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and consent of the senate, he has contradistinction to a body clothed selected you for this interesting with powers of ordinary legislaservice. And it is his wish that tion; that is to say, no one of the you should proceed, with all prac. states represented is to be consid. ticable despatch, to Panama. For ered bound by any treaty, conventhe purpose of carrying out Mr. tion, pact, or act, to which it does Sergeant, the United States ship not subscribe, and expressly as. Lexington has been prepared, and sent by its acting representative; is now ready to sail from the port and that in the instance of treaties, of New York, to Porto Bello. Mr. conventions, and pacts, they are to Anderson, having been notified of be returned, for final ratification, to his appointment, has been directed each contracting state, according to leave the affairs of the United to the provisions of its particular State at Bogota in the charge of constitution. All idea is, there. such person as he may, for that fore, excluded of binding a minori. purpose, designate, and to join Mr. ty to agreements and acts contra. Sergeant at Porto Bello, from ry to its will, by the mere circum. whence it is supposed it will be stance of a concurrence of a ma. most convenient to proceed, by jority of the states in those agree. land across the isthmus to Panama. ments and acts. Each state will, Ministers from several of the pow. consequently, be governed and left ers have, probably by this time, free, according to its own sense of reached that place, and they may its particular interests. All notion even have proceeded to a compa. is rejected of an Amphyctionic rison of their respective creden- council, invested with power final. tials, and to conferences on some ly to decide controversies between of the objects of the Congress; the American states, or to regu. but it is probable they will have late, in any respect, their conduct. deferred, until your arrival, a con. Such a council might have been sideration of those deliberations in well enough adapted to a number which it was expected we should of smal, contracted states, whose take part.
united territory would fall short of Your power, accompanying this the extent of that of the smallest of letter, is joint and several, authori. the American powers. The compli. zing you to confer and treat with cated and various interests which ministers, also, duly authorized, appertain to the nations of this vast from all or any of the American continent, cannot be safely confi. powers, of peace, friendship, com- ded to the superintendence of one merce, navigation, maritime law, legislative authority. We should neutral and belligerent rights, and almost as soon expect to see an other matters interesting to the con. Amphyctionic council to regulate tinent of America. After the mu- the affairs of the whole globe. But tual exchange of powers, it will be even if it were desirable to estab. necessary to determine the forms lish such a tribunal, it is beyond of deliberation, and the modes of the competency of the government proceeding, of the Congress. It of the United States voluntarily to is distinctly understood by the assent to it, without a previous President, that it is to be regarded, change of their actual constitution. in all respects, as diplomatic, in Although the speculation of such
à council has been sometimes by protocol, in which the mutual made, and associated in the pub. propositions of the parties, together lic papers with the contemplated with such concise observations as Congress, we can hardly antici- any of them desire to have presery. pate that it will be seriously press. ed, are carefully recorded. But ed by any of the powers. The you are left free to agree to that Congresses which have been so mode of proceeding, with the indis. common in Europe, especially with. pensable limitation before stated, in these later times, have been al. which, under all circumstances, together diplomatic, and, conse. shall appear to you most advisable. quently, the states whose ministers Your power conveys an authority composed them, were only bound to treat with all or any of the Na. by their signatures. With this tions represented at the Congress, necessary and indispensable re. on any of the subjects comprised in striction upon the action of the Con. your instructions. And on those, gress, great advantages may, ne. especially, of commerce and navi. vertheless, be derived from an as. gation, maritime law, and neutral sembly, at the same time and place, and belligerent rights, it is the Pre. of ministers from all the American sident's wish, that, if those interests nations. Such an assembly will cannot be adjusted satisfactorily to afford great facilities for free and all the attending Powers, you should friendly conferences, for mutual form, nevertheless, treaties with and necessary explanations, and such as may be disposed to con. for discussing and establishing clude them with you. But, in the some general principles, applica. conduct of any such separate ne. ble to peace and war, to commerce gotiations, you will carefuily avoid and navigation, with the sanction giving any occasion of offence to of all America. Treaties may be those powers who may decline concluded, in the course of a few treating; and, if you should have months, at such a Congress, laying strong reason to believe that the the foundation of lasting amnity and fact itself, of opening such separate good neighbourhood, which it would negotiations, would have the ten. require many years to consummate, dency of creating unfriendly feela if, indeed, they would be at all ings and relations with other Ame. practicable, by separate and suc- rican Powers, you will decline en. cessive negotiations, conducted be. tering on them altogether. You tween the several powers, at differ. are also authorized to agree upon ent times and places. Keeping a transfer of the conferences from constantly in view the essential Panama to any other place on the character and object of the Con. American Continent, that may be gress, which have been described, considered more eligible for con. it is not very important in what ducting them. manner its conferences and discus. In now proceeding to direct your sions may be regulated.
attention particularly to the instruc. Experience has, perhaps, suffi. tions of the President, by which, ciently established, that, for preci. after having settled the preliminary sion, for safety to the negotiators point to which I have just adverted, themselves, and for an early prac. you will govern yourselves, the first tical result, it is wisest to proceed observation to be made is, that, in acceding to the invitation which has pated, will engage the consideration been accepted, no intention has been of the Congress at Panama. entertained to change the present These subjects may be arranged pacitic and neutral policy of the under two general heads : Ist, Such United States. On the contrary, as relate to the future prosecution it has been distinctly understood by 'of the present war with Spain, by the three Republics who gave the the combined or separate operation invitation, and has been enforced otthe American belligerents. And, on our part, in all our communica. 20. Those in which all the Nations tions with them in regard to it, that of America, whether neutral or bel. the United States would strictly ad. ligerent, may have an interest. here to that policy, and mean faith. In respect to the first, for reasons fully to perform all their neutral already stated, we can take no part. obligations. Whilst the existing Discussions of them must be con. war is limited to the present par. fined to the parties to the war. You ties, it is as unnecessary as it would will refrain from engaging in them. be unwise, in the United States, to You will not be expected or desired become a belligerent. A state of to do so. But, whilst it has been things can hardly be imagined, in perfectly understood that the United which they would voluntarily take Stales could not, at the Congress, part on the side of Spain ; and on jeopard their neutrality, they may that of the Republics it would be be urged to contract an alliance, entirely useless, since they have offensive and defensive, on the con. been all along able, unaided, iri. tingency of an atiempt by the Pow. umphantly to maintain their cause, ers of Europe, commonly called the and to conquer the arms, if they Holy Alliance, either to aid Spain have not overcome the obstinacy, to reduce the new American Re. of Spain. By maintaining the neu. publics to their ancient colonial tral position which the United States state, or to compel them to adopt have assumed, they have been en political systems more conformable abled to hold strong language to to the policy and views of that Al. Europe, and successfully to check liance. Upon the supposition of any disposition which existed there such an attempt being actually to assist Spain in the re-conquest made, there can be no doubt what of the Colonies. If they had de. it would be the interest and bounden parted from their neutrality, and duty of the United States to do. precipitated themselves into the Their late Chief Magistrate so. war, there was much reason to ap lemnly declared what, in that event, prehend that their exertions might he considered they ought to do. have been neutralized, if not over. The people of the United States balanced, by those of other Powers, acquiesced in the declaration, and who would have been drawn, by their present Chief Magistrate en. that rash example, into the war, in tirely concurs in it. If, indeed, behalf of Spain. Keeping, there- the Powers of Continental Europo fore, constantly in view the settled could have allowed themselves to pacific policy of the United States, engage in the war, for either of the and the duties which flow from their purposes just indicated, the United neutrality, the subjects will now be States in opposing them with their particularized, which, it is antici. whole force, would have been
hardly entitled to the merit of act. new American Republics. If that ing on the impulse of a generous Alliance has seen, with any dis. sympathy with infant,oppressed,and satisfaction, (as may be well ima. struggling Nations. The United gined,) the successful progress of States, in the contingencies which those Republics, both in the war have heen stated, would have been and in the establishment of their compelled to fight their own proper free political systems, they have battles, not less so because the confined themselves to silent and storm of war happened to range on unavailing regrets. another part of this continent, at a The auspicious course of events distance from their borders. For has not only occasioned the aban. it cannot be doubted that the pre. donment of any hostile intentions sumptuous spirit which would have which were entertained, if such impelled Europe upon the other were ever entertained, by the Eu. American Republics, in aid of Spain, ropean alliance, but there is strong or on account of the forms of their reason to hope that it has led to the political institutions, would not have creation of pacific, if not friendly, been appeasod, if her arms, in such views towards our sister republics. an unrighteous contest, should have Upon the entry of the President of been successful, until they were the United States on the duties of extended here, and every vestige his present office, his attention was of human freedom had been oblite. anxiously directed to, and has been rated within these States.
since unremittingly employed on There was a time when such de. the object of establishing peace be. signs were seriously apprehended; tween Spain and those Republics. and it is believed that the declara. In considering the means for its ac. tion of the late President to the complishment, no very sanguine Congress of the United States, hope was indulged from an approach which has been already referred to, to Spain directly, and it was thought had a powerful effect in disconcert. best to endeavour to operate on her ing and arresting their progress. through that alliance on whose About the same period, Great Bri. countenance and support she main. tain manifested a determination to ly relied for the recovery of the co. pursue the same policy, in regard lonies. Russia was known to be to the new Republics, which the the soul of that alliance, and to the United States had previously mark Emperor, of whose wisdom and ed out for themselves. After these friendship the United States had so two great maritime powers, Great many proofs, the appeal was at once Britain and the United States, had made. A copy of the note from this let Continental Europe know that Department to the American Mi. they would not see with indifference nister at St. Petersburg, on that any forcible interposition in behalf subject, accompanies these instruc. of Old Spain, it was evident that no tions. Copies of it were transmit. such interposition would, or, with ted, contemporaneously, to the any prospect of success, could be courts of London and Paris, whose afforded. Accordingly, since that co-operation in the work of peace period, there have been no intima.. was also invited. Our Minister at tions of any designs on the part of Madrid was instructed to lose no the European Alliance against the fit occasion there for creating or
strengthening a disposition towards which the Emperor of Russia has peace. The hope was cherished, given to the overture of the United thał, by a general and concerted States, to say nothing of the known movement of the United States and inclination of France and other the great powers of Europe at the Powers of the European Continent same time, the Councils of Spain to follow the exainple of the United might be prevailed upon to accede Staes and Great Britain, fully au. to a peace, which had become more thorizes the conclusion that the necessary, if possible, to her, than to Holy Alliance will not engage in the new Republics. An answer has the war, on the side of Spain, but lately been received here from St. will persevere in their actual neu. Petersburg, through Mr. Middleton, trality. The danger, therefore, a copy of which, together with co. from that quarter having disap. pies of his accompanying notes, is peared, there can be no necessity placed in your hands. From a pe at this time, for an offensive and rusal of these documents, the con- defensive alliance between the tents of which have been confirmed American Powers, which could on. by the Russian Minister, in officially find a justification, at any period, interviews which I have had with in the existence or continuation of him, you will perceive that the ap. such a danger. Such an alliance, peal to Russia has not been without under present circumstances, would effect; and that the late Emperor, be worse than useless ; since it sensible of the necessity of peace, might tend to excite feelings in the prior to his death, probably em. Emperor of Russia and his allies, ployed his good offices to bring it which should not be needlessly about. His successor has formally touched or provoked. announced his intention to tread in The Republic of Colombia has the path of his illustrious predeces. recently requested the friendly in. sor, and it is, therefore, most likely terposition of this government to that he will also direct the influence prevail upon Spain to agree to an of that government to the conclu. armistice, upon the conditions men. sion of a peace satisfactory to both tioned in Mr. Salazar's noie, of parties. It is possible that these which a copy, together with a copy efforts may not be effectual, and of mine in reply, acceding to the that the pride and obstinacy of Spain request, is now furnished. And in. may be unconquerable. There is structions have been accordingly however, much reason to hope, that given to the Ministers of the Uni. she may either consent to a peace, ted States at Madrid and St. Peupon the basis of the independence tersburg. of the colonies, or, if she feels that Other reasons concurto dissuade too humiliating, that she will agree the United States from entering to a suspension of hostilities, as was into such an alliance. From the formerly done in the case of the first establishment of their present Low Countries, which would, in the constitution, their illustrious states. end, inevitably lead to a formal ac. men have inculcated the avoidance knowledgment of the actual inde. of foreign alliances as a leading pendence of the new Republics. · maxim of their foreign policy. It Whatever may be the future course is true, that, in its adoption, their of Spain, the favourable reception attention was directed to Europe,