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the waters of Red river can be It enters Berwick's bay about taken to the Gulf from this point eighteen miles from the Gulf. Near. in an almost direct course, throughly opposite to the mouth of the channels that it is more than proba. Teche is the mouth of Bayou Black, ble they formerly occupied, and in or Bayou Bauf. This bayou, like a distance of less than one half of the Teche, is also a natural canal, that by which they reached the occupying the highest elevation of ocean through the channel of the a narrow tract of land, extending Mississippi, and by forty or fifty eastwardly nearly to the Bayou miles less than that through the Lafourche, that is seldom inun. channels of the Chafalaya. A dated, and which would seem to be deep cut at this point, of ten miles, a prolongation of the Attakapas through an alluvial soil, would dis- country ; inducing a belief that the charge the waters of Red river in Teche formerly discharged its wa. Bayou Beuf; and as these waters ters at a point farthet east, into a would pass through an alluvial plain bay that occupied the whole of the having probably a fall of not less present plain, from the Attakapas than sixty feet in seventy miles lake to Bayou Lafourche and the from the point of tapping, there is Mississippi. It is this elevated reason to believe that they would ridge that causes the indentation in work for themselves, without much the lower plain to be deluged by artificial aid, a channel of great the waters of the Mississippi, which, capacity.
forcing a passage for themselves The question then arises, how across the Teche, have formed an are these waters, in addition to the outlet called Berwick's bay. This superabundant waters of the Chafa. path is narrow, and is about seven Jaya, which already overflow all or eight feet deep, passing in part the valley of the lake of Attakapas, of its course through lands not of to be taken off to the guli? To recent alluvion, and disembogues solve this question satisfactorily, it into the bay of Achafolia, through will be necessary to take a view the lake of that name, and two or of the outlets of the lake of Atta. three other outlets. , kapas. The Teche is a natural Following up, then, this indicacanal, almost without feeders ortion of nature, by cutting artificial outlets, except at its mouth, and outlets from the lake of Attakapas having no doubt been a channel for across the Teche, at different a much larger mass of water in time points, for a distance of fifteen or pasi, its adjacent lands have been twenty miles above its mouth, at formed precisely as those of the such places as the drains emptying Mississippi have been, and its into the ocean may approach nearbanks of course occupy the highest est to Attakapas lake, giving to elevation of the country through such cuts any width that may be which it runs. For forty miles required, and a depth that may be above its mouth it is contracted by on a level with low water mark, the waters of the Altakapas lake on and embanking the lake of Attaka. the one side, and by those of the pas so as to raise it three feet above gulf on the other, so as to exhibit its present surface, it is believed almost literally a mere tongue of that a capacity may be obtained for land just above high water mark. taking ofl' any volume of water that it may be necessary to throw into minute knowledge which they the lake of Attakapas, and at an would obtain of the topography of expense very trifling in comparison the entire plain, would enable them to the object to be obtained. All to designate different portions of it the waters of the Atchalalaya being in both plains which could be re. thrown into lake Attakapas, and claimed from inundation at an exthat lake embanked, the whole of pense commensurate with the prethe plain between it and the Mis. sent capital and population of the sissippi would be exempt from in. country. undation. The rain water, and The gradual elevation of the that from the weepings and cre. plain of the Mississippi,* by the vices in the embankments, wonld annual deposites, and the accumufind a reservoir in the deepest lakes lation of population and capital, and beds of Grand river, the sur. will ultimately accomplish its entire plus being taken off by machinery, reclamation from the inundations or by tide locks in some of the of the Mississippi; but the interpo. bavous, which now connect with sition of the government and the these lakes in the highest floods. judicious expenditure of a few mil
It is believed that three brigades lions of dollars would accomplish of the topographical corps, opera. that object fifty or perhaps a hunting for a few seasons from the 1st dred years sooner than it will be of November to the 1st of July, effected by individual capital, aided would be able to obtain sufficient by the slow operations of nature. data to decide upon the practica. I attach a small diagram of the bility of devising, and the expense country, as illustrative of some of of accomplishing, a plan that would the points referred to in this report. effect the reclamation of both With great respect, plains : but if it should be found to
Your obedient servant, be impracticable, or too expensive
GEO. GRAHAM. for the state of the population and The Hon. RICHARD Rush, wealth of the country, yet the Secretary of the Treasury.
* The gradual elevation of the plain is not perceptible, because the gradual elevation of the beds of the water courses, arising from the same cause, occasions as general an overflow of their banks as formerly ; but that which is perceptible is the rapid filling up of the ponds and shallow lakes; and there can be no question that the great annual alluvion and vegetable deposite must produce similar effects through the whole plain.
The Mississippi river is among the muddiest in the world, and deposites its muddy particles with great rapidity ; its wuters hold in solution not less than one sixteenth part of their bulk of alluvion matter, and some experiments are stated to give a greater proportion. If then, within the embankments of the Mississippi, a piece of level ground be surrounded by a dike sixteen inches high, and filled by the waters of the Mississippi when above its banks, and those waters drawn off when they have de. posited all their muddy particles, nearly one inch in depth of alluvion matter will have been obtained ; ifthis process be repeated as often as practicable during a season of high waters, a quantity of alluvion will have been accumulated of not less than six or eight inches in depth. This process is similar to that termed warping in England, and is in use to some extent along the waters of the estuary of the Humber for manuring lands; and it is a process by which the lands of the plain of Louisiana will be rendered inexhaustiblo, so long as the Mississippi continues to boar its muddy waters to the ocean.
An estimate of the expense of exca- charging from the lake, with great
vating Outlets from the Lake of velocity, a column of water of fifthe Attakapas to the Gulf of teen yards in width and one yard Mexico.
in depth, at the point where it left On the presumption that the wa. the lake. ters of the gulf of Mexico, at low No estimate, with any tolerable tide, reach within six miles of the approximation to accuracy, can be lake—and it is believed that they made of the expense of excavating do, at several points, between the a deep cut from Red river to the Bayou Cypress and Berwick’s bay Bayou Bæuf, and of enlarging the
-let positions at one or more of bed of that bayou ; of the embankthe most favourable of these points ments along the Attakapas, neces. be selected, the aggregate width of sary to give it the required elevawhich shall be two thousand yards; tion; or for tide locks, machinery, let such portions of these positions &c. until an accurate survey on as may be inundated at high water, the ground made. It is possible be drained by common embank that the judicious expenditure of ments, so that oxen may be used five million dollars, by the governin removing the earth; let excava. ment, would be sufficient to make tions be made through them of such the excavations, and erect embankwidths as may be best adapted to ments, tide locks, and other ma. the removal of the earth, leaving, chinery, that would be necessary however, the proportion of excava. to give such a control over the tion to that of embankment as three waters of the Mississippi, and its to one. A number of canals will outlets, as to reduce them so nearly then be formed, with an embank within their banks at high floods as ment between each, the excavation to enable individual capital to pro. of which, their beds being on a gress with the entire embankment level with low water, would not of them, and the reclamation of the average a depth of three feet. whole plain. These proportions will give the The quantity of land belonging to amount of excavation as equal to the government within the limits of 15,840,000 cubic yards, which, at the alluvial plain may be estimated 20 cents the cubic yard, gives at three millions of acres, which, at $3,168,000 as the expense of ex. a minimum price of ten dollars per cavating outlets, which, at low tide, acre, would be upwards of thirty would have the capacity of dis. millions of dollars.
A Treaty of Commerce and Navigation, between the United States of
. America and His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway.
In the name of the Most Holy and lidating the commercial relations Invisible Trinity.
subsisting between their respective The United States of America territories, and convinced that this and His Majesty the King of Sweden object cannot better be accom: and Norway, equally animated with plished than by placing them on the the desire of extending and conso. basis of a perfect equality and reciprocity, have, in consequence, in ballast, into the ports of the Uniagreed to enter into negotiation for ted States of Ameriea, from what. a new Treaty of Commerce and ever place they may come, shall be Navigation ; and, to this effect, have treated on their entrance, during appointed Plemipotentiaries, to wit; their stay, and at their departure, The President of the United States upon the same footing as national of America, John James Appleton, vessels coming from the same place, Chargé d'Affaires of the said States with respect to the duties of tonnage, at the Court of His Majesty, the light houses, pilotage, and port King of Sweden and Norway : and charges, as well as to the perquisites His Majesty the King of Sweden of public officers, and all other and Norway, the Sieur Gustave duties or charges of whatever kind Count de Wetterstedt, his Minister or denomination, levied in the name of State and of Foreign Affairs, or to the profit, of the government, Knight Commander of his orders, the local authorities, or of any priKnight of the Orders of St. Andrew, vate establishment whatsoever. St. Alexander Newsky, and St. Ann, And reciprocally, the vessels of of the first class, of Russia ; Knight the United States of America, arri. of the Order of the Red Eagle, of ving, either laden, or in ballast, in the first class, of Prussia ; Grand the ports of the kingdom of Sweden Cross of the Order of Leopold, of and Norway, from whatever place Austria ; one of the Eighteen of the they may come, shall be treated on Swedish Academy ; who, after hav. their entrance, during their stay, ing exchanged their full powers, and at their departure, upon the found in good and due form, have same footing as national vessels comagreed upon the following articles : ing from the same place, with respect ARTICLE 1.
to the duties of tonnage, light houses The citizens and subjects of each pilotage, and port charges, as well. of the two high contracting parties as to the perquisites of public offimay, with all security for their per. cers, and all other duties or charges, sons, vessels, and cargoes, freely of whatever kind or denomination, enter the ports, places, and rivers, levied in the name, or to the profit of of the territories of the other, the government, the local authori. wherever foreign commerce is per. ties, or of any private establishment mitted. They shall be at liberty to whatsoever. sojourn and reside in all parts what.
ARTICLE III. ' soever of said territories; to rent All that may be lawfully import. and occupy houses and warehouses ed into the United States of Ame. for their commerce; and they shall rica, in vessels of the said states, enjoy, generally, the most entire sc. may also be thereinto imported in curity and protection in their mer. Swedish and Norwegian vessels, cantile transactions, on condition of and in those of the island of St. their submitting to the laws and or. Bartholomew, from whatever place dinances of the respective countries. they, may come, without paying ARTICLE II.
other or higher duties, or charges, Swedish and Norwegian vessels, of whatever kind or denomination, and those of the island of St. Bar. levied in the name, or to the profit, tholomew, arriving either laden or of the government, the local au.
thorities, or of any private esta. blishments whatsoever, than if im. The stipulations contained in the ported in national vessels.
three preceding articles, are, to And reciprocally, all that may their full extent, applicable to the be lawfully imported into the king. vessels of the United States of Ame. doms of Sweden and Norway, in rica, proceeding, either laden, or Swedish and Norwegian vessels, or not laden, to the colony of St. Bar. in those of the island of St. Bar. tholomew, in the West Indies, whetholomew, may also be thereinto ther from the ports of the kingdoms imported in vessels of the United of Sweden and Norway, or from States of America, from whatever any other place whatsoever; or place they may come, without pay. proceeding from said colony, either ing other or higher duties, or laden or not laden, whether bound charges, of whatever kind or deno. for Sweden or Norway, or for any mination, levied in the name, or to other place whatsoever. the profit, of the government, the
ARTICLE VI. local authorities, or of any private It is expressly understood, that establishments whatsoever, than if the foregoing second, third, and imported in national vessels. ' fourth articles, are not applicable ARTICLE IV.
to the coastwise navigation from All that may be lawfully export. one port of the United States of ed from the United States of Ame. America, to another port of the rica in vessels of the said states, said states; nor to the navigation may also be exported therefrom in from one port of the kingdoms of Swedish and Norwegian vessels, or Sweden or of Norway to another, in those of the island of St. Bar. nor to that between the two latter tholomew, without paying other countries; which navigation each or higher duties, or charges, of of the two high contracting parties whatever kind or denomination, reserves to itself. levied in the name, or to the profit,
ARTICLE VII. of the government, the local au. Each of the two high contracting thorities, or of any private establish- parties engages not to grant, in its ments whatsoever, than if exported purchases, or in those which might in national vessels.
be made by companies or agents, And reciprocally, all that may be acting in its name, or under its lawfully exported from the king. authority, any preference to impor. doms of Sweden and Norway, in tations made in its own vessels, or Swedish and Norwegian vessels, or in those of a third power, over those in those of the island of St. Bar. made in the vessels of the other tholomew, may also be exported contracting party. therefrom in vessels of the United
ARTICLE VIII. States of America, without paying The two high contracting parties other or higher duties, or charges, engage not to impose upon the na. of whatever kind or denomination, vigation between their respective levied in the name, or to the profit, territories, in the vessels of either, of the government, the local au. any tonnage or other duties of any thorities, or of any private esta. kind or denomination, which shall blishments whatsoever, than if ex. be higher, or other than those ported in national vessels.
which shall be imposed on every