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two thousand one hundred and thir. experienced in the revolutions of ty-five dollars and seventy-eight time, but the first of several scanty cents.

harvests in succession. We may That the revenue of the ensuing consider it certain that, for the ap. year will not fall short of that re. proaching year, it has added an ceived in the one now expiring, item of large amount to the value there are indications which can of our exports, and that it will pro. scarcely prove deceptive. In our duce a corresponding increase of country, an uniform experience of importations. It may, therefore, forty years has shown that whate. confidently be foreseen, that the ver the tariff of duties upon articles revenue of 1829 will equal, and imported from abroad has been, probably exceed, that of 1828, and the amount of importations has al. will afford the means of extinguishways borne an average value near ing ten millions more of the princi. ly approaching to that of the ex. pal of the public debt. ports, though occasionally differing This new element of prosperity in the balance, sometimes being to that part of our agricultural in more, and sometimes less. It is, in- dustry which is occupied in produ. deed, a general law of prosperous cing the first article of human subcommerce, that the real value of sistence, is of the most cheering exports should, by a small, and oncharacter to the feelings of patriotly a small balance, exceed that of ism. Proceeding from a cause imports, that balance being a per- which humanity will view with con. manent addition to the wealth of cern, the sufferings of scarcity in the nation. The extent of the pros. distant lands, it yields a consolaperous commerce of the nation tory reflection, that this scarcity is must be regulated by the amount in no respect attributable to us. of its exports; and an important That it comes from the dispensa. addition to the value of these will tion of Him who ordains all in wis. draw after it a corresponding in. dom and goodness, and who permits crease of importations. It has evil itself only as an instrument of happened, in the vicissitudes of the good. That, far from contributing seasons, that the harvests of all Eu to this scarcity, our agency will be rope have, in the late summer and applied only to the alleviation of autumn, fallen short of their usual its severity; and that in pouring average. A relaxation of the in- forth, from the abundance of our terdict upon the importion of grain own garners, the supplies which and flour from abroad has ensued; will partially restore plenty to those a propitious market has been open- who are in need, we shall oured to the granaries of this country; selves reduce our stores, and add and a new prospect of reward pre to the price of our own bread, so sented to the labours of the hus. as in some degree to participate in. bandman, which, for several years, the wants which it will be the good has been denied. This accession fortune of our country to relieve. to the profits of agriculture in the The great interests of an agri. middle and western portions of our cultural, commercial, and manufac. Union, is accidental and temporary. turing nation, are so linked in It may continue only for a single union together, that no permanent year. It may be, as has been often cause of prosperity to one of them

can operate without extending its of the northern and eastern part of influence to the others. All these our Union. It refuses even the interests are alike under the pro. rice of the south, unless aggrava. tecting power of the legislative ted with a charge of duty upon the authority; and the duties of the re. northern carrier who brings it to presentative bodies are to conciliate them. But the cotton, indispensa. them iu barmony together. So far ble for their looms, they will re. as the objeect of taxation is to raise ceive almost duty free, to weave it a revenue for discharging the debts, into a fabric for our own wear, to the and defraying the expenses of the destruction of our own manufac. community, it should as much as tures, which they are enabled thus possible suit the burden with equal to undersell. Is the self.protecthand upon all, in proportion with ing energy of this nation so help. their ability of bearing it without 'less, that there exists in the politi. oppression. But the legislation of cal institutions of our country, no one nation is sometimes intention. power to counteract the bias of this ally made to bear heavily upon the foreign legislation ? that the grow. interests of another. That legis. ers of grain must submit to this ex. lation, adapted, as it is meant to clusion from the foreign markets be, to the special interests of its of their produce ; that the shippers own people, will often press most must dismantle their ships, the trade unequally upon the several com. of the north stagnate at the wharves, ponent interests of its neighbours and the manufacturers starve at Thus, the legislation of Great Bri. their looms, while the whole peo. tain, when, as has recently been ple shall pay tribute to foreign in. avowed, adapted to the depression dustry to be clad in a foreign garb; of a rival nation, will naturally that the Congress of the Union are abound with regulations of inter- impotent to restore the balance in dict upon the productions of the favour of native industry destroyed soil or industry of the other which by the statutes of another realm? come in competition with its own; More just and more generous senand will present encouragement, timents will, I trust, prevail. If the perhaps even bounty, to the raw tariff adopted at the last session material of the other state, which of Congress, shall be found by exit cannot produce itself, and which perience to bear öppressively upon is essential for the use of its manu. the interests of any one section of facutures, competitors in the mar. the Union, it ought to be, and I kets of the world with those of its cannot doubt it will be, so modified commercial rival. Such is the as to alleviate its burden. To the state of the commercial legislation voice of just complaint from any of Great Britain as it bears upon portion of their constituents, the our interests. It excludes, with in representatives of the states and terdicting duties, all importations, people will never turn away their (except in time of approaching ears. But so long as the duty of famine) of the great staple produc. the foreign shall operate only as a tions of our Middle and Western bounty upon the domestic article States; it proscribes, with equal —while the planter, and the mer. rigour, the bulkier lumber and live chant, and the shepherd, and the stock of the same portion, and also husbandman, shall be found thriv. ing in their occupations under the The tariff of the last session was, duties imposed for the protection in its details, not acceptable to the of domestic manufactures, they will great interests of any portion of the not repine at the prosperity shared Union, not even to the interests with themselves by their fellow which it was especially intended citizens of other professions, nor to subserve. Its object was to ba. denounce, as violations of the con- lance the burdens upon native in. stitution, the deliberate acts of con. dustry imposed by the operation of gress to shield from the wrongs of foreign laws; but not to aggravate foreign laws the native industry of the burdens of one section of the the Union. While the tariff of the Union by the relief afforded to an. last session of Congress was a sub- other. To the great principle sanc. ject of legislative deliberation, it tioned by that act, one of those up. was foretold by some of its oppo. on which the Constitution itself was sers that one of its necessary con. formed, I hope and trust the ausequences would be to impair the thorities of the Union will adhere. revenue. It is yet too soon to pro. But if any of the duties imposed nounce, with confidence, that this by the act only relieve the manuprediction was erroneous. The facturer by aggravating the bur. obstruction of one avenue of trade den of the planter, let a careful not unfrequently opens an issue to revisal of its provisions, enlighten. another. The consequence of the ed by practical experience of its tariff will be to increase the expor effects, be directed to retain those tation, and to diminish the impor. which impart protection to native tation of some specific articles industry, and remove or supply the But, by the general law of trade, place of those which only alleviate the increase of exportation of one one great national interest by the article will be followed by an in. depression of another. creased importation of others, the The United States of America, duties upon which will supply the and the people of every state of deficiencies, which the diminished which they are composed, are each importation would otherwise occa. of them sovereign powers: The sion. The effect of taxation upon legislative authority of the whole revenue can seldom be foreseen is exercised by Congress, under with certainty. It must abide the authority granted them in the com. test of experience. As yet, no mon constitution. The legislasymptoms of diminution are per. tive power of each state is exerci. ceptible in the receipts of the trea. sed by assemblies deriving their sury. As yet, little addition of authority from the constitution of cost has even been experienced the state. Each is sovereign with. upon the articles burthened with in its own province. The distribu. heavier duties by the last tariff. tion of power between them, preThe domestic manufacturer sup. supposes that these authorities will plies the same or a kindred article move in harmony with each other. at a diminished price, and the con. The members of the state and gesumer pays the same tribute to the neral governments are all under labour of his own countryman, oath to support both, and alle. which he must otherwise have paid giance is due to the one and to the to foreign industry and toil.. other. The case of a conflict be. tween these two powers has not. The attention of Congress is been supposed; nor has any pro. particularly invited to that part of vision been made for it in our insti. ihe report of the secretary of war tutions; as a virtuous nation of an. which concerns the existing sys. cient times existed more than five tem of our relations with the In. centuries without a law for the pun. dian tribes. At the establishment ishment of parricide.

of the federal government, under More than once, however, in the the present Constitution of the Uni. progress of our history, have the ted States, the principle was adopt. people and the legislatures of one ed of considering them as foreign or more states, in moments of ex. and independent powers; and also citement, been instigated to this as proprietors of lands. They conflict ; and the means of affect. were, moreover, considered as sa. ing this impulse have been allega. vages, whom it was our policy and tions that the acts of Congress to our duty to use our influence in be resisted were unconstitutional converting to Christianity, and in The people of no one state have bringing within the pale of civiliza. ever delegated to their legislature tion. the power of pronouncing an act of As independent powers, we ne. Congress unconstitutional; but they gotiated with them by treaties; as have delegated to them powers, by proprietors, we purchased of them the exercise of which the execu. all the lands which we could pre. tion of the laws of Congress with vail upon them to sell; as breth. in the state may be resisted. If we ren of the human race, rude and suppose the case of such conflict. ignorant, we endeavoured to bring ing legislation sustained by the them to the knowledge of religion corresponding executive and judi. and of letters. The ultimate de. cial authorities, Patriotism and Phi. sign was to incorporate in our own lanthropy turn their eyes from the institutions that portion of them condition in which the parties would which could be converted to the be placed, and from that of the state of civilization. In the prac. people of both, which must be its tice of European states, before our victims.

revolution, they had been consider. The reports from the Secretary ed as children to be governed ; as of War, and from the various sub. tenants at discretion, to be dispos. ordinate offices of the resort of that sessed as occasion might require ; department, present an exposition as hunters, to be indemnified by of the public administration of af. trifling concessions for removal fairs connected with them, through from the grounds upon which their the course of the current year. The game was extirpated. In chang. present state of the army, and the ing the system, it would seem as if distribution of the force of which a full contemplation of the conse. it is composed, will be seen from the quences of the change had not been report of the Major General. Seve. taken. We have been far more ral alterations in the disposal of the successful in the acquisition of their troops have been found expedient lands than in imparting to them the in the course of the year, and the principles, or inspiring them with discipline of the army, though not the spirit of civilization. But in entirely free from exception, has appropriating to ourselves their beco generally good.

hunting-grounds, we have brought navy, prepares for our extensive upon ourselves the obligation of country a condition of defence providing them with subsistence; adapted to any critical emergency and when we have had the rare which the varying course of events good fortune of teaching them the may bring forth. Our advances arts of civilization, and the doc- in these concerted systems have trines of christianity, we have un. for the last ten years been steady expectedly found them forming, in and progressive; and in a few the midst of ourselves, communities years more will be so completed as claiming to be independent of ours, to leave no cause for apprehension and rivals of sovereignty within the that our sea coast will ever again territories of the members of our offer a theatre of hostile invasion. Union. This state of things re. The next of these cardinal mea. quires that a remedy should be pro. sures of policy, is the preliminary vided. A remedy which, while it to great and lasting works of pub. shall do justice to those unfortunate lic improvement, in the surveys of children of nature, may secure to roads, examination for the course the members of our confederation of canals, and labours for the remo. their rights of sovereignty and of val of the obstructions of rivers and soil. As the outline of a project to harbours, first commencod by the that effect, the views presented in act of Congress of 30th April, the report of the secretary of war 1824. are recommended to the consider. The report exhibits in one table ation of Congress.

the funds appropriated at the last The report from the engineer and preceding sessions of Congress, department presents a comprehen. for all these fortifications, surveys, sive view of the progress which and works of public improvement; has been made in the great systems the manner in which these funds promotive of the public interest, have been applied, the amount ex. commenced and organized under pended upon the several works the authority of Congress, and the under construction, and the further effects of which have already con. sums which may be necessary to tributed to the security, as they will complete them. In a second, the hereafter largely contribute to the works projected by the board of honour and dignity of the nation. engineers, which have not been

The first of these great systems commenced, and the estimate of is that of fortifications, commenced their cost. immediately after the close of our In a third, the report of the an. last war, under the salutary experi. nual board of visiters at the Mili. ence which the events of that war tary Academy at West Point. had impressed upon our country. For thirteen fortifications erected men of its necessity. Introduced on various points of our Atlantic under the auspices of my immedi. coast from Rhode Island to Loui. ate predecessor, it has been con. siana, the aggregate expenditure of tinued with the persevering and libe. the year has fallen a little short of ral encouragement of the legisla. one million of dollars. ture; and coinbined with corres. For the preparation of five ad. ponding exertions for the gradual ditional reports of reconnoissances increase and improvement of the and surveys since the last session

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