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even negligence of his external dress; but friend, who was of a very tall stature, and he paid the most scrupulous attention to with whom, as one of his very lougest personal cleanliness.

acquaintances, he used that freedom, upon He was constitutionally melancholy; || his want of decorum in going about and yet, in the familiar intercourse of daily life, | peeping down the chimnies to see what his the prominent characteristic of his mind neighbours were to have for dinner. was its incessant playfulness—a quality He very rarely retired formally to his which rendered his society peculiarly ac. closet; it was as he walked in the hall of ceptable among females and young persons. || the courts, or as he rode between Dublin He took great delight in conversing with and his country seat, or during his evening little children, whom he generally con- strolls through his own grounds, that he trived to lead into the most exquisitely | meditated his subjects. Sometimes as he comical dialogues. He was fond of giving | lay in bed he had, like Rousseau, and with Judicrous appellations to the places and a more fortunate memory, creative visita. persons around him. His friend Mr. Hud- l, tions, which he often declared were to him son, the dentist's house, was built in the more delightful than repose. One of his Tuscan order; a celebrated snuff manu. most usual and favourite times of meditafacturer's country seat was Sneezetown; \| tion was when he had his violin or violinthe libraries at watering places were slop. || cello in his hand; he would thus forget shops of literature. He called a commander || himself for hours, running voluntaries over of yeomanry (who dealt largely in flour) || the striugs, or executing some trivial air, Marshal Sacks; a lawyer, of a corpulent while bis imagination was far away, colframe, Grotius; another, who had the lecting its forces for the coming emerhabit of swelling out his cheeks, Puffendorf.gency. He often humorously remonstrated with a


LORD MAYOR AND LORD MAYOR'S DAY. offices are not derived from the Latin, no

It appears, from the best authorities, that more is this, but the name originally cometh the name of Mayor was not attached to the from the Teutonic, as do the afore-noted chief officer of the city until the year 1192. others. It is in the Netherlands well Before that period be was denominated known; where not only the chief magisbailiff; under that title Henry Fitz Alwyne trate of Lonvain (the ancientest town of officiated at the coronation of Richard 1. Brabant) is called the Meyer, but almost and this same citizen, in the year 1192, every country town had an officer so called: assumed, 'in the first civic record extant, || as, in like manner, divers of our country the title of Mayor.

towns in England, as well as our cities have. The name, according to Verstegan, comes So it is, likewise, a name of office in the from the ancient English 'maier, able or country towns of France, their now written potent, of the verb may, or can. The li maire coming first to be known among learned antiquary says—"This honourable i them by the German Francks, the ancesname of office in the chief and most famous tors of Frenchmen. For the etymology city of our realm is divers ways written ; || thereof we are to note that, as in our own some write it maior, some mayor, and others English, to may signifieth to have might, maire. And because maior (major), in or power; so a mayer is as much to say, Latin, sigoifies greater, or bigger, some a haver of might, one that hath or may use not looking any further, will needs, from authority." thence, make it maior; but seeing the During the mayoralty of Fitz Alwyne, names of Sheriff and Alderman cannot be an office then dependent on the crown, drawn from the Latin, why should it be and wbich he held for twenty-four years, thought that Mayor comes from maior ? the city first obtained its jurisdiction and Certain it is, that as the other names of conservancy of the river Thames, and a water bailiff was appointed as a depoty | of these ordinances, however, seems to have to the Mayor. King John was the first met with the slightest regard. Edward III. who conferred on the citizens the privilege first made the office of Mayor obligatory of choosing their chief magistrate, who had on the person chosen, who, on refusal of hitherto been appointed by the King - serving, was fined one hundred marks. Henry III. seems to have considered the Tbis monarch first granted the privilege of city merely as a body for the exercise of having gold or silver maces carried before experiments of rapacity; for almost every the chief magistrate; and either on this or year, on some frivolous pretext, he took some other occasion equally important, the away some privileges, which the citizens | chief magistrate began to assume the title re-purchased at the price stipulated by the of Lord Mayor, as corresponding, no doubt, monarch; and on one occasion it cost with this added dignity to his public apthem eleven hundred marks. They bought || pearauces. In the year 1474 (in the reign · the privilege, in the year 1254, of present of Edward IV.) an act of Commou Council ing their new Mayor annually to the settled the mode of electing Mayors as it at Barons of the Exchequer, in the absence present exists. Various additional priviof the King; whereas, before that period, leges were granted from time to time, and they were obliged to repair to the King's generally for a good price, till the reign of residence, in any part of England, to pre- Charles I. in whose reign, for the first time, sent their chief magistrate. - It may be en- a Lord Mayor was invested with the Lord. tertaining to give in this place an instance Lieutenancy of the Tower; this, however, of one of the exactions of this charter- was but a temporary grant. Charles II. giving sovereign. A convict confined in by an arbitrary act, sanctioned by a corNewgate for the murder of a prior, a rela- rupt judge, suspended all the charters of tion of the Queen, contrived to effect his the city, and took all power into his own escape, and the King immediately demand hands. This power, however, was reed three thousand marks of the city, as an | stored by William, and finally settled, beatonement; he even degraded both the yond dispute, by an act passed in the Sheriffs, and put in prison several of the eleventh year of George l. But it was to principal citizens, till this unjust demand | George II. that the city was indebted for was complied with.

the charter which constituted all the alderIt may here be mentioned, that it was men justices of the peace. These priviusual with this King, and with his successor | leges the city still enjoys, and they watch, Edward, to appoint a custos of the peace with becoming jealousy, every attempt to of the city, whenever there was any violent infringe upon them. disagreement among the citizens. Ed. As to Lord Mayor's day, as it is at preward II. a contemptible monarch, made sent celebrated, it would be an act of suseveral bargains with the city, and, at a pererogation to describe it, since there is good price, gave them some valuable re- scarcely an individual who is not fully acgulations. It was in his reign ordained quainted with all the pomp and circumthat the Mayor should hold his office only stance of this (to the people of London) for one year, and that the Aldermen also auspicious day. should be re-elected annually. Neither


(Continued from Vol. XXII. page 263.)

Tex first composition of liqueurs that liqueur known by the appellation of parfait obtained any great degree of celebrity, was amour,-it was citron water disguised by at Montpellier. Towards the middle of being dyed red with cochinea). Next came the 18th century, a distiller, named Solmi- those liqueurs from the French islands in ni, gained much credit in Lorrain for the || America, viz. the noyeau of Martinique.

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Modern liqueurs are now arranged in required a more forcible' example. Soli: two classes; the one approaches to essences, man Aga, the Ambassador from the Ottoand bears the title of oil, because they are man Porte, effected this in 1669: he soof a thick and oily consistency; the others | journed in the capital for ten months. Seare denominated dry. A physician, named veral persons of distinction, particularly Sigogne, imagined, that towards the be- || females, having had the curiosity to pay ginning of the 18th century, that it was him a visit, lie had coffee served up, and in' possible to convert sugar into oil, by bak- || such a manner as to render it peculiarly ing it, and thus giving to the liqueur, in attractive. The liquor was poured into which it was used, a softness that had not china cups; and slaves presented napkius yet been found in any liqueurs. The chief to the ladies fringed with gold. ingredient in this liqueur was saffron ; it Those persons wlio bad tasted coffee was called l'huile de Venus ; Sigogne with Soliman Aga, were desirous of taking gained a fortune by it.

it at their own houses; others had it, hy ? Ices date their origin in France from the way of ostentation, served at their tables year 1660; the French were indebted for after dinner. But the coffee berry was them to a Florentine, named Procope, who scarce, and very dear; it was not to be established himself at Paris.

procured except at Marseilles. : Punch was made use of in France, in the In the mean time an Armenian, in the year 1781, when peace was signed with year 1672, set up a shop at Paris, where England; but it was only then to be had coffee might be had to drink ready made. at coffee houses, and in male societies; || Four years after, there were such a oumthere was no drink in France that could | ber of coffee merchants, that the governever succeed which proscribed the society | ment were obliged to establish a commuof females. Panch is, however, now drank mity of them. The name of Limonadiers by ladies in those assemblies styled tea- was given exclusively to those who sold drinking, and at balls; and no one seems

lemonade. to regard it, as once, only as the beverage Before the establishment of coffee-houses of sailors.

the chief nobility all frequented public Tea was known in Paris ever since the houses. In Rabelais we find mention made year 1636; but it had, apparently, little of The Pine Apple public house, and also encouragement, and would not have met | in Villon and in Regnier. The house that with any, if a surgeon, named Morisset, bore the sign is still standing in la rue had not, in the year 1648, made it the sub- de la Juviere; and is kept by an ironject of a treatise, which he dedicated to the monger; it is No. 6, and may be seen as Chancellor Séguier.

one enters by the bridge of Notre Dame. Chocolate was brought into France from The Baron de Blot, chamberlain to Gaston, Spain. The first who made use of it in Duke of Orleans, was among the witty France, was the Cardinal Alphonso de convivialists at The Pine Apple. Under Richelieu, brother to the celebrated minis. Louis XIV. the reputation of this public ter of that name. The Spanish monks house was yet in its glory : Chapelle, Boihad spoken of it as an excellent remedy | leau, and La Fontaine read their works against vapours and the spleen. When there; and oftentimes Racine, Moliere, and Maria Theresa, of Austria, came into the physician Bernier, were found among France, to be married to Louis XIV. shethem. was always accustomed to drink chocolate. The Café Procope, now the Café Zoppi, This was sufficient to cause all the court to || in la rue des Fossés-Saint-Germain-des-Prés, adopt this beverage. But for several years was originally the spot where the literati the use of it was confined to the most opu. were accustomed to assemble. Another celelent.

brated coffee house was that of De Laurent, In 1644, coffee was introduced by some rue Dauphine: Saurin, Lamothe, Daumerciants of Marseilles, into France, and chet, Boindin, and Rousseau, the lyrical koown by the name of Arabian beays. I poet, used to frequent it. · At length we Thevenot made use of it on his return from find females permitted to enter these places. his travels, about the year 1658; but it !! The author of The Commercial Dictionary,

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writes as follows, in 1741:-“ Ladies of Beauvais were very famous. Under the the first quality very often stop their car- reign of Henry IV. the handles of the riages before the doors of the most cele- | knives were wrouglit in grotesque figures, brated coffee-houses, and coffee is carried particularly one kiud, that had on it the to them in silver coffee-cups.”—The French head of a Chinese joss; since which time ladies of the present day stop in their car- these knives were called Chinese knives. riages before the Café Tortoni, on the Before it was customary to drink out of Boulevard, at the corner of la rue d'Artois. || vessels of metal or eartheo ware, the French A boy goes, as formerly, to wait on them drank out of horns. It is the fifteenth at the door of the carriage; sometiines : century that boasts of the silver cups of they actually enter the coffee-room. Cus. Tours, and the drinking cups of Pontarlier, tom does not forbid them to go and take The drinking cup differed from the comice at the Palais Royal, in the Café de Foi, mon cnp from its being raised on a foot, or in the garden opposite this coffee-bouse. so that it was a kind of chalice; these cups

Erery time a great feast was given the were made of various kinds of materials, guests were seated on benches (in French earthen ware, crystal, gold, and silver. banes

, whence came the word banquets). Fortunat, in a piece addressed to Queen Amongst Princes and great men the seats Radegonde, described a feast at which were mere benches; but they were cover- every kind of eatables was served up in difed with carpeting to render them more

ferent sorts of dishes; the meat on silver, easy. Poor people sat upon straw; and the vegetables on marble, the poultry on students also, were ranged according to glass dishes, the fruit in painted baskets, their different classes.

and the milk in black glazed pottery, in Io the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the form of porridge pots. napkins were named doubliers. In process

There exists now in Lyons a manufacof time, instead of a napkin folded twice, ture of pottery, which, according to a traeach guest had two, one shorter than the dition among the country people, was other

, which was taken away at the end established before the invasion of the Ro. of the last course. Henry III. a Prince

In 1757 and 1758, when they were who was occupied in researches after every digging the earth round the bill of St. kind of voluptuousness, had his table-cloths Genevieve, at Paris, in order to make the plaited in the most curious manner.

foundation for the new church dedicated From the commencement of the fifteenth to that Saint, they found a vast quantity century, Rheims became famous for the ma. of Roman pottery. In the garden of Luxpufacturing of table linen; and it was one embourg, at the beginning of the nineteenth of the gifts offered by that town to the century, many more discoveries were made Bovereigns of France. When Charles VII. of the same kind. made his entry into Rheims, the sheriffs pre

In the provincial inns, and amongst the sented him with fine flowered table-cloihs. country people, is yet to be seen a piece of

Under the reign of Louis XIV. the furniture called a dresser; the dishes are French linen manufactures for the table ranged symmetrically on the dresser shelves. must have very much fallen off; for Ma- | Among Princes they were dishes of gold dame de Maintenon being desirous, in the and silver that were set out on the shelves. year 1682, to establish a manufacture for Monstrelet, describing the magnificence of this kind of linen, sent for five-and-twenty the Duke of Burgundy during his stay at workmen from Flanders.

Paris, informs us, that in the saloon of his In the will of Saint Remy, Archbishop house, where he took his meals, was a of Rheims, who lived in the sixth century, square dresser, which was raised on steps, spoons are made mention of. Knives were

with shelves; and that it was loaded with used a long time instead of forks; it is

the most elegant and costly plate, both gold mentioned in an inventory that Charles V.

and silver. made of his plate in 1379. Under the first (To be concluded in our next.) Kings of the third race, the knives made at


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Las Casas, the eloquent, the indefa- This emotion overpowered his strength, tigable defender of the Americans, lay" and he sunk into a profound sleep. Sydstretched on his death-bed in bis ninetielh denly he thought that the stars of heaven year. For a long period preceding his lay scattered beneath his feet, and that he demise, all his thoughts were directed to ascended, supported on clouds, through wards the happiness of a better world; boundless space. At an immense distance and though now about to enter that world be bebeld rays of dazzling light issuing he trembled on the brink of eternity. from majestic obscurity; and on every side Conscious of the purity of his heart and innumerable legions of beings rose from the innocence of his life, he had encounter and descended to inferior worlds. Scarceed, without dismay, the angry glance of ly had his eye gazed and his soul admired, Kings, and he dreaded no earthly judge;' when an angel with the severe brow of a but the judge before whon he was speed- judge, appeared before him, and opened a ily to be summoned, was God, and he was book which he held in his hand. A shud. awed by the supreme sauctity of infinite dering like that of death, like that which justice. Thus the strongest as well as seizes the criminal at the sight of the the weakest eye is overpowered by the scaffold, chilled the heart of the old man dazzling beams of the sun.

when the immortal being pronounced his At the foot of his couch was seated an name, and enumerated all the noble faculaged monk, who had long been his faithful ties with which Heaven had endowed his friend. Equal in virtue to Las-Casas, he mind, all the mild and generous affections, loved him as a brother; inferior to him in the seeds of which had been diffused courage and talent, he respected him even through his blood, and named the opporto admiration. He was continually near tunities for the exercise of virtue, the aids his death-bed, and observed with sorrow

and encouragements which his situatiou the decay of nature, though he still endea- || afforded him. At this moment, all that voured to rouse the hopes of his dying ! was good iu him seemed to belong to God, friend; but the great thought of eternity || and only his errors and sins appeared to befilled the soul of Las-Casas; he begged long properly to himself. the old man to retire, and leave him in The angel commenced the history of his the presence of his judge.

life; he turned in search of the inconLas-Casas collected himself: he recalled "siderate aberrations of his youth, but they the past to his memory, and cast a retro


were no where to be found; the first tear spective glance over; his whole life: but of repentance had obliterated them. The to whatever point he fixed his attention tear alone was visible in their stead; and he discovered errors and faults; he saw every serious resolution to do well, every them in their full magnitude, and their joyful emotion on the fulfilment of a duty, consequences lay extended before him like every sentiment of virtue and humility, a vast ocean. His good actions, on the and every triumph over terrestrial nature, contrary, seemed poor, covered with ble- which is ever revolting against Heaven, mishes, and void of the fruits which he had

were carefully noted down. Hope then expected they would produce; like a feeble began to kindle in the heart of Las Casas : streamlet which loses itself amidst the for, though his errors were more numerous sands of the desert, and whose banks are than grains of sand on the sea shore, yet adorned neither with flowers nor verdure. his life abounded in acts of goodness; and At this aspect, overwhelmed with shame these acts became the more frequent, and and repentance, in his imagination, he his faults the more rare, in proportion as koelt down before God, and ferveutly his years increased, in proportion as ex. exclaimed, “Oh, Almighty Father of man- perience and reflection developed the kind, do not condemn me; let me find energy of his mind, and the habit of ful. grace in thy presence!"

filling his duty strengthened his desire and

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