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vious treaties, as to the exercise of what principle, consistent with the jurisdiction by Great Britain, that rule they contended for, complaints it is evident from the proceedings were urged by Mr. Vaughan, re. on the occasion particularly men- specting the laying out of land into tioned, that the impression was en. townships, and marking out roads, tertained “ that the greater part of by the agents of Maine and Massa. the territory in question was then chusetts. Had the impression of unoccupied ;" nor does it appear the government of the United States that the French settlement, on been the same with that of his mawhich the British possession is now jesty's government, as now exsupported, was at that time known plained, it is not probable that the to the plenipotentiaries of either disparity in numbers between the power.

American citizens and French Aca. The undersigned learns with re. dians, in the disputed territory, regret, that the United States must lied on by lord Aberdeen as a consider themselves mistaken in material fact, would have at this the opinion which they had formed time existed. of the rule of forbearance incul. But, as the conclusion of lord cated on both sides. They had Aberdeen on the demand of the supposed that by it the parties stood American government is founded pledged to each other to abstain on the opinion “that the circum. from the performance of any new stances of the two countries are ex. acts which might be construed into tremely different,” and as it is be. an exercise of the rights of sove- lieved that this supposition has been reignty or soil over the disputed proved to be erroneous, the under. territory. As explained by lord signed still flatters himself that on Aberdeen, the mutual restriction a fuller examination, all objection would apply exclusively to the ex. will cease to a proposition which ercise of the presumed rights of the has for its motive the prevention respective parties as proprietors of of dangerous collisions between the soil, not to their pretensions as neighbouring and friendly powers, sovereigns of the territory.

and that his majesty's government It is difficult to reconcile with will admit the propriety of abstain. the idea now conveyed, the assu. ing from a jurisdiction, the exer. rance given early in the last year cise of which, if persevered in, may by the British minister at Wash. lead to consequences for which the ington, “ that the lieutenant gover- undersigned is instructed to declare nor of New Brunswick cautiously that the government of the United abstains, on his part, from exer States cannot hold themselves re. cising any authority in the dis. sponsible. puted territory, which could invite The undersigned takes the liberty an encroachment as a measure of of observing, that great as may be retaliation.” And presuming that the inconveniences of an absence no more was intended to be asked of exclusive jurisdiction on the from the American government frontiers, they have not been, on than his majesty's authorities were other occasions, deemed, either by prepared to grant in return, the un. the United States or Great Britain, dersigned cannot understand on of sufficient magnitude to induce sacrifices of territorial claims, as is judicial to the rights of the United abundantly evinced by conven. States, their omitting to notice these tions entered into by them respect. occurrences in a remote section of ing their territory.

their dominions, and of which they He would also adduce a fact that were ignorant, is wholly different has fallen within the scope of his from their acquiescing in a transofficial knowledge, which shows action where their authority, ap. that the opinion of the President pealed to by an American citizen, was, at no very remote period, par has been openly set at defiance. ticipated in by one of Lord Aber. The undersigned doubts not that deen's predecessors in office, at the government of the United the time referred to, at the head of States will do full justice to the his majesty's government. Mr. spirit in which Lord Aberdeen dis. Gallatin, in a despatch to the Secre. claims, by command of his sove. tary of State of the United States, reign, all intention of influencing dated in July, 1827, after speaking the decision of the arbitrator by of a conference with the First Lord any exercise of jurisdiction over of the Treasury respecting the the disputed territory; and he takes northeastern boundary, observes, this opportunity to remark, that it that “ Mr. Canning also suggested has not been his intention, either the propriety of abstaining on both on the present or other occasions, . sides, pending the suit, from any by any designation which he may, act of sovereignty over the con. for convenience, or for the purpose tested territory.”

of expressing the conviction of his That such a stipulation was not government on that subject, have introduced into the late arbitration given to the district, to assume as convention, is probably to be attri. uncontroverted any of the points in buted to the supposed adequacy of dispute. He is fully aware that, the existing understanding between in the face of a solemn instrument, the parties, and to the fact that no to which his country is a party, collisions of importance, not disa setting forth that differences as to vowed, had then occurred.

the settlement of the boundary in Considering the protracted dis question do exist, and agreeing to cussion on the case of Mr. Baker, refer them to the decision of a and the several other grievances friendly sovereign or state, such alluded to in the note of the 5th of an attempt, if made, would be worse May, or brought into view by the than useless. correspondence at Washington, the He has, moreover, endeavoured, undersigned cannot account for the as far as practicable, to abstain conclusion to which Lord Aber from any investigation of the ques. deen has arrived, “that no prac. tion of right-the true province of tical inconvenience has been al. the arbiter. He can only now add ledged by Mr. Lawrence to exist.” his regret, that there is not the He would observe, on the remark same accordance of views between which Lord Aberdeen founds on their respective governments on this allegation, that, if British ju the subject to which this note re. risdiction has been heretofore oc lates, as was on a recent occasion casionally exercised in cases pre. happily found to exist on a moro

important business, affecting the same territory, which the under signed had the satisfaction to ar. range with Lord Aberdeen.

The undersigned renews to Lord

Aberdeen the assurances of his highest consideration.

W. B. LAWRENCE. 16, Lower Seymour.street,

August 22, 1928.


Letter from the Secretary of the 31st degree of north latitude may

Treasury, transmitting to con. be estimated at 2,245,680 acres, of gress the information required which 398,000 acres lie in the state by a resolution of the house of of Mississippi. This estimate in. the 24th December last, in rela. cludes the whole of the country tion to lands on the Mississippi, which is subject to inundation by in the state of Louisiana, which the Mississippi and the waters of are rendered unfit for cultivation the gulf. A portion of this area, by the inundations of said river. however, including both banks of GENERAL LAND OFFICE, the Mississippi, from some distance

January 12, 1829. I below New Orleans to Baton Sir, In compliance with a reso- Rouge, and the west bank nearly lution of the house of representa. up to the 31st degree of latitude, tives, “ directing the Secretary of and both sides of the Lafourche the Treasury to communicate to for about fifty miles from the Mis. this house any information in his sissippi, has, by means of levees or possession, showing the quantity embankments, been reclaimed at and quality of the public lands in the expense of individuals. The the state of Louisiana which are strips of lands thus reclaimed are rendered unfit for cultivation from of limited extent; and, estimating the inundations of the Mississippi, their amount as equal to the depth and the value of said lands when of forty acres on each side of the reclaimed, and the probable cost Mississippi and Lafourche for the of reclaiming them,” I have the distance above stated, they will honour to report, that the Missis. amount to about 500,000 acres, sippi, in its course between the which, deducted from 3,163,580 33d degree of north latitude, the acres, will leave the quantity of aorthern boundary of Louisiana, and 2,683,580 acres below the 31st dethe Gulf of Mexico, inundates, gree of latitude, which is now sub. when at its greatest height, a tract ject to annual or occasional inun. of country, the superficial area of dations; this added to the quantity which may be estimated at of inundated lands above the 31st 5,429,260 acres: that portion of degree of latitude, makes the the couutry thus inundated which whole quantity of lands within the lies below the 31st degree of lati. area stated, and not protected by tude may be estimated at 3,183,580 embankments, equal to 4,929,160 acres; and that portion above the acres.

By deepening and clearing out tion of one individual for every two the existing natural channels, and acres ; and it is highly probable by opening other artificial ones, that the population would rapidly through which the surplus water, accumulate to such an extent as to that the bed of the Mississippi is banish every kind of labour from not of sufficient capacity to take agriculture except that of the huoff, may be discharged into the man species, as is now the case in gulf; with the aid of embankments many of the best districts of China; and natural or artificial reservoirs, and this result would also have and by the use of machinery been produced in many parts of (worked in the commencement by Holland, had not that country be. steam, and as the country becomes come, from the nature of its cli. open and cleared of timber by mate, a grazing country. windmills,) to take off the rain The alluvial lands of Louisiana water that may fall during the pe. may be divided into two portions; riod that the Mississippi may be the first, extending from the 33d to above its natural banks, it is be. the 31st degree of north latitude, lieved that the whole of this in a direction west of south, may country may be reclaimed, and be termed the upper plain, is 120 made in the highest degree pro. miles in length, and generally from ductive.

25 to 80 miles in breadth, and, at The immense value of this dis particular points, is of still greater trict of country when reclaimed, is width. That portion below the not to be estimated so much by the 31st degree of north latitude, may extent of its superfices as by the be termed the lower plain. It ex. extraordinary and inexhaustible tends in a direction from north. quality of the soil, the richness of west to south-east for about 240 its products, and the extent of the miles, to the mouth of the Missis. population it would be capable of sippi ; is compressed at its northern sustaining. Every acre of this land point, but opening rapidly, it forms lying below the 31st degree of at its base a semi.circle, as it pro. north latitude might be made to trudes into the gulf of Mexico, of produce three thousand weight of 200 miles in extent, from the Cha. sugar; and the whole of it is par falaya to the Rigoletts. The ele. ticularly adapted to the production vation of the plain at the 33d deof the most luxuriant crops of rice, gree of north latitude, above the indigo and cotton. Good sugar common tide waters of the gulf of lands on the Mississippi, partially Mexico, must exceed one hundred cleared, may be estimated as worth and thirty feet. $100 per acre, and rapidly ad. This plain embraces lands of va. vancing in value. The rice lands rious descriptions, which may be of South Carolina, from their limit. arranged into four classes : ed quantity, are of greater value. The first class, which is proba. It is believed that the exchangeable bly equal in quantity to two thirds value of the maximum products of of the whole, is covered with these lands, when placed in a high heavy timber, and an almost im. state of cultivation, would be ade. penetrable undergrowth of cane quate to the comfortable support of and other shrubbery. This por2,250,000 people, giving a popula. tion, from natural causes, is rapidly drained as fast as the waters rapid manner to throw up obstruc. retire within their natural channels, tions at the mouths of all water and, possessing a soil of the great. courses emptying into them, it is est fertility, tempts the settler, af. fairly to be inferred that the allu. ter a few years of low water, to vial plain of Egypt has, in time make an establishment, from which past, been as much subject to inun. he is driven off by the first extraor. dation from the waters of the Nile, dinary flood.

as that of Louisiana now is from The second class consists of those of the Mississippi, and that cyprus swamps: these are basins, the floods of the Nile have not or depressions of the surface, from only been controlled and restrict. which there is no natural outlet; ed within its banks by the labour and which filling with water during and ingenuity of man, but have the floods, remain covered by it been regulated and directed to the until the water be evaporated, or irrigation and improvement of the be gradually absorbed by the earth. soil of the adjacent plain : a work The beds of these depressions better entitled to have been handed being very universally above the down to posterity by the erection common low water mark of the of those massive monuments, the rivers and bayous, they may be pyramids of Egypt, than any other readily drained, and would then be event that could have occurred in more conveniently converted into the history of that country. rice fields than any other portions That the labour and ingenuity of of the plain.

man are adequate to produce the The third class embraces the same result in relation to the Mis. sea marsh, which is a belt of land sissippi river and the plain of Lou. extending along the Gulf of Mexi. isiana, is a position not to be co, from the Chafalaya to the Rigo. doubted ; and it is believed that letts. This belt is but partially there are circumstances incident covered by the common tides, but to the topography of this plain, is subject to inundation from the that will facilitate such results. high waters of the gulf during the The Mississippi river, on enter. autumnal equinoctial gales; it is ing this plain at the 33d degree of generally without timber.

north latitude, crosses it diagonally The fourth class consists of to the high lands a little below the small bodies of prairie lands, dis. mouth of the Yazoo; from thence persed through different portions it winds along the highlands of the of the plain ; these pieces of land, states of Mississippi and Louisiana generally the most elevated spots,' to Baton Rouge, leaving in this dis. are without timber, but of great tance, the alluvial lands on its wes. fertility.

tern branch; from a point a little be. The alluvial plain of Louisiana, low Baton Rouge it takes an easter. and that of Egypt, having been ly course through the alluvial plain, created by the deposite of large and nearly parallel to the shores rivers watering immense extents of of the Gulf of Mexico, until it country, and disemboguing them. reaches the English Turn : and selves into shallow oceans, mode. from thence, bending to the south, rately elevated by the tide, but it disembogues itself into the Gulf which, from the influence of the of Mexico by six or seven different winds, are constantly tending in a channels. The banks of the Mis.

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