives. No removals have been made. In the development of modern industrialism the work of the peacemaker is of supreme importance. Experience fits him for his task, and the more experience the better is the organizer qualified to grapple with the varied and trying problems that are presented to him for solution." I can do no better than to add here a part of my report of last year referring to the work of the organizers: "In this field hundreds of thousands of dollars are saved each year by the organizers. These officials are rarely sent into a jurisdiction until all local effort at adjustment of disputes fails, and in twenty-four cases
out of twenty-five their presence is most earnestly re. quested-yes, demanded by the local union, Let it also be said to the credit of the organizers that in nine cases out of ten they succeed in making settlements that satisfactory to the local unions."
Organization in Cuba. Amended so as to include Mexico, the Boston convention adopted the following resolution proposed by the New York delegation:
“Resolved, That Typographical Union No. 6 heartily recommends to the executive council of the International Typographical Union the appointment of an International organizer for the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico."
Pursuant to the instructions contained in the foregoing resolution, Mr. Armand B. Rodriguez, a Spanish-speaking member of Typographical Union No. 6, and who, it was understood, was instrumental in securing the local endorsement of the resolution proposed by No. 6, was appointed as the Cuban organizer. Mr. Rodriguez has been in Cuba about five months and has organized two typographical unions, one in Havana and one in Santiago de Cuba. At this writing the organizer is in Cienfuegos, but the result of his labors there is not known as yet. At the time this report went to press the total expense of the Cuban mission was $1,064.20. When the resolution was before the Boston convention for adoption on the favorable report of the committee, the International president drew the attention of the delegates to the added expense that would follow the attempt to organize Cuba and pointed out that organizing efforts in the Spanish-speaking countries had not been a success. Despite this experience, the convention adopted the resolution and the organizer was appointed. The proposition is now placed before the St. Joseph convention for further consideration and action if the convention deems wise. It does seem that it will be better to leave such ventures as organizing new territory to the executive council for investigation and determination before the imperative mandate of the convention is issued and the organizing work actually undertaken. In this connection the attention of the delegates is directed to the article appearing on page 720 of the June issue of our official magazine and touching on organization work in Cuba.
The financial condition of the International Typographical Union, together with the receipts and expenditures of the fiscal year, are fully covered in the report of the secretary-treasurer. We are in good shape from a financial standpoint, and the amount of money in our treasury is far in excess of that usually on hand during normal times. When the executive council terminated the eighthour assessment it was estimated that the amount in the treasury would permit the council to carry the contests then on hand and to finance campaigns for the reclamation of unfair offices, until the local unions were in a position to assume these financial burdens. The condition of the treasury today fully justifies the position of the executive council at the time of the elimination of the assessment. We have been enabled to assist local unions in a monetary way, gradually reducing the amount of this special assistance until, in the opinion of the council, and, in many instances, in the opinion of the local unions affected, these locals were able to proceed without further aid. Of course, many of the non-union offices have been reclaimed, as the official magazine has shown from month to month, and the general condition is gratifying and reassuring. There is another phase of the financial proposition, however, that should have careful attention at this time. During the pendency of the eight-hour assessment, local unions with eight-hour difficulties exhausted their local treasuries and then were compelled to depend en. tirely on the International for such money as was needed to finance local contests. It was impossible for these unions in the great majority of cases to raise money by assessment for the reason that the International assessment was so high that the burden was all the membership could stand, and for the further reason that the usual local dues were
inadequate to the emergency. In every instance, where found necessary, the executive council responded when called upon, and there was no diminution in the intensity of the conduct of any local contest, so far as the financial features of these contests were concerned. But this very policy has brought about condition under which local unions, or many of them, still depend to a great extent upon the International treasury and have in many instances failed to make adequate provision for sufficient money with which to properly conduct local business. In some places local dues were reduced, or altogether abolished, during the eight-hour assessment, and while, of course, where abolished these dues have been restored, yet in some cases where dues were reduced they have not been again placed at a figure necessary for local purposes. The very fact that there has been dur. ing the past two years between one and two hundred thousand dollars in the International treasury seems to have been sufficient warrant on the part of some of our local unions to shoulder their financial responsibilities on the International organization.
risk a contest with our International Union. But, it is submitted that the sinews of war can not remain in the war chest if local unions are encour. aged or warranted in shouldering their chief financial burdens, aside from the ordinary running ex. penditures, on the ireacıry of the International Typographical Union. A pronouncement made by the convention would be of aid, and it will be for the benefit of the local unions if their position to. ward the International treasury is distinctly and emphatically outlined at this time, so that the council may know just what it is expected to do and to what local unions are by right entitled. It is not meant by this recommendation that the hands of the council shall be tied in any way from a financial standpoint. It will be much better to leave the executive council free to act and to make appropriations whenever an emergency may arise. But an intimation to our local unions that they themselves must prepare for emergencies before they can expect their sister unions to come to their rescue, will be of value. We have had instances of local unions clamoring for permission to strike when we knew from their financial statements that their treasuries were empty and no preparation had been made. It is better that this condition be uncov. ered at this time, so that a word to the membership may be sufficient to again impress upon them that eternal vigilance is the price of the retention of those betterments and that progress which dur. ing the past five years have been secured at such a great outla of money and such a tremendous amount of personal sacrifice.
Position of the Executive Council.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF OFFICE WORK.
In many applications the council has refused to assume these financial burdens, on the ground that the local unions should provide for them, but the demand has been persistent and repeated on the part of the unions, and in most all the cases the council has been compelled to yield in the end, in order that local dissatisfaction and discouragement might not ensue. In instances where the council has refused special appropriations, the local of. ficers have then placed the refusal before the local union and have pointed to the International treas. ury as the only and chief argument against the council's position. It may be that a centralized treasury would be a good thing for our International organization. However, that is a point that is not up for discussion at this time.
If the executive council, acting for the International Typographical Union, is expected in the future to assume financial responsibilities, such as outlined in this section of the report, then the membership must provide a fund adequate for the increased demands that will be made upon it.
At the pres. ent time local unions are entitled, in case of difficulty, to the regular strike benefits, and that is all. The other moneys that come to the International headquarters are intended for organization work, publicity campaign, maintenance of headquarters, publication of The JOURNAL and such other features as may be deemed necessary to keep our organization well in the forefront of the progress that is being made by like combinations on the industrial field. It will be a distinct menace and calamity if the amount in the International treasury is permitted to drop very much below one hundred thousand dollars. Indeed, it would be the better part of wisdom if provision should be made for automatically replenishing the treasury when it falls below the one-hundred-thou. sand-dollar mark. With sinews of war in the war chest, hostile employers will hesitate before they
During the past year there was issued from the president's department 37,896 official communications, 24,437 circulars and 3,799 packages of label stickers and printed matter relating to label adver. tising and organizing work. This brief statement gives only a bare outline of the work performed. The immense amount of research, care and labor involved in the task must be left to the imagination. Neither does it take into account the president's work in traveling throughout the jurisdiction, services on the National Board of Arbitration and Joint Conference Board, attendance at various conventions and gatherings of interest to organized labor, duties involved in membership on the executive council, and many other features that go with the position and are attended to day after day. For the purpose of comparison, statistics for previous years follow:
During the previous year there was issued from the president's department 30,049 official typewritten letters, 25,118 circulars and 25,054 miscellaneous packages containing blotters, label stickers and other printed matter relating to label advertising and organization work.
During the year ending May 31, 1907, there was issued from the president's department 38,454 of. ficial typewritten letters, 41,303
circulars and 26,419 miscellaneous packages containing blotters, label stickers and other printed matter relating to