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Manifesto of Russia, against the Persia waver, by promising power. Porte.

ful aid ; arming in haste the troops By the grace of God, we, Ni. in the adjoining provinces, and pre. cholas I. emperor and autocrat of paring to support, by a threatening all the Russias, &c. &c. The attack, this treacherous hostile lantreaty of Bucharest, concluded in guage. This is the series of inju. the year 1812 with the Ottoman ries of which Turkey has been Porte, after having been for six. guilty, from the conclusion of the teen years the subject of reiterated treaty of Akerman up to this day, disputes, now no longer subsists, in and this is unhappily the fruit of spite of all of our exertions to the sacrifices and the generous ex. maintain it, and to preserve it from ertions by which Russia has in. all attacks. The Porte, not satis. . cessantly endeavoured to main. fied with having destroyed the basis tain peace with a neighbouring naof that treaty, now defies Russia, tion. and prepares to wage against it a But all patience has its limit. bellum ad internacionem ; it sum. The honour of the Russian namemons its people in a mass to arms- the dignity of the empire-the in accuses Russia of being its irre. violability of its rights, and that of concilable enemy, and tramples our national glory, have prescribed under foot the convention of Aker to us the bounds of it. man, and with it that of all preced. It is not till after having weighed ing treaties. .

in their fullest extent the duties Lastly, the Porte does not hesi. imposed on us by imperative ne. tate to declare that it accepted the cessity, and inspired with the conditions of this peace only as a greatest confidence in the justice mask to conceal its intentions and of our cause, that we have ordered its preparations for a new war. our army to advance, under the Scarcely is this remarkable con. divine protection, against an ene. fession made, when the rights of my who violates the most sacred the Russian flag are violated-the obligations of the law of nations. vessels which it covers detained. We are convinced that our faith. and the cargoes made the prey of ful subjects will join with our praya rapacious and arbitrary govern- ers, the most ardent wishes for the ment. Our subjects found them. success of our enterprise, and that selves compelled to break their they will implore the Almighty to oath, or to leave without delay a lend his support to our brave sol. hostile country. The Bosphorus is diers, and to shed his divine bless. closed--our trade annihilated-ouring on our arms, which are des southern provinces, deprived of the tined to defend our liberty, religion, only channel for the exportation of and our beloved country. their produce, are threatened with Given at St. Petersburg, the 14th incalculable injury. Nay more :- (26th) April, in the year of our At the moment when the negotia. Lord, 1828, and the third of our tions between Russia and Persia reign. are nearly concluded, a sudden

(Signed,) NICHOLAS. change on the part of the Persian government checks the course of

(Countersigned by the vice chanthem. It soon appears that the cellor,) Qttoman Porte exerts itself to make COUNT NESSELRODE.


faith to arms against Russia, de. All the wishes of Russia to re. nouncing it as the implacable ene. main at peace with a neighbouring my of Islamism, accusing it of a nation have proved vain, notwith. design to overthrow the Ottoman standing its great patience and the empire, and while it announces its most costly sacrifices: she has been resolution to negotiate, for the sole obliged to confide to arms the de. purpose of gaining time for arming, fence of her rights in the Levant, but never intending to fulfil the es. and energetically to impress on the sential articles of the treaty of Ottoman Porte respect for existing Akerman, it declares at the same treaties. It will, however, deve. time, that it concluded that treaty lope the imperative and just mo. with no other design than that of tives which impose on it the me. breaking it; the Porte knew well lancholy necessity of such a reso. that in this manner it also broke all lution. Sixteen years have pass d preceding treaties, the renewal of since the peace of Bucharest, and which was expressly stipulated by for the same period we have seen that of Akerman ; but it had al. the Porte act contrary to the stipu. ready taken its resolutions beforelations of the treaty,-evade its hand, and regulated all its steps ac. promises, or indefinitely delay the cordingly. fulfilment of them. But too many Scarcely had the sultan spoken proofs which the imperial cabinet with the vassals of his crown, will adduce, irrefragably prove this when the privileges of the Russian infatuated hostile tendency of the flag were already violated, the policy of the divan. On more than ships covered by it detained, their one occasion, particularly in 1821, cargoes sequestrated, the command. the Porte assumed with respect to ers of the ships obliged to dispose Russia a character of defiance and of them at prices arbitrarily fixed, open hostility. For these three the amount of an incomplete and months past it has again assumed tardy payment reduced to one half, this character, by formal acts and and the subjects of his majesty the measures which are known to all emperor, compelled either to de. Europe.

scend into the class of cayas, or to On the same day that the am. leave in a body the dominions of bassadors of the three powers, who the Ottoman government. Mean. by a convention free from all self time the trade of the Bosphorus is interestedness, are united in a cause closed, the trade of the Black Sea which is no other than that of reli. hindered, the Russian towns, whose gion and of suffering humanity, ex. existence depend upon it, see de. pressed at their departure from struction before their eyes, and the Constantinople an ardent wish that southern provinces of his majesty peace might be preserved ; on the the emperor, lose the only channel same day when they pointed out for the exportation of their produce, the easy means of attaining that and the only maritime connexion object, and when the Porte in the which can promote the exchange game manner, most positively ex. of their commodities, render their pressed its pacific disposition, on industry productive, and favour that same day it summoned all na. their manufactures and prosperity. tions professing the Mahometan Even the boundaries of Turkey did not limit the expression of these pear in a stronger light where they hostile sentiments. At the same follow the most evident modera. time that they were expressed at tion, and the most irrefragible proofs Constantinople, General Pascovich, of pacific intentions. The sacrifi. after the conclusion of a glorious ces which Russia, ever since the campaign, was negotiating a treaty memorable epoch which overthrew of peace with Persia, the condi. at the same time military despo. tions of which were already ac. tism, and the spirit of revolution, cepted by the court of Teheran. has imposed on itself, with a view to On a sudden, lukewarmness suc. secure to the world a durable ceded to the eagerness which had peace; these sacrifices, equally vohitherto been shown for the con- luntary and numerous, inspired by clusion of a convention which was the most liberal policy, are known already approved by both par. to the world; the history of late ties in all its particulars. These years testifies them; and even Tur. delays were followed by difficul. key, though little disposed duly to ties, and then by an evidently hos. appreciate them, and in nowise en. tile tendency; and while on the titled to pretend to them, has felt one hand the conduct of the neigh, their favourable effects ; yet it has bouring pachas, who hastily armed, not ceased to overlook the advan. manifested this tendency, on the tages ot'is stipulations with the ca. other hand authentic information, binet of St. Petersburg, of the fun. and positive confessions, revealed damental treaties of Kainurdjee, the secret of the promise of a di. Jassy, and Bucharest, which, while version which was to oblige us to they place the existence of the make new efforts.

. Porte and the integrity of its fronThus the Turkish government, tiers, under the protection of the in its proclamations, announced its law of nations, must naturally have intention of breaking its treaties an influence on the duration of the with Russia, while it annihilated empire. them by its actions ; thus it an. Scarcely was the peace of 1812 nounced war for a remote future signed, when it was thought that the time ; when it had already begun difficult, but eventful, circumstan. it in fact against the subjects and ces in which Russia then was, the commerce of Russia. Where might be said with impunity to re. war was just extinguished, it tried double the violations of its engage. to rekindle it. Russia will no longer ments. An amnesty was promised dwell on the motives which entitle to the Servians; ins:ead of that an it not to bear such evidently hos. invasion took place and a dreadful tile actions. If a state could re. massacre. The privileges of Mol. nounce its dearest interests, sacri. davia and Wallachia were guaran. fice its honour, and give up the tied; but a system of plunder comtransactions which are the monu. pleted the ruin of those unhappy ments of its glory and the pledges provinces. Theincursions of the of its prosperity, it would be a trai. tribes which inhabit the left bank tor to itself, and by disregarding its of the Kuban were to be prevented rights become guilty of disregard. by the care of the Porte ; but Tur. ing its duties.

key, not contented with raising preSuch rights and such duties ap- tensions to several fortresses, ab.

solutely necessary for the security.voured to tire out his patience, to of our Asiatic possessions-preten- dispute his rights, to call in ques. sions, the weakness of which it had tion his good intentions, to defy the itself recognised by the conven- superiority of Russia, which saw tion of Akerman, made them still itself bound solely by the wish of weaker, by favouring on the coasts preserving the general peace, and of the Black Sea, and even in our to try its patience to the utmost. vicinity, the slave trade, pillage, And yet war with Turkey would and disorders of all kinds. Nay, not in any way have embarrassed more : then, as now, ships bearing the relations of Russia with its the Russian flag were detained in other allies. No convention, con. the Bosphorus, their cargoes se. taining a guaranty, no positive obli. questrated, and the stipulations of gation, connected the fate of the the commercial treaty of 1783, Ottoman empire with the concilia. openly violated. This took place tory stipulations of 1814 and 1815, at the very moment when the under the protection of which civi. purest glory and victory in a sacred lized and Christain Europe reposed cause crowned the arms of his ma. after its long dissentions, and the jesty the emperor Alexander, of governments found themselves uni. immortal memory. Notbing bin. ted by the recollections of common dered him from turning his arms glory and a happy coincidence in against the Ottoman empire. But principles and views. After five that monarch, a pacific conqueror, years of well-meant endeavours, superior to every feeling of enmity, supported by the representations of avoided even the justest occasion Russia, and equally long evasions to punish the insults offered him, and delays on the part of the and would not again interrupt the Porte-after several points of the peace restored to Europe by gene. negotiation relative to the execu. rous exertions and with noble in. tion of the treaty of Bucharest tentions, immediately after it had seemed to be already settled, a ge. been consolidated. His situation neral insurrection in the Morea, offered him immense advantages; and the hostile invasion of a chief he renounced them, to commence, of a party unfaithful to his duty, in 1816, negotiations with the Turk- excited in the Turkish government ish government, founded on the and nation, all the emotions of blind. principle and the wish to obtain, by hatred against the Christians to it, amicable arrangement, securities without distinction between the for peace, and a faithful adherence guilty and the innocent. Russia to existing treaties, as well as for did not hesitate a moment to testify the maintenance of reciprocal pa. its disapprobation of the enterprise cific relations; securities which of prince Ypsilanti. As protector the emperor's hand might have ex. of the two principalities, it approv. torted from the Porte, which was ed of the legal measures of defence not able to resist him. Such great and suppression adopted by the di. moderation was not, however, duly van, at the same time insisting on appreciated. For five years to the necessity of not confounding gether the divan was unmoved by the the innocent part of the population conciliatory overtures of the em. with the seditious, who were to be peror Alexander, and endea. disarmed and punished. These coun. cils were rejected, the representative resources, persisted in the execu. of his imperial majesty was insulted tion of a plan for the destruction of in his own residence, the chief Greek all the Christians subject to its clergy, with the patriarch at their power. The war with the Greeks head, were subjected to an infa. was prosecuted with increased acri. mous capital punishment amidst the mony, in spite of the mediation, the solemnities of our holy religion. object of which then was the paci. Many Christians, without distinc. fication of the Greeks. tion, were seized, plundered, and The situation of the divan, not. massacred without trial; the re. withstanding the exemplary fideli. mainder fled.

ty of the Servians, became, from The flame of insurrection, far day to day, more hostile towards from abating, spread meantime on them, and the occupation of Mol. every side. In vain did the Rus. davia and Wallachia was protract. sian ambassador endeavour to ren. ed, notwithstanding the solemn der the Porte a last service. In promises made to the representa. vain did he show by his note of the tive of Great Britain, and even 6th July, 1827, a way to safety and notwithstanding the manifest will. reconciliation. After he had pro. ingness of Russia, as soon as those tested against the crimes and ebul. promises were given, to restore its litions of rage, unparalleled in his former relations with the Porte. tory, he found himself obliged to So many hostile measures could obey the commands of his sove. not fail, in the end, to exhaust the reign, and to leave Constantinople. patience of the emperor AlexanAbout this time it happened that der. In the month of October, the powers allied with Russia, 1825, he caused an energetic pro. whose interest equally required the test to be presented to the Ottoman maintenance of general peace, ministry, and when a premature were eager to offer and employ death snatched him away, from the their services for the purpose of love of his people, he had just dispelling the storm which threat. made a declaration that he would ened to burst over the infatuated regulate the relations with Turkey Turkish government. Russia on according to the rights and inteits part delayed the remedy of its rests of his empire. A new own just grievances, in the hope reign began, and a further proof that it should be able to conciliate was furnished of that love of peace, what it owed to itself, with the mo. which the former government had deration that the situation of Eu. left as a fair inheritance.. Scarce. rope, and its tranquillity, at that ly had the emperor Nicholas as. time more than ever endangered, cended the throne, when he com. seemed to require. Great as these menced negotiations with the sacrifices were, they were fruit. Porte, to settle various differences less. All the efforts of the empe. which concerned only Russia, ror's allies were successively baf- and on the 23d March, and 4th fled by the obstinacy of the Porte, April, 1827, laid down, in common which, perhaps, equally in error with his majesty the king of Great with respect to the motives of our Britain, the basis of a mediation, conduct, and the extent of its own which the general good preremp.

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