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taken by the
Congress also to determino controversies con
or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence or judgment, which sball in
like manner be final and decisive, the judgment or sentence, ceedings,
and other proceedings, being in either case trans tted to posited.
congress, and lodged among the acts of congress for the security of the parties concerned : provided, that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath, to be
administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior Onth to be court of the state, where the cause shall be tried, “ well and judges. truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according
to the best of his judgment, without favor, affection, or hope of reward :” provided, also, that no state shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.
All controversies concerning the private right of soil, claimed under different grants of two or more states, whose
jurisdiction as they may respect such lands and the states cerning private
which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or
either of them being at the same time claimed to have orisoil.
ginated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall, on the petition of either party to the congress of the United States, be finally determined, as near as may be, in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different states.
The United States in congress assembled shall also havo the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their
own authority, or by that of the respective states: fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States: regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians not members of any of the states; provided that the legislative right of any state within its own limits be not infringed or violated: establishing and regulating post-offices from one state to another throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office: appointing all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers: appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers, whatever in the service of the United States: making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval
forces, and directing their operations. Corgress to The United States in congress assembled shall have authocommittec rity to appoint a committee to sit in the recess of congress, to
be denominated “a committee of the states;" and to consist Additional of one delegate from each state, and to appoint such other
committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managtod.
ing the general affairs of the United States, under their direction: to appoint one of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years: to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of
of the states.
powers of congress enumera
the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses: to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half year to the respective states an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted: to build and equip a navy: to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each state shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them in a soldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in congress assembled: but if the United States in congress assembled, shall, on consideration of circumstances, judge proper that any state should not raise men or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other state should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed, and equipped, in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of such state shall judge that such extra number can not be safely spared out of the same; in which case they shall raise, officer, clothe, arm, and equip, as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in congress assembled.
The United States in congress assembled shall never engage Congress in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of cise certain peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin unless by money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums the votes of and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the United States or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander-in-chief of the army or navy, unless nine states assent to the same; nor shall a ques- Questions, tion on any other point, except for adjourning from day to cided. day, be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the United States in congress assembled.
The congress of the United States shall have power to Adjonrnadjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within other prothe United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a congress. longer duration than the space of six months; and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate;
Committee of the states may be vested with certain powers.
be admitted into the confederacy.
debts ag. sumed.
and the delegates of a state, or any of them, at his or their
ART. 10. The committee of the states, or any nine of them,
in the congress of the United States assembled is requisite. Canada may ART. 11. Canada, acceding to this confederation, and joining
in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into,
be agreed to by nine states.
debts contracted, by or under the authority of congress, before
ART. 13. Every state shall abide by the determination of
which, by this confederation, are submitted to them. And the
every state, and the union shall be perpetual ; nor shall any
And whereas it has pleased the Great Governor of the world
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands, in
congress. Done at Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsyl-
to the act of Josiah Bartlett,
John Wentworth, jun. Aug. 8, 1778. confederaOn the part and behalf of the state of Massachusetts Bay. John Hancock,
Francis Dana, Samuel Adams,
John Collins. Herry Marchant.
On the part and behalf of the state of Connecticut. Roger Sherman,
Titus Hosmer, Samuel Huntington,
Andrew Adams, Oliver Wolcott.
On the part and behalf of the state of New York. Jas. Duane,
Nath. Scudder, Nov. 26, 1778.
William Clingan, Daniel Roberdeau,
Joseph Reed, 22 July, 1778. Jona. Bayard Smith,
On the part and behalf of the state of Delaware. Tho. M'Kean, Feb. 13, 1779. Nicholas Van Dyke. John Dickinson, May 5th, 1779.
On the part and behalf of the state of Maryland. John Ilanson, March 1, 1781. Daniel Carroll, do.
On the part and behalf of the state of Virginia. Richard Henry Lee,
Jno. Harvie, John Banister,
Francis Lightfoot Lee.
On the part and behalf of the state of North Carolina.
On the part and behalf of the state of South-Carolina.
Richard Hutson, William Henry Drayton, Thos. Heyward, jun. Jno. Mathews,
On the part and behalf of the state of Georgia. Jno. Walton, 24th, July, 1778. Edwd. Langworthy. Edwd. Telfair,
A. D. 1778.
And whereas the senate and assembly of this state of New-York, in legislature convened, have separately taken the
said several articles of confederation into their respective, Approba most deliberate and mature consideration; and by their articles of several and respective resolutions, deliberately made and
entered into for the purpose, have fully and entirely approved of the same:
In order therefore. That such approval may be publishea and made known to the whole world, with all the solemnities of law, and that all the subjects of this state, and others inhabiting and residing therein, from time to time, and at ali times thereafter, as long as the said confederation shall subsist and endure, may be bound by, and held to the due observance of the said articles of confederation, as a law of this state, if the same shall be duly ratified by all the said United States in congress assembled.
Be it enacted and declared by the people of the state of NewYork, represented in Senate and Assembly, and it is hereby enacted and declared by the authority of the same, That the said several above recited articles of confederation, and all and singular the clauses, matters and things in the same contained, be, and the same are hereby fully accepted, received and approved of, for and in behalf of the people of this state.
And to the end that the same may, with all due form and solemnity, be ratified and confirmed by this state in congress.
Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the delegates to ratify the delegates of this state, in the said congress of the United
States of America, or any two of the said delegates, shall be, and hereby are fully authorized, impowered and required, wholly, entirely and absolutely, for and in behalf of the people of this state, and in such manner and under such formalities, as shall be determined in congress, to ratify and confirm, all and every of the said above recited articles of confederation, and all and singular the clauses, matters and things in the same contained; and that on exemplification of this act, tested by his Excellency the Governor, or the Lieutenant-Governor, or President of the senate of this state, for the time being administering the government, and authenticated with the Great Seal of this state, shall be full and conclusive evidence of this act. Provided always :
That nothing in this act, or the said above recited articles till all the Sther of confederation contained, nor any act, matter or thing, to ratify. be done and transacted by the delegates of this state in con
gress, in and concerning the premises or any part thereof, altered, 3d shall bind or oblige, or be construed, deemed or esteemed to Seffa, ch. 30. bind or oblige the government, legislature, people, subjects,
inhabitants or residents of this state, until the said above recited articles of confederation shall have been duly ratified and confirmed by, or in behalf of all the said United States in congress assembled; any thing herein, or in the said above
same in congress.
Not to be
This proviso was