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judgment of the practicability and and the little respect which is there the probable expense of the under. shown to other races than the Afri. taking on the routes which offer the can, the question of acknowledging greatest facilities. Measures may its Independence was far from being have been already executed, or be unattended with difficulty, prior to in progress, to acquire the requisite the late arrangement, which, it is knowledge. You will inquire par. understood, has been made between ticularly as to what has been done, France and Hayti. According to or may have been desigred, by that arrangement, if we possess cor. Spain, or by either of the new rect information of its terms, the States, and obtain all other informa parent country acknowledges a notion that may be within your reach, minal independence in the colony, to solve this interesting problem. and, as a part of the price of this You will state to the Ministers of acknowledgment, Hayti agrees to the other American Powers, that receive for ever the produce of the government of the United States France at a rate of duty one half takes a lively interest in the exe. below that which is exacted, in the cution of the work, and will see, ports of Hayti, from all other Na. with peculiar satisfaction, that it lies tions. This is a restriction upon within the compass of reasonable the freedom of its action, to which human efforts. Their proximity no Sovereign Power, really inde. and local information render them pendent, would ever subscribe. more competent than the United There is no equivalent, on the side States are, at this time, to estimate of France, in the favourable terms the difficulties to be overcome. You on which the produce of Hayli is will receive and transmit to this received in the ports of France. Government any proposals that may If the colonial relation may be be made, or plans that may be sug. correctly described to be the mono. gested for its joint execution, with poly of the commerce of the colony, assurances that they will be atten. enjoyed by the parent State, it can. tively examined, with an earnest not be affirmed that Hayti has not desire to reconcile the interests voluntarily, by that arrangement, and views of all the American Na- consented to its revival. There tions.
was no necessity urging her to It will probably be proposed, as agree to it, however she may have a fit subject of consideratlon for the been called upon, by just and equi. powers represented at Panama, table considerations, to indemify whether Hayti ought to be recog. the former individual proprietors nised by them as an Independent for the loss of their property in St. State; and whether any decision Domingo. Prior to the conclusion taken, in that respect, should be of that arrangement, Hayti enjoyed, joint, or each power be left to pur no matter how established, a sort sue the dictates of its own policy of independence, in fact. By that The President is not prepared now arrangement, she has voluntarily, to say that Hayti ought to be recog. and in a most essential particular, nised as an Independent Sovereign in respect to all foreign nations, Power. Considering the nature and changed her character, and has the manner of the establishment of become, to say the least, not an the governing power in that Island, independent state. Under the ac.
tual circumstances of Hayti, the their respective pastors. In the President does not think that it United States, we experience no in. would be proper, at this time, to re. convenience from the absence of cognise it as a new State. The any religious establishment, and acknowledgment, or declining to the universal toleration which hap. acknowledge the Independence of pily prevails. We believe that Hayti, is not a measure of suffi. none would be felt by other nations cient magnitude to require that, in who should allow equal religious either of the alternatives, it should freedom. It would be deemed be the result of a concert between rash to assert that civil liberty and all the American Powers. • an established church cannot exist
You will avail yourselves of all together in the same state ; but it suitable occasions to press upon may be safely affirmed that history the ministers of the other American affords no example of their union states the propriety of a free tole. where the religion of the state has ration of religion within their re. not only been established, but ex. spective limits. The framers of clusive. If any of the American our constitution of government powers think proper to introduce have not only refrained from incor- into their systems an established porating with the state any peculiar religion, although we should regret form of religious worship, but they such a determination, we should have introduced an express prohi. have no right to make a formal com. bition upon the power of our Con. plaint unless it should be exclusive. gress to make any law respecting As the citizens of any of the Ameri. an establishment of religion. With can nations have a right, when here, us, none are denied the right which without hindrance, to worship the belongs to all-to worship God ac. Deity according to the dictates of cording to the dictates of their own their own consciences, our citizens consciences. In our villages and ought to be allowed the same privi. cities, at the same hour, often in lege when, prompted by business the same square, and by the same or inclination, they visit any of the kind of summons, congregations of American states. You are acthe pious and devout, of every re. cordingly authorized to propose a ligious denomination, are gathered joint declaration, to be subscribed together in their respective tem. by the ministers of all or any of the ples, and, after performing, accord. powers represented, that within ing to their own solemn convic- their several limits there shall tions, their religious duties, qui- be free toleration of religious wor. etly return and mix together in the ship. And you will also, in any cheerful fulfilment of their domes. treaty or treaties that you may tic and social obligations.
conclude, endeavour to have in. Not unfrequently the heads of the serted an article stipulating the same family, appertaining to diffe- liberty of religious worship, in the rent sects, resort to two different territories of the respective par. churches, to offer up in their own ties. When this great interest is chosen way their orisons, each placed on the basis of such a solemn bringing back to the common declaration, and such binding treaty household stock the moral instruc. stipulations, it will have all reasonation which both have derived from ble and practical security. And this new guaranty will serve to give found on the side of the Republic strength to the favourable disposi. of the Centre, you will lend to its tions of enlightened men in the va. cause all the countenance and sup. rious American states, against the port which you can give, without influence of bigotry and supersti. actually committing the United tion. The declaration on this sub. States. This act of friendship on ject in which you are authorized to our part, is due as well on account unite, as well as that directed of the high degree of respect and against European colonization with confidence which that Republic in the territorial limits of any of the has, on several occasions, displayed American nations, hereinbefore towards the United States, as from mentioned, does no more than an. its comparative weakness. nounce, in respect to the United Finally : I have it in charge to States, the existing state of their direct your attention to the subject institutions and laws. Neither con. of the forms of government, and to tracts any new obligation, on their the cause of free institutions on this part, nor makes any alteration as continent. The United States to them, in the present condition of never have been, and are not now things. The President being the animated by any spirit of propa. organ through which this govern. gandism. They prefer, to all other ment communicates with foreign forms of government, and are per. powers, and being charged with the fectly contented with, their own duty of taking care that the laws be Confederacy. Allowing no foreign faithfully executed, is competent to interference, either in the forma. authorize both declarations. tion, or in the conduct of their go.
Questions of boundary, and other vernment, they are equally scru. matters of controversy, among the pulous in refraining from all internew American powers, will proba. ference in the original structure or bly present themselves, and of subsequent interior movement of which an amicable adjustment may the governments of other indepen. be attempted at the Congress. dent nations. Indifferent they are Your impartial and disinterested not, because they cannot be indiffeposition, in relation to any such dis- rent to the happiness of any nation. putes, may occasion you to be But the interest which they are called upon for your advice and accustomed to cherish in the wis. umpirage. You will, whenever dom or folly which may mark the your assistance may be required to course of other powers, in the adop. settle those controversies, manifest tion and execution of their political a willingness to give your best systems, is rather a feeling of sym. council and advice; and if it should pathy than a principle of action. be desired, you will also serve as In the present instance they would arbitrators. A dispute is under conform to their general habit of stood to have existed, and to remain cautiously avoiding to touch on a yet unsettled, between the United subject so delicate ; but that there Mexican States and the Central is reason to believe that one EuRepublic, in relation to the Pro. ropean power, if not more, has vince of Chiapa. The President been active, both in Colombia and wishes you to give it a particular Mexico, if not elsewhere, with a investigation, and if justice shall be view to subvert, if possible, the es.
isting forms of free government greatest of human blessings, to there established, to substitute the yield to the secret practices or open monarchical in place of them, and menaces of any European power. to plant on the newly erected It is not anticipated that you will thrones European Princes. In have any difficulty in dissuading both instances, it is due to our sis. them from entertaining or delibera. ter Republics, and otherwise proper ting on such propositions. You will, to add, that the design met with a however, take advantage of every merited and prompt repulse ; but fit opportunity to strengthen their the spirit which dictated it never political faith, and to inculcate the slumbers, and may be renewed. solemn duty of every nation to re. The plausible motive held out, and ject all foreign dictation in its do. which may be repeated, is, that of mestic concerns. You will also, at a recognition of the independence all proper times, manifest a readiof the new States, with assurances dess to satisfy inquiries as to the that the adoption of monarchical theory and practical operation of institutions will conciliate the great our Federal and State constitutions powers of Europe. The new Re. of government, and to illustrate and publics being sovereign and inde explain the manifold blessings pendent States, and exhibiting this which the people of the United capacity for self-government at States have enjoyed, and are con. home, being in fact acknowledged tinuing to enjoy, under them. by the United States and Great The war which has recently Britain, and having entered into broken out between the republic of treaties and other national com. La Plata and the Emperor of Bra. pacts with foreign powers, have a "zil, is a cause of the most sincere clear right to be recognised. From regret. To that war the United considerations of policy, the act of States will be strictly neutral. The recognition has been delayed by parties to it should feel themselves some of the European States, but urged no less by all the interests it cannot much longer be postponed, which belong to the recent establish. and they will shortly find themselves ment of their independence, than required to make the concession, by principles of humanity, to bring from a regard to their own interest, it to a speedy close. One of the first if they would not from a sense of measures which has been adopted justioe. But their recognition is for its prosecution by the Emperor not worth buying, and nothing of the Brazils, is to declare the would be more dishonourable than whole coasts of his enemy, inclu. that the Republic should purchase, ding entirely one, and a part of the by mean compliances, the formal other shore of the La Plata, and acknowledgment of that indepen. extending as far as Cape Horn, in dence which has been actually won a state of blockade. That he has by so much valour, and by so many not the requisite naval force to sacrifices. Having stood out against render valid, and to maintain, ac. all apprehensions of an attempt of cording to the principles of the the combined powers of Europe to public law, such a sweeping block. subdue them, it would be base and ade, is quite evident. Persistance pusillanimous now, when they are in it must injuriously affect the in. in the undisturbed enjoyment of the terest of neutrals in the pursuit of their rightful commerce, if it should in this important service, the inte. involve no other consequences to rests of our country. them. You will avail yourselves The instructions addressed to of every proper opportunity to re. Messrs. Anderson and Sergeant, present to the partics how desira. have been sufficiently explicit as ble it is to put an end to the war, to the nature of the assembly. and with what satisfaction the According to our views, it is to be United States would see the bless. considered as entirely diplomatic. ings of peace restored. And it No one of the represented nations will occur to you, whilst remon. is to be finally bound by any treaty, strating against any belligerent convention, or compact, to which practices which are not strictly it does not freely consent accord. warranted, to draw from the fact ing to all the forms of its own par. of the Brazilian blockade fresh ticular government. With that in. support to the great maritime prin. dispensable qualification, the mode ciples to which you have been in. of conducting the conferences and structed to endeavour to obtain the deliberations of the ministers is sanction of the American nations. left to your sound discretion, keep
I have the honour to be, gentle. ing in view the observations which men, your obedient servant,
have been made in your general H. CLAY. instructions. I am induced again
to advert to this topic, in conse
quence of a letter from the ColomDEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, 161h March, 1927.
bian minister, under date of the To Messrs. John SERGEANT, AND
20th of November last, (a copy of
which is herewith transmitted, J. R. POINSETT,
from the tenor of which it might Appointed Envoys Extraordinary,
probably be inferred, as his opi. and Ministers Plenipotentiary to
nion, that a majority of voices in Tacubaya, &c. &c. &c.
the assembly, on any given propoGentlemen :-By the appoint. sition, is to be decisive. We have ment of Mr. Poinsett, made by and not yet obtained copies of the trea. with the advice and consent of the ties concluded at Panama, which Senate, as one of the ministers of are mentioned in that note. To the United States to the Congress these we have a right, and we shall of the American nations, expected continue to expect them. to assemble at Tacubaya, you have We have no later information become associated in that mission. than that contained in Mr. Ser. Mr. Poinsett, it is, therefore, anti. geant's despatch No. 1, under date cipated, will be disposed cordially of the 19th of January last, and to co-operate in the performance its accompaniments, as to the pro. of those duties which have been en. ble time of the convention of the joined by the instructions heretofore ministers of the several powers. addressed to Mr. Anderson, and The course which he adopted of Mr. Sergeant, or to either of them, announcing himself to such of so far as they remain to be executed. them as had arrived at Mexico, is And the president relies, with approved. From the answers he great confidence, on the zeal and received to his note, it appears ability of both of you, to promote, that eight months, from the 15th