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peaceful protestations, would start on the war-path so soon as he arrived upon the plains again, events have proved that those who took the most liberal view of his character were not deceived in him. Although he said little while here to indicate what his thoughts on the subject were, he was undoubtedly impressed in a very powerful manner by the wealth and splendor of our eastern cities, and by the thousand indications of the power and superiority that civilization has conferred upon the whites. Since his return, he has been laboring to preserve peace, in opposition to the ideas of many of his tribe, and we are now informed that he has declared he would leave his people if they did not make a treaty and join the whites. It is also said that he intends to send his son to the East to be educated. This will show that the visit of Red Cloud and his delegation to the Atlantic States was not altogether fruitless, and that it is not impossible to impress the Indians with the superiority of civilization to their now savage mode of life, if the right method is adopted.

From the New York Daily Tribune, July 25, 1870.]


We are very much gratified with the news of Red Cloud's conduct, which we have received, from time to time, since his return to the Plains. He has labored constantly and faithfully to avert the extensive Indian war with which we were threatened two or three months ago, and his efforts have been crowned with unexpected success. When he set out on his remarkable journey to Washington, as a negotiator of peace, there were unmistakable signs that we were on the eve of the most extensive war we have ever waged with the wild tribes of the Sioux. The military authorities had made preparations for the outbreak of hostilities by sending all our available cavalry to the Plains, and by disposing of the forces in such a way as at once to protect the frontier settlements, and carry terror into the camps of the savages. General Sheridan, who is in military command of the Department of the Missouri, gave it as his opinion, when he returned from a visit to the different points of his extensive command, that a war with the Sioux, during the present summer, could not be averted, and he urged the War Department to provide for its being carried on with all possible energy and determination. The same views were entertained by General Sherman, and by most of our high military officers. Dispatches confirmatory of them came thick and fast from the Plains. The newspapers of Omaha, Cheyenne, and Laramie, of Leavenworth, Sheridan, and Denver, gave us daily reports about Ogallalla or Brulé, Red Cloud, or Spotted Tail being on the war-path, and threatening the whole country, from the Black Hills to the Missouri, with devastation and outrage.

It was under these circumstances that the Indian commission were struck with the happy thought of approaching the war-like leaders of the hostile tribes with pacific propositions, and inviting them to visit Washington to hold a conference with the President. To the surprise of the whole country the invitation was accepted by Red Cloud himself, as well as by Spotted Tail and other war chiefs.

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When his party came to this city, the Indian commission treated them with consideration and magnanimity, and when Red Cloud consented to appeal to the white man's sense of justice, he had a great audience in Cooper Institute, which not only responded to his words, but determined to make an effort to remove the cause of his complaints. When finally he left New York, he was very much better satisfied than he had been on leaving Washington; and when he set off for the Plains, he promised that he would do all in his power to secure peace. Some of our military men smiled at the simplicity of the Indian commission and the humanitarians of New York; and many of the western newspapers, particularly those west of the Missouri, ridiculed the whole affair as one in which a wily and bloodthirsty savage chief had pulled the wool over the "philanthropic greenhorns” of the East. We were told that he would certainly begin the long-promised war as soon as he got back to the Sioux country, and that he had no influence whatever with the war chiefs of his own tribe. Well, he has now for two months been back on the Plains among the Sioux. We have heard again and again of what he has been doing to secure peace. We know for a certainty that there has been no outbreak of war. He has kept his promise, and he has done more than this, for he was very cautious about making hasty promises. He has used his influence with the war chiefs, and with the almost unrestrainable young braves of the Sioux. The consequence has been, that none of them have gone upon the war-path since his return, and we have been saved from troubles which would have brought havoc among the settlements of the far West, and death and wounds to many of our soldiers, and would have cost the country millions of dollars.

There are several important lessons connected with Red Cloud's mission and its success. We learn thereby that Indian wars may at least sometimes be averted, by peaceful efforts and by just dealings; we learn that our military leaders may sometimes be mistaken in regard to Indian matters; we learn that the newspapers of Cheyenne and

Laramie are not always to be trusted in their reports about the Sioux; we learn that "eastern philanthropists" may sometimes know how to deal with western savages; we learn that justice has an effect even upon the Indian. These things are worth remembering and thinking of, and it may be useful to bring them to mind hereafter, when we are again threatened with Indian troubles.


Sub-committee of the Board of Indian Commissioners.

Washington, D. C., July 22, 1870.

SIR: I transmit herewith copy of a report, dated the 19th instant, from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, together with copies of papers therein referred to, relative to the request of Chief Red Cloud to have an agency and trading post established in the country inhabited by his people.

I have to request to be informed if it will be possible for the Indian commission to carry into effect the suggestions of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in relation to the subject at an early day, and if so, that he be informed of such action.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Secretary of Board of Indian Commissioners.

J. D. COX, Secretary.

Washington, D. C., July 19, 1870.

SIR: In view of the request of Red Cloud, one of the chiefs of the Sioux Nation, to have an agency and trading post located in the country inhabited by his band, and of the favorable recommendation of General John E. Smith, copy herewith, I respectfully suggest that the special commission be instructed to visit Red Cloud's people, and determine what point in the country recommended by General Smith would be most suitable at which to establish the agency and trading post, and also that they visit Spotted Tail's people for the purpose of selecting a new location for them somewhere on White River, within the bounds of their reservation.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Hon. J. D. Cox,
Secretary of the Interior.

E. S. PARKER, Commissioner.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, Washington, D. C., August 11, 1870. GENTLEMEN: It having been arranged by your board that you are to visit Red Cloud and Spotted Tail's bands of Sioux, to accomplish certain objects desired both by the Indians and the Government, the following instructions are submitted for your guidance in the discharge of the duty thus imposed upon you. It would be well for you to first visit Red Cloud's people. Through their chief they ask to be established upon an agency to be located either at Fort Laramie or Fort Fetterman. It is not desired that their request should be granted as to either of the points named. For obvious reasons it is deemed best that the agency should be located in their own country, and it is thought the most suitable point for the purpose will be found at the Rawhide Buttes. You will therefore endeavor to prevail upon them to assent to the establishment of the agency with a trading post in that country, at such place as may be most desirable on account of timber, water, and land for agricultural purposes. Red Cloud should be given to understand that the Government will expect him to exercise his influence and power to protect the agent who may be placed in charge and his employés from all harm by his people.










Should Red Cloud's people not be able to come in at once to meet you, Spotted Tail's people could be first visited, and afterward a second trip be made to Laramie to meet those under Red Cloud. Spotted Tail desires a location somewhere upon White River, within the bounds of the reservation. Disposed as he and his people are represented to be to follow agricultural pursuits, in the selection of a place for them due regard must be had to an abundance of timber, good water, and lands for cultivation. There will, perhaps, be no trouble in making a satisfactory arrangement with this chief and his people in regard to their future home, but with Red Cloud it may be otherwise, as

you may find it to some extent difficult to overcome his preference for, and choice of, the country about Laramie or Fetterman; it is, however, hoped that you will succeed in inducing him to yield, and cheerfully accept the country which the Government prefers should be the home of his people hereafter.

The commanding' officers at Forts Laramie and Fetterman have been telegraphed to send word to Red Cloud to come in to meet you. Subsistence stores will be purchased at the post where the council shall be held, and certified vouchers given for the same will be paid at this office.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Hon. FELIX R. BRUNOT, President,

ROBERT CAMPBELL, Saint Louis, Missouri,

Indian Commissioners.



P. S.-Copies of orders from War Department for escort and subsistence stores sent to Colonel Campbell in letter of to-day.


OMAHA, August 22, 1870.

The sub-committee of the board of Indian commissioners, composed of Felix R. Brunot, chairman of the board, and Robert Campbell, deputed to visit Red Cloud and prominent chiefs of the Sioux and other tribes, and examine into the condition of Indian affairs in that quarter, met by agreement in Omaha, Tuesday, August 23. Mr. Brunot arriving from Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, the day previous, and Mr. Campbell having left St. Louis on the 22d. A consultation was had by the commissioners on the duties that devolved upon them, the first subject of inqury being to ascertain when Red Cloud would be at Fort Laramie, which place was telegraphed for information. William Fayel, of St. Louis, was chosen secretary.

OMAHA, August 24.

The commissioners called at General C. C. Auger's headquarters and were cordially received by the general, who proffered any assistance in his power toward forwarding the objects of the commission. He said transportation would be in readiness at Cheyenne, and two companies of cavalry would be assigned as an escort to Fort Laramie. At the request of the commissioners he sent a telegraph dispatch to Major Chambers, at Fort Fetterman, to learn when Red Cloud was expected in, and saying that it was the desire of the commission to meet Red Cloud, and his principal chiefs only, at Fort Laramie. It was desirable that they should not bring all their people and lodges, as the commission were not provided with presents, and in addition to this there might be some trouble in feeding them. The commissioners also had no positive information in regard to the time when the annuity goods from New York were expected to arrive.

The commissioners next waited on L. M. Janney, superintendent of Indian affairs in the northern superintendency, and found him and his daughter-in-law, who acted as clerk, seemingly absorbed in the duties of their charge. The tribes in this superintendency include the following, with the population annexed to each, as first ascertained by Mr. Janney, who acted as United States marshal in taking the census of the Indians: Omahas, 983; Pawnees, 2,325; Ottoes, 483; Winnebagoes, 1,333; Iowas, 206; Sacs and Foxes, 77; Santee Sioux, 994; of the latter number 23 being whites; total number, exclusive of whites, 6,325. The total number in 1869, was 6,489, showing a decrease of 164 during the year. This decrease is attributable in some measure to the lack of physicians. The mortality, particularly among infants, was large during the year from this cause. Among the Pawnees a large number of children perished from measels, and other disorders, purely from want of good care and medical attendance. The nearest physician is at Columbus, on the Union Pacific Railroad, twenty-two and a half miles distant from the reservation, and the charge for one visit is $20. This fee the Indians, of course, are unable to pay. During the year, thirty children in this tribe died. The census statistics show that the females outnumber the males, while more boys are born than girls. This disparity between the relative numbers born and the actual population of the sexes may be accounted for during the war, but the Pawnees are not on the war path, one man only having perished from a Sioux raid during the year.

The Pawnees and Sioux are still at war, a feud having existed between these tribes for many years. The Pawnees are desirous of burying the hatchet, and in their behalf Superintendent Janney requested the commissioners to use their influence with their old enemies, particularly the Brulés, for peace, so that they should not be troubled by them any more. A day or two before the arrival of the commissioners, a consultation of the United States Indian agents of the northern superintendency was held at the office of the superiutendent, to confer in relation to the condition and moral improve

ment of the Indians, and to consider the best means of obtaining funds. Much interesting information was elicited, and the commissioners regretted that they were not in time to be present. The $30,000 appropriation by Congress will enable the agents to do much, but more they say is needed for years to come to prosecute the work and sustain the schools. The superintendent was, therefore, requested to draught memorials to the President of the United States, Secretary of the Interior, and Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in relation to sale of surplus lands in the reservation for the support of schools, a movement which, it is represented, the Indians favor. The reservations are stated to contain more land than is needed, with the exception of the Winnebago reservation, should the tribe, as is expected, be augmented by one thousand additional Indians from the North. Superintendent Janney placed his books before the commissioners for their inspection, and urged them to visit the Pawnee reservation as soon as the Pawnees return from their summer hunt.

OMAHA, Thursday, August 25, 1870.

A telegram was received from Fort Laramie dated August 25, stating that Red Cloud had been sent for twelve days ago, (13th,) and messenger not returned. A telegram to General Augur from Colonel Chambers, at Fort Fetterman, stated the principal chiefs of Red Cloud had come in, that Red Cloud was at Bear Buttes and was coming in, and Man-afraid-of-his-horses was at Rose Bud.

Another telegram of same date from G. W. Bullock, Fort Laramie, announced the arrival of Red Cloud's chiefs the day before, who said Red Cloud would come soon when he hears of the arrival of the commissioners at Laramie, as it is very difficult for his party to live, there being no game. The commissioners were therefore invited to come inmediately.


Left Omaha on the cars for Cheyenne at 1.20 p. m.

FRIDAY, August 26.

CHEYENNE, Saturday, August 27, 1870. Arrived at Cheyenne at 2 p. m. The commissioners had an interview with Governor Campbell in reference to the affairs of his superintendency, which embraced also the Bannocks, numbering C00, and the Shoshones, who number 1,200. The governor telegraphed to Washington for information desired by the commissioners, and made a proffer of services in any way.


General C. C. AUGUR, Commanding, Omaha:

FORT FETTERMAN, August 28, 1870.

Little Crow, one of the delegation to Washington, is here, and says he has visited all the camps of Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes, and he thinks they will all be here or in Laramie in twelve or fifteen days. He says they have not decided which place to come to, and will, probably, part come here and part go to Laramie. This morning a herd of 3,000 cattle passed this post, and this Indian says the whites are not to travel on the old road. He says they will frighten all the buffalo about Sweetwater. He says the Great Father told him the whites were not to cross the Platte below Sweetwater. That from here they must cross the Laramie plains to Fort Steele. Is the old road to be traveled, or shall I turn them off to Fort Steele? If answered to-day I can notify


ALEX. CHAMBERS, Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

Washington, D. C., August 31, 1870.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, upon your reference, of the telegraphic dispatch from General C. C. Augur, dated the 29th instant, stating that the Indians claim it was understood by them when in Washington there was to be no travel on the old road west of Fort Fetterman up the Sweetwater, and that they object to large herds of cattle being driven that way. General Augur remarks that he has no knowledge of any such understanding, and asks for instructions.

For your information I beg leave to say that this Department in its late dealings with Red Cloud and his party, to whom General Augur refers, gave them fully to understand that the boundaries of their reservation must be those prescribed by the treaty with the Sioux concluded in 1868. While it would be unfortunate to have a misunderstanding and unpleasant relations occur at this time, and previous to the meeting of the Indians with Special Commissioners Brunot and Campbell, and while this Bureau is

disposed to urge the exercise of any reasonable indulgence to the request of the Indians for temporary purposes, it is of the highest importance that they should be made to know that the engagements of the treaty of 1868 will be maintained inviolate.

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General C. C. AUGUR,

Commanding Department of the Platte, Omaha, Nebraska :

In reply to your telegrams of August 29, I will send you copy of a letter from Indian Department. Red Cloud was given to understand his boundaries were those of treaty of 1868, and it is important he should be made to know that treaty will be kept inviolate. But it is best to temporize until arrival of Commissioner Brunot, and not allow any difficulty to arise just now if it can be avoided.

Adjutant General.

Washington, September 1, 1870.

SIR: Referring to your telegram of August 29, 1870, relative to the claim of the Indians concerning travel on the old road west of Fort Fetterman up the Sweetwater, and to my telegraphic reply of this date, I have the honor to inclose herewith copy of letter of August 31, 1870, from the Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs upon the subject, and also an official copy of telegram from this office.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Brigadier General C. C. AUGUR,

Commanding Department of the Platte, Omaha, Nebraska.


Governor J. A. CAMPBELL:

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Omaha, Nebraska, September 10, 1870.

Assistant Adjutant General.


September 6, 1870.

About thirty lodges of Cheyennes are here in advance of main body, and small parties are coming in daily. They expect to be fed, and some provision ought to be made for them, as the issue to them from this post is becoming too much of a draught upon our supplies. They will be dissatisfied unless provided for. All the Cheyennes and Arapahoes will probably be here in a few days, some two hundred and fifty or three hundred lodges. Please inform commissioners.

ALEX. CHAMBERS, Major Fourth Infantry Commanding.

Cheyenne, September 6, 1870.

GENTLEMEN: I have the honor to inclose herewith, for your information, copy of a dispatch received this day from Major Alex. Chambers, commanding at Fort Fetter


If you so desire, I can telegraph to Mr. Jules Ecoffey, trader, at Fetterman, authorizing him to make purchases of such supplies as are absolutely necessary for the Indians gathered at the post, and charge to Indian Department. I suppose beef can be obtained at the post, and if flour cannot be had there at present I can order it from Omaha, and have it here in a few days.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Governor and ex-officio

J. A. CAMPBELL, Superintendent Indian Affairs.



Special Indian Commissioners, Denver, Colorado.

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