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coffers will be replenished from the alarms of our fellow citizens on the receipts, as fast as they will be those borders, and overawed the drained by the expenditures, equal hostile purposes of the Indians. The in amount to those of the current perpetrators of the murders were year, it should not be forgotten that surrendered to the authority and they could ill suffer the exhaustion operation of our laws; and every of larger disbursements.
appearance of purposed hostility The condition of the army, and from those Indian tribes has sub. of all the branches of the public sided. service under the superintendence Although the present organiza. of the secretary of war, will be tion of the army, and the adminis. seen by the report from that officer, tration of its various branches of and the documents with which it is service, are, upon the whole, satis. accompanied.
factory, they are yet susceptible of During the course of the last much improvement in particulars, summer, a detachment of the army some of which have been hereto. has been usefully and successfully fore submitted to the consideration called to perform their appropriate of Congress, and others are now duties. At the moment when the first presented in the report of the commissioners appointed for carry. Secretary of war. ing into execution certain provi. The expediency of providing for sions of the treaty of August 19th, additional numbers of officers in 1825, with various tribes of the the two corps of engineers will, in northwestern Indians, were about some degree, depend upon the to arrive at the appointed place of number and extent of the objects meeting, the unprovoked murder of of national importance upon which several citizens, and other acts of Congress may think it proper
that unequivoaal hostility committed by surveys should be made, conforma. a party of the Winnebago tribe, bly to the act of the 30th of April, one of those associated in the treaty, 1824. Of the surveys which, be. followed by indications of a mena. fore the last session of Congress, cing character, among other tribes had been made under the authority of the same region, rendered ne of that act, reports were made : cessary an immediate display of the 1. Of the Board of Internal Im. defensive and protective force of provement, on the Chesapeake and the Union in that quarter. It was Ohio Canal. accordingly exhibited by the imme. 2. On the continuance of the diate and concerted movements of National Road from Cumberland the governors of the state of Illi. to the tide waters within the Dis. nois, and of the territory of Michi. trict of Columbia. gan, and competent levies of mili. 3. On the continuation of the tia under their authority ; with a National Road from Canton to corps of seven hundred men of Zanesville. United States troops under the com. 4. On the location of the Na. mand of General Atkinson, who, tional Road from Zanesville to Co. at the call of Governor Cass, im. lumbus. mediately repaired to the scene of 5. On the continuation of the danger from their station at St. same road to the seat of govern. Louis. Their presence dispelled ment in Missouri.
6. On a Post Road from Balti. qualified, have been constantly more to Philadelphia.
employed upon these services, from 7. Of a survey of Kennebec the passage of the act of 30th of River, (in part.)
April, 1824, to this time. Were 8. On a National Road from no other advantage to accrue to the Washington to Buffalo.
country from their labours, than 9. On the survey of Saugatuck the fund of topographical know, Harbour and River.
ledge which they have collected 10. On a Canal from Lake and communicated, that alone Pontchartrain to the Mississippi would have been a profit to the River
Union more than adequate to all 11. On surveys at Edgartown, the expenditures which have been Newburyport, and Hyannis Har. devoted to the object; but the ap. bour.
propriations for the repair and con. 12. On survey of La Plaisance tinuation of the Cumberland road, Bay, in the territory of Michigan. for the construction of various other
And reports are now prepared, roads, for the removal of obstruc. and will be submitted to Congress, tions from the rivers and harbours,
On surveys of the peninsula of for the erection of light-houses, Florida, to ascertain the practica. beacons, piers, and buoys, and for bility of a canal to connect the the completion of canals underwaters of the Atlantic with the gulf taken by individual associations, of Mexico, across that peninsula; but needing the assistance of means and also of the country between and resources more comprehensive the bays of Mobile and of Pensa. than individual enterprise can com. cola, with the view of connecting mand, may be considered rather as them together by a canal :
treasures laid up from the contri. On surveys of a route for a canal butions of the present age, for the to connect the waters of James benefit of posterity, than as unre. and Great Kenhawa rivers : quited applications of the accruing
On the survey of the Swash in revenues of the nation. To such Pamlico Sound, and that of Cape objects of permanent improvement Fear, below the town of Wilming to the condition of the country, of ton, in North Carolina :
real addition to the wealth, as well On the survey of the Muscle as to the comfort of the people by Shoals, in the Tennessee river, and whose authority and resources they for a route for a contemplated have been effected, from three to communication between the Hi. four millions of the annual income wassee and Coosa rivers, in the of the nation have, by laws enactstate of Alabama.
ed at the three most recent sessions Other reports of surveys upon of Congress, been applied, without objects pointed out by the several intrenching upon the necessities of acts of Congress of the last and the treasury ; without adding a dol. preceding sessions, are in the pro- lar to the taxes or debts of the comgress of preparation, and most of munity; without suspending even them may be completed before the the steady and regular discharge of close of this session. All the offi. the debts contracted in former days, cers of both corps of engineers, which, within the same three years, with several other persons duly have been diminished
amount of nearly sixteen millions the preservation of the public pro. of dollars.
perty deposited in them, have all The same observations are, in a received from the executive the great degree, applicable to the ap- attention required by that act, and propriations made for fortifications will continue to receive it, steadily upon the coasts and harbours of proceeding towards the execution the United States, for the mainte. of all its purposes. The establishnance of the Military Academy at ment of a naval academy, furnishWest Point, and for the various ob. ing the means of theoretic instrucjects under the superintendence of tion to the youths who devote their the department of the navy. The lives to the service of their country report of the secretary of the upon the ocean, still solicits the navy, and those from the subordi. sanction of the legislature. Prac. nate branches of both the military tical seamanship, and the art of departments, exhibit to Congress, navigation, may be acquired upon in minute detail, the present con. the cruises of the squadrons, which, dition of the public establishments from time to time, are despatched dependent upon them; the execu. to distant seas ; but a competent tion of the acts of Congress rela- knowledge even of the art of ship ting to them, and the views of the building, the higher mathematics, officers engaged in the several and astronomy; the literature which branches of the service, concern can place our officers on a level of ing the improvements which may polished education with the officers tend to their perfection. The for- of other maritime nations; the tification of the coasts, and the knowledge of the laws, municipal gradual increase and improvement and national, which, in their interof the navy, are parts of a great course with foreign states, and their system of national defence, which governments, are continually callhas been upwards of ten years in ed into operation ; and, above all, progress, and which, for a series that acquaintance with the princi. of years to come, will continue to ples of honour and justice, with the claim the constant and persevering higher obligations of morals, and protection and superintendence of of general laws, human and divine, the legislative authority. Among which constitute the great distinc. the measures which have emanated tion between the warrior patriot from these principles, the act of and the licensed robber and pirate; the last session of Congress, for these can be systematically taught, the gradual improvement of the and eminently acquired, only in a navy, holds a conspicuous place. permanent school, stationed upon The collection of timber for the the shore, and provided with the future construction of vessels of teachers, the instruments, and the war; the preservation and repro- books, conversant with, and adaptduction of the species of timber ed to, the communication of the peculiarly adapted to that purpose ; principles of these respective sci. the construction of dry docks for ences to the youthful and inquiring the use of the navy; the erection mind. of a marine railway for the repair The report from the post master of the public ships, and the im. general exhibits the condition of provement of the navy yards for that department as highly satisfae
tory for the present, and still more is the management and disposal of promising for the future. Its re that portion of the property of the ceipts for the year ending the first nation which consists of the public of July last, amounted to one mil. lands. The acquisition of them, lion four bundred and seventy-three made at the expense of the whole thousand five hundred and fifty-one Union, not only in treasure, but in dollars, and exceeded its expendi. blood, marks a right of property in tures by upwards of one hundred them equally extensive. By the thousand dollars. It cannot be an report and statements from the over sanguine estimate to predict general land office now communi. that in less than ten years, of which cated, it appears, that under the one half have elapsed, the receipts present government of the United will have been more than doubled. States, a sum little short of thirtyIn the mean time, a reduced ex three millions of dollars has been penditure upon established routes paid from the common treasury for has kept pace with increased facili- that portion of this property which ties of public accommodation, and has been purchased from France additional services have been ob- and Spain, and for the extinction tained at reduced rates of compenof the aboriginal tribes. The sation. Within the last year the amount of lands acquired is near transportation of the mail in stages two hundred and sixty millions of has been greatly augmented. The acres, of which, on the first of Ja. number of post offices has been in nuary, 1826, about one hundred creased to seven thousand ; and it and thirty-nine millions of acres may be anticipated, that while the had been surveyed, and little more facilities of intercourse between than nineteen millions of acres had fellow citizens in person or by cor been sold. The amount paid into respondence, will soon be carried the treasury by the purchasers of to the door of every village in the the lands sold is not yet equal to Union, a yearly surplus of revenue the sums paid for the whole, but will accrue, which may be applied leaves a small balance to be reas the wisdom of Congress, under funded; the proceeds of the sales the exercise of their constitutional of the lands have long been pledged powers, may devise, for the further to the creditors of the nation, a establishment and improvement of pledge from which we have reason the public roads, or by adding still to hope that they will in a very few further to the facilities in the trans. years be redeemed. The system portation of the mails. Of the upon which this great national in. indications of the prosperous con terest has been managed, was the dition of our country, none can be result of long, anxious, and perse. more pleasing, than those presented vering deliberations ; matured and by the multiplying relations of per modified by the progress of our sonal and intimate intercourse be. population, and the lessons of ex. tween the citizens of the Union perience, it has beeu hitherto emi. dwelling at the remotest distances nently successful. More than nine from each other.
tenths of the lands still remain the Among the subjects which have
common property of the Union, the heretofore occupied the earnest so. appropriation and disposal of which licitude and attention of Congress, are sacred trusts in the hands of
able to pay
Congress. Of the lands sold, a There are various other subjects considerable part were conveyed of deep interest to the whole union, under extended credits, which, in which have heretofore been recom. the vicissitudes and fluctuations in mended to the consideration of the value of lands, and of their pro. Congress, as well by my predoduce, became oppressively burden. cessors as, under the impression some to the purchasers. It can
of the duties devolving upon me, never be the interest, or the policy by myself. Among these are the of the nation, to wring from its own debt rather of justice, than grati. citizens the reasonable profits of tude, to the surviving warriors of their industry and enterprise, by the revolutionary war; the exten. holding them to the rigorous import tion of the judicial administration of disastrous engagements.
In of the federal government, to March, 1821; a debt of twenty-two those extensive and important mem. millions of dollars, due by pur. bers of the union, which, having chasers of the public lands, had risen into existence since the or. accumulated, which they were un. ganization of the present judiciary
An act of Congress establishment, now constitute at of the 2d of March, 1821, came to least one third of its territory, their relief, and has been succeed. power, and population; the forma. ed by others, the latest being the tion of a more effective and uniform act of the 4th of May, 1826, the system for the government of the indulgent provisions of which ex. militia, and the amelioration, in pired on the 4th of July last. The some form or modification, of the effect of these laws has been to re- diversified and often oppressive duce the debt from the purchasers codes relating to insolvency. to a remaining balance of about Amidst the multiplicity of topics of four millions three hundred thou- great national concernment which sand dollars due ; more than three may recommend themselves to the fifths of which are for lands within calm and patriotic deliberations of the state of Alabama. I recom- the Legislature, it may suffice to mend to Congress the revival and say, that on these and all other continuance, for a further term, of measures which may receive their the beneficent accommodations to sanction, my hearty co-operation the public debtors, of that statute; will be given, conformably to the and submit to their consideration, duties enjoined upon me, and under in the same spirit of equity, the re. the sense of all the obligations premission, under proper discrimina- scribed by the constitution. tions, of the forfeitures of partial
John Quincy ADAMS. payments on account of purchases of the public lands, so far as to Washington, December 4, 1827. allow of their application to other payments.