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both of whom are in the house with ters, with Mr. Morris, who had us.'
been directed by a resolution of "I accepted the offer, from Mr. congress to confer with the comMorris, said Mr. Commissioner Pe. mander in chief on the plan of the ters, with many thanks, and ad. campaign, gave the following ac. dressed myself immediately to the count of it: two gentlemen who owned the other “One morning at the beat of re. half, for their consent to sell ; but veillé, Mr. Morris and myself, who they had already trusted a large occupied the same marquee, were amount of clothing to the continent. roused by a messenger from head al congress, and were unwilling to quarters, and desired forthwith to give that body any further credit. repair thither. We were surprised I informed Morris of their refusal. at the circumstance; every thing • Tell them,' said he, 'that I will having been the evening before pay them for their share.' This perfectly tranquil. We were more settled the business : the lead was so on our meeting the general, delivered; I set three or four hun. who, the moment he saw me, with dred men to work, who manufac. expressions of intemperate passion, tured it into cartridge bullets for handed to me a letter from the Washington's army, to which it French admiral, who commanded gave complete relief.”
six or seven ships at Rhode Island: On the 18th of June, 1778, Mr. • Here,' said the general, 'read Peters entered Philadelphia, at the this; you understand the French;' very time the enemy was evacua- then turning away : 'so do I ting the place. He went there un now better than ever.' Mr. Morder a strong escort sent with him ris and myself stood silent, and not by General Washington. His ob. a little astonished. The letter inject was to secure clothing and formed the general that the writer stores, secreted by our friends, who had received by an express frigate, had remained in the city ; and to arrived from the fleet of Comte de purchase every thing that he could Grasse, at sea, orders to join that from the dealers. The British rear. fleet in the Chesapeake, as the guard was crossing the Delaware, Comte had changed his destinawhen he arrived. He succeeded tion, on information that the bay of in fulfilling the wishes of the Ame. New York was dangerous for his rican general-in-chief. Arnold took heavy ships; and if any thing could command of the city a few days af. be done in the southern quarters, ter, when Mr. Peters returned to co-operation was offered during York in Pennsylvania, where con. the few weeks of his intended stay gress then held its sessions.
in those waters, to avoid the West Mr. Peters's exertions were pe. India hurricane season. Secrecy culiarly meritorious and useful, at was enjoined, and we went our way. the time when General Washington On returning to breakfast, we found suddenly changed his intended at the general as composed, as if no. tack on New York, to that of York. thing had happened. That even. town in Virginia.
ing, or I think the next day, a let. This change of plan originated ter arrived from the Marquis de with Washington alone : Mr. Pe. Lafayette, from Virginia, announ
cing the arrival of the French Acet done more in the time, and under in the Chesapeake.
like circumstances. General Knox, “In the course of the day, I was who arrived in twelve or fourteen asked by the general: 'well, what days, had a great share of the merit can you do for us, under the present of this effort. Mr. Morris supplied change of circumstances?' I an. the money or the credit; and with. swered, please to inform me of out derogation from the merit of the extent of your wants.'--Being, the assistance rendered by state after some time, generally inform. authorities, it may truly be said, ed, I replied: 'I can do every that the financial means furnished thing with money; nothing without by him, were the main-springs of it; but what can be transported transportation and supplies for the from hence, must be relied on.' glorious achievement, which effec. I looked impressively on Mr. Mor. tually secured our independence. ris, who said, I understand you ; He issued his notes for, I think, one I must have time to consider and million four hundred thousand dol. calculate.'”
lars. They passed freely, and at Mr. Morris shortly after told the the value of specie, and were in general that he had no tangible ef. time all redeemed. The Bank of fects"; but if anticipations on the North America, which he founded, credit of his personal engagements with money supplied froin abroad, would succeed, he could supply and by taxing the credit of his par. the means for transporting the ar. ticular friends, and many other my from New Jersey to the Chesa. good friends to their country, as. peake.
sisted him most eminently. We “In a day, or two," continues gave our securities to the amount Mr. Peters, “we left camp, under of a great proportion of its capital injunctions of secrecy, until the ge stock.” neral developed his final objects Those were times, as Mr. Peters and measures to congress.
adds, “ when wants were plenty, “ On our arrival at Philadelphia, and supplies lamentably scarce.” I set to work most industriously, The fearless manner in which pro. and masked the object for a time. perty and personal responsibility By the zeal and extraordinary ef. were risked, is worthy of all praise. forts of the staff departments, par. It was the tone of the day; a spirit ticularly that of ordnance and mili. of disinterested love of country pre. tary stores, sixty pieces of batter. vailed, and a vigilance that no ex. ing cannon, and a greater number ertions could tire ! of field artillery, were completely In December, 1781, Mr. Peters provided and finished in three or resigned his post in the War Office. four weeks; and as fast as any Afier Mr. Peters left the War portion of the train was ready, it Office, he was elected a member of was sent off on its way to the south. congress, and assisted in closing Not a single gun was mounted on the business of the war. my arrival at Philadelphia, nor a At the organization of a new go. rammer or a sponge, or other atli. vernment, under the present conrail, nor any considerable quantity stitution, Washington selected Mr. of fixed ammunition. No European Peters as the judge of the dis. magazine or arsenal, could have trict court of Pennsylvania. This
office he accepted, although he was Articles were agreed upon by the desirous to resume his profession, house of representatives, and sent and enjoy some respite from public up to the senate against Samuel labour. He yielded, nevertheless, Chase; and great pains were ta. to the request of the President, and ken to include Mr. Peters. Indeed assumed the exercise of its duties, the house inserted his name at one which he performed until his death; time ; but on proper investigation, being a period of thirty-six years, it was withdrawn, under a convic. during which time he was seldom tion that no cause of accusation ex. detained from court by sickness, isted : on the contrary, when the and never from any other cause, examination took place, it was The admiralty portion of his judi. found that his judicial course had cial functions, was greatly simpli. uniformly been marked by pru. fied and improved under his care. dence, decorum, and moderation.
The duties of the district judge, At this very moment, when po. particularly when associated with litical strife was at its height, he the judge of the circuit court, were was actively engaged in promoting, sometimes extremely painful. Two and chiefly directing, one of the insurrections—(the only ones that most beautiful and most useful im. have taken place since the adoption provements in the state of Pennsyl. of the present constitution) occur. vania- the erection of the great red in Mr. Peters's district. To bridge over the Schuylkill, at the aid in the suppression of the first, end of High-street. he followed the army as far as Pitts. Before Mr. Peters became a burg,—the western limit of his ju. judge, and indeed, shortly after the risdiction ; and there, with his usual termination of the war, in 1783, he promptitude and prudence, satis. visited England. His travels in factorily discharged his official du. that country, and in Scotland and tics. In a few years after, he was Ireland, were extensive. He had in called on again to try for trea. charge, on this occasion, a commis. son, another set of rebels from the sion somewhat of a public nature, northern part of his district. His which introduced him to the ac. associate during part of the time, quaintance of the Primate and was the celebrated Samuel Chase, principal prelates of the English one of the justices of the supreme Church. Before the revolution, court of the United States. The the Protestant Episcopal church in trial of these deluded insurgents, this country, of which Mr. Peters and the execution of the two acts was a member, was governed by of congress so well known by the the Bishop of London ; but when names of alien and sedition laws, our political connexion was dissolgave great notoriety to the circuit ved, no Protestant church here court of this district. Its proceed. would consent to be regulated by a ings were narrowly watched by the foreign diocesan. Mr. Peters, political enemies of the Federal therefore, was commissioned to obgovernment, until at length, John tain the consent of the British preRandolph, a member of the house lates to ordain to the office of Bishof representatives from Virginia, op three priests of the American thought he saw cause of impeach. Episcopal church, and thus give to ment in the conduct of its judges. it a canonical succession. An act
of parliament had already been ob. nicated the results of the experi. tained by the Bishop of London, to ments made at Belmont, to such of enable him to dispense with such his neighbours as chose to profit by of the usual requisitions as were them; but he had not written much, inconsistent with the engagements if any thing, upon agriculture, be. of certain citizens of the United fore the year 1797. His first pub. States, who had applied to him for lication was then made, and con. holy orders; and about the time the tained a statement of facts and opihigher question of succession was nions in relation to the use of Gypagitated, the same subject was sum. This pamphlet circulated brought before the Danish govern. widely, and produced such a change ment, in consequence of a conver. in husbandry, by introducing the sation between Mr. Adams, then culture of clover, and other artifi. minister to Great Britain, and the cial grasses, as to give a magical inDanish minister to the same court, crease to the value of farms. Estates to which a favourable answer was which until then were unable to given; so that the Danish church maintain stock, for want of winter stood ready in case of difficulty, to fodder, and summer pasture, were confer on the American Episcopal suddenly brought into culture, and church the necessary powers of made productive. Formerly, on a Episcopal succession. But it is farm destitute of natural meadow, believed that this incident had no no stock could be supported; and influence on the conduct of the Bri. even where natural meadow ex. tish government or church, both of isted, the barn yard was exhaust. which are represented by Mr. Pe- ed to keep up sufficient fertility, ters, in a letter from England, dated (in the absence of irrigation,) to March 4th, 1786, as favourably dis. feed a very few horses and black posed. His opinion was subse. cattle. quently confirmed by the courteous In the year 1770, he was shown and friendly reception of the Right the effects of gypsum on clover, in Revd. and venerable Bishop White, a city lot, occupied by Mr. Jacob and his colleagues, who found the' Barge, on the commons of Phila. Archbishops and all the Bishops delphia. . who were consulted on the business, The secret of its powerful agen. acting with the utmost candour and cy, came from Germany, where it liberality of sentiment; so that it is was accidentally discovered. Mr. obvious that the English prelates Peters obtained a small quantity, were from the first ready and de. which he used successfully, and sirous to convey the succession to gradually promoted its consump. the American church; and that the tion, until by his example, and his only condition they made was, that publications, the importation from there should not be such a depar. Nova Scotia alone, into the single ture, either in discipline, worship, port of Philadelphia, increased to or doctrine, as would destroy the the amount of fourteen thousand identity of the two churches in their tons annually, before the discovery spiritual character.
of that fossil in the United States. As a practical farmer, Mr. Pe. But his rural labours were not ters had from time to time commu. confined to the tillage of the ground;
to the mere variety of grasses, or but received the striking tribute of alimental improvement of the soil the simultaneous adoption of their which produced them. He was principles by Judge Stowell, the zealously employed in improving, distinguished maritime judge of by crosses, the breed of sheep and Great Britain. other animals. The broad-tail Bar. The qualities of Judge Peters as bary rams, procured at Tunis by a friend and companion in social General Eaton, having been con. life were remarkable. His ready fided to his care, he placed them and brilliant wit made him the ad. advantageously, and pressed on the miration of all his acquaintance, farmers the propriety of using while his good taste and kind dis. them.
position prevented any violation of In order to appreciate properly decorum or good feeling. his industry in treating on husband. A short time before his decease, ry and matters auxiliary to it, we he took occasion to declare, that be must consult his voluminous com. bore no ill will to any person living, munications, published in the Me- and that he had never suffered the moirs of the Philadelphia Agricul. pain of taking vengeance on any tural Society.
one. It is not estimating the quantity About a fortnight after this of his labour too high, by placing it declaration, so illustrative of the at one fourth of each volume; the happy calmness of his mind, while quality of these productions is sitting in his chair, he expired shown by their wide circulation, without a struggle, at his country and great popularity.
residence near Philadelphia ; the As a judge, his purity was of spot where he was born, and had the highest order, and his quick- lived more than 84 years. ness of perception and sagacity en. abled him to appear with great ad. vantage by the side of judge Wash.
DR. GALL. ington, his associate in the circuit Aug. 22, 1828. At his country court. Even when they occasion. house, at Montrouge, near Paris, ally differed, which was but sel. aged 71, the celebrated phrenolodom, his opinions were generally gist, Dr. Gall. sustained. During the term when Jean Joseph Gall was born in they were together, the greatest 1758, in a village of the Duchy of cordiality existed between them, Baden ; his parents were in trade. and they cheerfully co-operated in At Baden he first commenced his furthering the ends of justice. Of education. Then at Brucksal, and the admiralty law of the U. States, afterwards at Strasburg, he stu. Judge Peters may be deemed the died medicine, under professor Herfounder.
mann. At Vienna in Austria, he beHis decisions, which are col. came invested with the title of doclected with some few others in Pe. tor, in the year 1785, and afterters's Reports, form the ground wards followed the practice of me. work of this branch of our juris. dicine; but at this place he was prudence; and have been sanc. not permitted to develope his new tioned, not only by our own courts, deas on the functions of the brain,