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pulation to be massacred by the infidels, the infidels on their part Turks, in retaliation.

are the enemies of the mussul. We will consider as void, pa. mans; that Russia, in particular, pers given to cruisers found be. bears a particular hatred to Islam. yond the prescribed limits; and ism, and that she is the principal ships of war of the allied pow. enemy of the Sublime Porte. ers will have orders to arrest them, For fifty or sixty years, anxious wherever they will be found. ' to put in execution her guilty pro.

There remains for you no pre. jects against the Moslem nation text. The armistice, by sea, exists and the Ottoman empire, she has on the part of the Turks, de facto. always profited by the least pre. Their fleet exists no more. Take tence for declaring war; the dis. care of yours—for we will also orders committed by the janissa. destroy it, if need be, to put a stop ries, who, thanks to God, are anni. to a system of robbery on the high hilated, favoured her projects; she seas, which would end in your ex. has by degrees invaded our proclusion from the law of nations. vinces; her arrogance and preten.

As the present provisional go. sions have only increased, and she vernment is as weak as it is immo. has thought to find an easy means ral, we address these final and ir- of fulfilling her ancient plan revocable resolutions to the legisla. against the Sublime Porte, by extive body.

citing the Greeks, who are of the With respect to the prize court same religion. The latter, assem. which it has instituted, we declare bled in the name of religion, re. it incompetent to judge any of our volted simultaneously; they did vessels without our concurrence. the Moslems all possible evil, and

We have the honour to be, gen. concert with the Russians, who, tlemen, your most obedient ser. on their side, attacked the Otto. vants,

man empire. This union had for (Signed,

its object the extermination of all Rear Admiral H. DE RIGNY, the faithful, and the ruin of the commanding his most Christian ma. Sublime Porte, which God pre. jesty's squadron.


Thanks to the divine assistance, vice-admiral, of his Britannic ma. and the protection of our Holy jesty's ships.

Prophet, this perfidious plot was The count L. De HEIDEN, discovered a short time before it Rear-admiral, of his imperial majes. was put into execution. The mea,

ty the Emperor of all the Russias. sures taken in the capital stopped To the members of the permanent in the beginning the guilty procommittee of the legislative body. gress, the fulfilment of which

seemed so easy. The sword did Hatti. Sheriff of the Ottoman Porte, justice on many rebels of the Mo.

to the Mussulmans of Europe rea, Negropont, Acarnania, Misso. and Asia, (December, 18, 1927.) longhi, Athens, and other parts of

Whatever little understanding the continent and the isles, who we may have, we know that if all dared at first to oppose the Mos. the mussulmans naturally hate the lems; they killed several of them;

reduced the women and children bell again resoundin a word, to slavery; and under the title of to annihilate, easily and promptly, "Government of Greece,” carried Islamism; neither reason, law, on the most unheard of excesses. policy, nor religion, permitted such

For several years, both by sea propositions to be accepted. The and land, forces have been sent Porte gave frequently, either in against them; but our land troops, writing or verbally, the necessary discouraged by a want of pay, did answers, with all the official forms, not show the necessary zeal; our and according to the tenor of fleet also could not succeed on ac. treaties. Alihough the object of count of the former disorganization the Franks has been perceived of the arsenal. The affair thus from the beginning, and, every proceeded slowly; other Europe. thing announced, that in the end ans, besides the Russians, furnish. the sabre alone must answer the ed all sorts of assistance to the propositions, yet, not to disturb the rebels, and became the peculiar repose of the Moslems, and on the cause of the prolongation of these other hand, to gain the time neces. disturbances. At length, led by sary for the preparation of war, the tricks and insinuations of Rus. the Porte endeavoured to tempo. sia, England and France united rize, as much as possible, with with her; and, under the pretence satisfactory answers and official that their commerce suffered from conferences, of the subject of the the long continuance of these dis. dishonour and prejudice which the turbances, they made the Greeks proposition of the three powers renounce their duties of Rayas by would cause to the empire and the all sorts of artifices.

nation. It was proposed at different Here we must observe, that altimes to the Sublime Porte not to though the demands made by the interfere in the affairs of Greece, Russians at Akerman, on the subby giving them a form of indepen. ject of indemnification, and particu. dent government; to separate them Tarly with regard to the Servians, totally from the Moslems; to es. could be by no means admitted, al. tablish a chief, as in Wallachia though the circumstances being and Moldavia ; and to grant them pressing, they were acquiesced in, their liberty on payment of an in order to seize the opportunity of annual tribute. Such were the concluding a treaty for the safety vain propositions made. As it is of the Mahommedan nation; hither. evident that their pretension to to the greater part of them had liberty tended to nothing less been fulfilled; conferences were (Heaven preserve us from it) than also commenced relative to the to make all the countries of Eu. indemnified persons and Servia, rope and Asia, where the Greeks and although these two affairs are mingled with the Moslems, fall could not be amicably arranged, into the hands of the infidels; to they were taken into consideration place insensibly the Rayas in the as acts of violence. place of the Ottomans, and the Ot. Russia did not, however, stop tomans in the place of the Rayas; here. The military reforms adopt. to convert, perhaps, our mosques ed by the Porte gave her umbrage; into churches, and to make the she felt that resignation might make

that evil'fall on her, which she had given rise to the battle, the Porte prepared for Islamism. Then she had regard to circumstances, determined to give the Moslems po still preserved silence, and made further respite. Russia, England, use of policy for a last effort; at and France were to attack by the same time it invited the three force that liberty which was alone ambassadors to abstain from intermentioned.

ference in Greek affairs. Deaf to For a year past these three pow. the voice of justice, these infidels ers have together demanded Greek did not cease to require that their liberty through the medium of demand should be admitted, such their ambassadors officially and as it was, relative to Greek liberty. openly, as a simple concession. It may be said, even, that their re. The Porte could not yield accord. monstrances became more press. ing to the dictates of reason, poli. ing. At length the hostile views cy, and religion; the Moslem na. of the Franks against Islamism be. tion has been insulted by the pro. came evident. Yet, for the sake position; and it is impossible that of gaining time, at least till the it can ever consent to it. The summer, all possible caution was Porte endeavoured to make them used in the conferences which took renounce their pretensions, but place some weeks ago. It was without effect; proud of their notified several times to the Am. strength, they persisted obstinately bassadors, that as soon as the and rigorously to procure the ac. Greeks sued for their pardon, their ceptance of their demand, and faults should be forgotten-that ended by sending fleets into the their lives, their properties, and Mediterranean. They openly pre. their lauds, should be granted to vented the Ottoman and Egyptian them-that they should enjoy the squadrons, destined to punish the most perfect tranquillity and secu. rebels, from attacking the isles. rity-that they should be remitted These two squadrons having enter. the capitation and other taxes ed the port of Navarino, awaited owing since the insurrection ; that quietly the orders of the Porte, no further questions relative to other when the Russian, English, and imposts should be entertained ; that French fleet entered unexpectedly besides, to please the three pow. as friends, into the same port, be. ers, they should be exempt from gan a fire altogether, and every tribute for a year; in short, that one knows the catastrophe which they should enjoy all the privileyes befell the imperial squadron. of Rayas, but nothing beyond would

The three powers having thus be allowed. openly broken treaties, and de. In the course of the conferences, - clared war, the Porte had a good the Porte requested them to trans.

right to make reprisals, and to act mit to their courts these friendly very differently in the first instance declarations and sincere explana. with the ambassadors, the foreign. tions, with the promise that the ar. ers, and vessels which were here; mistice demanded by themselves but the ministers of those three should be preserved till the receipt courts having endeavoured to jus. of the answer. This invitation tify themselves by declaring that only increased their pride and their the commanders of the fleet had pretensions. Finally, they de. clared that they would consent to the defence of religion, how many nothing, unless the privileges in thousands of times have they not question were granted to the sent to the thousands of infidels ! Greeks inhabiting ancient Greece, How many states and provinces have that is, the Morea, Attica, the Isles they not conquered with the sabre of the Archipelago; and they an. in their hands! So often as we unite nounced that they would leave the together like them, and we fight capital altogether.

for the glory of God, the Most High Affairs are now in this situation. will enlighten us with his inspira. If now, God preserve us from it, tions, and our holy legislator will after seeing such conduct, and cover us with his tutelary shield; such condition, it were necessary his absent companions will serve to beat a retreat, and yield to the as guides, and no doubt, under demand in question, that is, the in- their auspices, we shall gain splendependence of the Greeks, the con. did victories. tagion would soon reach the Greeks If the three powers, seeing us, of Rumelia and Anatolia, without as before, determined to reject any possibility of stopping the evil; their vain demands, admit our an. they would all pretend to the same swers and explanations, and cease independence, or renounce the to interfere in Greek affairs, good; duties of Rayas; and in the course if, on the contrary, they should of one or two years, triumphing persist in wishing to force us to over the generous Moslem nation, accept their demand, then, even if they would end one day, by dicta. (according to the tradition that all ting law to us, and (Heaven pre. the infidels are only one nation) serve us from it) the ruin of our re. they should all league against us, ligion and empire would be the re. we shouldd recommend ourselves sult. While, thanks to God, the to God; we should place our. numerous provinces of Europe and selves under the protection of our Asia are filled with an immense holy prophet; and, united for the population of Moslems, will the defence of religion and the empire, sacred book and law allow us to all the Visirs, Ulemas, Ridjas, per. permit, through fear of war, our re. haps even all the Musselmans, ligion to be trampled under foot- would only form one body. to yield ourselves to the infidels, This war is not like the prece. our couutry, our wives, our chil. ding one-a political war for pro. dren, our possessions ?

vinces or frontiers-the object of Although at first, the whole the infidels being to destroy Islam. world were in the power of the in. ism, and to trample on the Mo. fidels, yet, at the appearance of the hammedan nation. This war true religion, God assisting the ought to be considered as a purely faithful, the Mussulmans our bro. religious and national war. May thers, who have appeared and dis. all the faithful, rich or poor, great appeared from the happy times of or small, know that combat is a our great prophet till now, have duty for us. Let them not then never, in any war, from their sin. think of any pay; far from that, cere devotion and unshaking cour. let us sacrifice our property and age, considered the number of the our persons; let us fulfil with zeal infidels; but, united in heart for the duties which the honour of Is. lamism imposes upon us; let us diately perceived, that in the alter. unite our efforts---let us labour, native of seeing the main object of body and soul, for the maintenance that convention disappointed, by the of religion till the day of judgment. annihilation of the Greeks on the The Moslems have no other means continent, and the attack with which of obtaining their salvation in this Ibrahim Pasha threatened the islands world or the other.

of the Archipelago, after the faith. We hope that the Most High lessness of the latter had been will deign to confound and disperse proved by two violations, on the every where the infidels—the ene. 13th and 21st of September, of the mies of our religion and our em armistice solemnly concluded with pire : and that, at all times, in all him, the Admirals who had entered places, and on all occasions, he will the Bay of Navarino with the most grant to the faithful both victory pacific intentions, but were then and triumph. Our true situation attacked, had merely fulfilled the being known to all Mussulmen, can instructions given them in accept. we doubt that, however little faith and ing the combat, and that they have piety they may have, they will ac. ' successfully served the common knowledge their duty; that they cause. - The battle of Navarino will unite heart and soul for the places, in a clear light, the alliance, maintenance of our religion and and the policy of the powers who empire, as well for their salvation signed the treaty of London; it in this world as in the other ;-that gives reason to hope that the Porte, in time of need they will perform being at length made sensible of its with valour and zeal the duties of error, will hasten to accept the terms, war, and fulfil the requisitions of which certainly call for some sacri. our holy law ? Suceour is sent fices; but, at the same time, securo from God!

to it valuable compensation. The

. resolutions of the sultan must now. Circular note of Count Nesselrode to decide those which our august mo

the legation, respecting the rela- narch will take. At all events, tions with the Porte. . . whether the Porte may determine

St. Petersburg, Nov. 12, 1827. upon à conduct conformable to our *- At the moment when the deci. wishes, or whether it may add to the sive battle which the allied squadrons disadvantages of its situation by were obliged to fight with the Turk, hostile measures, his majesty the ish and Egyptian fleet in the Bay emperor is firmly resolved, in con. of Navarino excites general atten. cert with England and France, to tion, I consider it as proper to proceed in the execution of the acquaint you, sir, of the point of treaty of the 6th of July ; to effect view in which the imperial cabinet with them the beneficent stipula. considers that remarkable event. tions of that treaty; and, in every Undoubtedly, it would have been state of affairs, to observe the geneour first wish to see the treaty of rous principle which forbids the London carries into effect without contracting powers to form any bloodshed, and on this account we views of an aggrandizement by conlament our victory ;. but, on the quest, or of any exclusive advantage. other hand, the emperor has imme.


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