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The Knave of Hearts

hero, and all tremble, with him, for the He stole those tarts,

punishment which the enraged monarch Here attention is awakened ; and our

may inflict :whole souls are intent upon the first ap

And beat the Koave-full sore ! pearance of the hero. Some readers may

The fatal blow is struck! We cannot perhaps be offended at his making his entré in so disadvantageous a character as that but rejoice that guilt is justly punished, of a thief. To this I plead precedent.

though we sympathize with the guilty The hero of the Iliad is made to la- | object of punishment. And here is anoment very pathetically,—that “ life is not ther great proof of the genius of the poet: like all other possessions, to be acquired by leaving the quantity of beating indeby theft.”-A reflection, in my opinion,

terminate, he gives every reader the liberevidently shewing, that if he did refrain | ty to administer it, in exact proportion to froin this ingenious art, it was not from

the sum of indignation which he may have want of an inclination that

conceived against his hero; that, by thus way.

We may remember, too, that in Virgil's poem, al amply satisfying their resentment, they most the first light in which the pious may be the more easily reconciled to him

afterwards. Æneas appears to us, is a deer-stealer; nor is it much excuse for him, that the

The King of Hearts deer were wandering without keepers ; for

Call'd for those tarts, however he might, from this circumstance,

And beat the Knare full sore ! have been unable to ascertain whose pro- So far the second part, or middle of the perty they were, he might, I think, have poem, in which we see the character and been pretty well assured that they were | exploits of the hero portrayed with the not his.

hand of a master. Having thus acquitted our hero of mis- Nothing now remains to be examined, conduct, by the example of his betters, || but the third part or end. In the end, I proceed to what I think the master-stroke it is a rule pretty well established, that the

work should draw towards a conclusion,

which our author manages thus :-
The Knave of Hearts
He stole those tarts,

The Knave of Hearts
And-took them-quite away!!

Brought back those tarts. Here, whoever has an ear for harmony, Here every thing is at length settled ; and a heart for feeling, must be touched ! || the theft is compensated; the tarts restored There is a desponding melancholy in the to their right owner ; and poetical justice, run of the last line ! an air of tender re- in every respect, strictly and impartially gret in the addition of “ quite away!" a

administered. something so expressive of irrecoverable We may observe, that there is nothing loss ! “ They never can return !In short, in which our poet has better succeeded, such a union of sound and sense, as we than in keeping up an unremitted attenrarely, if ever, meet with in any author, an- tion in his readers to the main instruments, cient or modern. Our feelings are all the machinery of his poem, viz. the tarts. alive; but the poet, wisely dreading that We are now come to the denouement, our sympathy with the injured queen the setting all to rights; and our poet, in might alienate our affections from this hero, the management of his moral, is certainly contrives immediately to awaken our fears superior to his great ancient predecessors. for him, by telling us, that

The moral of their fables, if any they

have, is so interwoven with the main body The King of Hearts

of the work, that in endeavouring to unCall’d for those tarts

ravel it, we should tear the whole. Our We are all conscious of the fault of our author has very properly preserved his,

of the poet.

whole and entire, for the end of his poem, the several parts of this wonderful work; where he completes his main design, the || and clearly proved it, in every one of these reformation of his hero, thus :

parts, and in all of them together, to be a And vow'd he'd steal no more.

due and proper epic poem; and to have as Having, in the course of his work, shewn good a right to that title, from its adhethe bad effects arising from theft, he evi- i celebrated master-pieces of antiquity. And

rence to prescribed rules, as any of the dently means this last moral reflection to

here I cannot help again lamenting, that operate with his readers as a gentle and polite dissuasive from stealing

in my ignorance of the name of the author,

I am unable to intertwine our laurels, or The Knave of Hearts

in a proper and becoming manner to transBrought back those tarts,

mit to posterity the mingled praises of And vow'd he'd steal no more!

genius and judgment, of the poet and his Thus have I industriously gone through commentator.

ON THE ILLUMINATION OF STREETS.

As early as the year 1414, we find an or- or candle themselves, were exempt from der issued for hanging out lanthorns in the paying towards the public lamps. streets of London ; and in 1417, it appears, The streets, however, were only lighted that Mayor Sir Henry Barton, skinner, or- during 117 nights in the year; and as many dained lanthorns with lights to be exhi- robberies and depredations were committed bited on winter evenings, betwixt the sea in the night time, the Lord Mayor and sons of Hallowtide and Candlemas. In the Common Council judged proper, in 1736, year 1668, when regulations were made to apply to Parliament to enable them to for improving the streets of the metropolis, | light the streets of the city in a better the Londoners were reminded that they

manner. An act was in consequence passed, should hang out lanthorns during the ac- by which they were empowered to erect customed time. In the year 1690 this or- glass lamps, in such number as they should der was renewed, and every housekeeper judge proper, and to keep them burning was ordered to bring out a light or lamp from the setting to the rising of the sun, every night between Michaelmas and Lady throughout the whole year. Day, and to keep it burning till the hour If London be excepted, Paris appears of twelve at night. In the year 1716, it was to have been the earliest modern city which ordered, by an act of the Common Council | adopted the regulation of their police in of the city, that all housekeepers, whose lighting the streets. Street robberies and houses fronted any street, lane, or public incendiaries having been found to infest the passage, should, on every dark night, set | city of Paris, the inhabitants were ordered or hang out one or more lights, with cot- to keep lights burning after nine in the ton wicks, that should continue to burn | evening, before the windows of their houses from six o'clock at night till eleven, under which fronted the street. This order was the penalty of one shilling.

issued in 1524, and renewed in 1526, but Eventually the city was lighted by con- in October 1588, falluts were directed tract, and the contractors were obliged to to be set up at the corners of the streets, pay annually to the city six thousand and when the street was so long that it pounds sterling, and they only received could not be lighted by one, three were şix shillings per annum of every house- erected in different parts of it. These keeper whose rent exceeded ten pounds. | lights consisted of a vase filled with pitch, All housekeepers who brought out a light resin, and other combustible matter. In

ON THE PAVING OF STREETS.

the month of November in the same year, these lights were changed for lanthorns, somewhat similar to those in present use in France.

The custom of paving cities is of unIn the year 1667 regulations began to be doubted antiquity; the streets of Pompeii adopted for illuminating the French capi- and Herculaneum being paved with lava. tal, from which time the police has under- Among modern cities, the first that was taken the regulation of that metropolis, paved in Europe, was Cordova, in the year both as to watching and lighting.

850, when Abdorrahman II. the fourth When De Sartines held the office of lieu- Spanish caliph, made it the seat of his emtenant de police, a premium was offered to pire. whoever should discover the most advan- In the twelfth century the city of Paris tageous means of improving the mode of was not paved. The physician of Philip II. lighting the public streets. In consequence relates, that the king being at a window of of this offer, a journeyman glazier re- his palace, on the banks of the Seine, and ceived a premium of 200 livres, and Messrs. observing that the carriages in passin Builly, Le Rey, and Bourgeois de Chateau-threw up so much dirt as to cause a very blanc, 2000 livres. To the last-mentioned disagreeable odour, his majesty resolved to gentleman is ascribed the invention of the remedy it, by causing the streets to be present reverberating lamps, which were paved, which was effected in the year 1184: introduced in 1766.

the city had before this derived its appellaThe streets of Amsterdam were lighted | tion from its dirt, but it was now changed as early as 1669. At the Hague, an order | to that of Paris, by Philip. Other French was made in 1553 for the inhabitants to cities soon followed this example. place lights before their doors during dark London was not paved at the close of the nights : afterwards, small stone buildings eleventh century; and in 1090, when the were erected at the corners of the principal church of St. Mary le Bow, in Cheapside, streets, in which lights were kept burning. I was under repair, four large beams of In 1678 lamps were fixed up in all the twenty-six feet in length, being blown streets.

down by the wind, sunk so deep into the Copenhagen was first lighted in 168] : ground, that scarcely four feet of them rethis illumination has been much improved | mained above the surface, for the streets from time to time.

then consisted of soft earth. The principal The streets of Rome are not uniformly streets in Holborn were paved for the first lighted even to the present day. Pope time in 1417; the highway of Holborn was Sixtus V. was desirous of introducing this then so deep and miry, that many perils improvement, but met with too many se- were thereby occasioned to the king's carrious obstacles to persist. In order, how-riages passing that way, as well as to those ever, to obviate the inconvenience as much of his subjects. Other streets were paved as possible, he very ingeniously availed under Henry VIII. some of them being himself of his pontifical authority, in or- described as very foul, full of pits and dering an additional number of lamps to sloughs, perilous and noisome.” Some be placed before the images of the saints. streets in the suburbs of the metropolis

The city of Venice is slighted by three were paved in 1544, 1571, and 1605. The thousand lamps. Both Messina and Pa- great cattle market at Smithfield was first lermo, in Sicily, are well lighted.

paved in 1614. In a future paper we shall continue this The great extension of street paving in account, with a descriptive consideration modern times, with its improvements, and a of the modern improvements in this im- consideration of the famous roads of anportant custom.

tiquity, will form a sequel to this sketch.

SKETCHES OF PUBLIC CHARACTERS.

JOHN BERNARD TROTTER, ESQ.

This unfortunate gentleman was the au- in Dublin. He there married a young wothor of several very excellent literary man, who had been the faithful companion works, but was most advantageously known of his changeful fortunes, and when he to the public, as the author of the Life obtained his liberation, he retired to Cork, and Memoirs of the Right Honourable whence he took his Walks through IreCharles James Fox, to whom Mr. Trotter land,a work creditable to his talents as a was private secretary, and had many years tourist. He proceeded on foot through the enjoyed his friendly confidence.

counties of Cork, Limerick, Clare, Galway, Mr. Trotter was a native of Ireland, but and Mayo, exploring the wild districts of Erwas descended from the Earls of Gowry, in ris, Conemarra, and Joyce's county, a soliScotland. His father was a clergyman of tary and sequestered track along the Westthe Church of England, and his uncle, byern Ocean, but little known, and scarcely the mother's side, was Bishop of Down ever visited. Here, after the confiscation and Connor. Mr. Trotter was originally of Cromwell, were the native Irish driven, designed for the church, and accordingly and there they still retain that energetic received his education at Trinity College, and unmixed character that has ever distinDublin; but he was afterwards called to guished them. In this tour, Mr. Trotter the Irish bar, and his acquaintance with often took up his abode with the poorest Mr. Fox commenced while keeping his pro- peasants, where his only bed was a little fessional terms in England. Mr. Trotter straw shaken on the ground, his food poafterwards accompanied his friend and pa- tatoes and salt, which the hospitable Irishtron to France, where he assisted him in man, however wretched his condition, alobtaining the information relative to the ways most cheerfully shares with his inStuart family, which Mr. Fox required, to complete the history he had undertaken of From Connaught Mr. Trotter returned to the Reign of James II.From France Cork, having walked, in three months, Mr. Trotter returned to Ireland, whence more than a thousand miles. he was called to England by Mr. Fox, on We have now the painful task of rethat gentleman's elevation to the situation cording the close of this extraordinary of prime minister.

man's life; but the picture though melanAll hope of future advantage, however, choly is interesting, and rouses feelings unfortunately expired with the death of which ought not to be suppressed. Mr. Fox; and while want and obscurity While he was engaged in composing his seemed to lie in ambush for poor Trotter, Walks through Irelund,his hopes were he retreated to Dublin, and there com- supported, and his spirits kept from sinking menced a political course of authorship. | by his efforts and exertion: his resignation After writing several pamphlets and other and his equanimity were indeed truly lauliterary works of this nature, he continueddable, for he submitted to privations of to live in a style of expense but ill suited every kind, with the most cheerful fortito his means. Embarrassments, as may

tude. At this time all his means were exwell be imagined, grew fast upon him, and hausted, and even common food was at ultimately compelled him to quit Dublin. length supplied in a very precarious and He wandered over other parts of Ireland irregular manner. When the hour of dinwithout any settled plan, and was at length ner arrived, he frequently attended his arrested for debt in the county of Wex- family to an empty table ! and took up ford, and removed to the Marshalsea prison the work of some author to read aloud for

mate.

their entertainment, during the time ge- only food he could then procure, and the nerally allotted to the meal; and the un- next day was seized with the distemper. He fortunates arose from this mental repast was visited by the physicians of a dispenwith what resignation they might, with the sary in the vicinity, and received grahope that some relief might arrive on the tuitously the medicines they prescribed ; morrow! When his tour was completed, but his heart was broken, and medicine as if body and mind were totallyexhausted, could do little to arrest his malady, inhe suddenly sunk into dejection and des-creased as it was by scanty, crude, and upondency; his only complaining, an occa. | wholesome diet. In a short time his case sional communication of his feelings and became utterly hopeless. The learned and situation to the only friend the world had accomplished Dean of Cork, the present left him. These letters indicated but too | Bishop of Raphoe, came to offer him the distinctly, the wreck of a mind borne down last consolations of religion, and he kindis by incessant anxiety and hopeless affilic and sedulously attended him, as long as tion: indeed, the circumstances under his sacred functions could confer comfort which he supported existence at that pe- on the heart of the dying man. The powers riod, might serve to excuse his desponden- of his mind soon gave way, and deprived cy. He occupied some bare and desolate | him of this best of consolation. Strange apartments of a decayed house in Ham- to relate, he imagined he saw a phantom mond's Marsh: the abode was dreary and walking across bis room, in the form of a comfortless as the most squalid poverty man, and enter a closet; and he earnestly might be supposed to choose for its hor-requested Mrs. Trotter to follow the apparible retirement. His only food was po- rition. She complied, but could not pertatoes, salt, and water, with such other suade him it was but a delusion of his cheap vegetables as he could occasionally | fancy: he insisted that another person procure. The addition of milk and tea should be called to make further search, were now but rare luxuries, and to pro- and not satisfied even with this assurance, vide them, it was generally requisite to he himself rose from his bed, tottered pawn a remaining shirt or garment. His across the room, and closely examined the habiliments now were the worn-out rem- | closet. Shortly after this he called for nants of better days, and he seldom stirred writing materials : he made a vain and infrom his wretched abode, where no one effectual effort to write; the pen fell from sought him : his only solace was to remain his hand, and uttering a deep groan, be in his bed for whole days, and there to || sunk back exhausted on his pillow. In a brood over misfortune. On those occa- short time after, his sufferings had ceased; sions he was accustomed to read those he expired, on the 29th of September, books that accorded with his own sad si- || 1818, in the forty-third year of his age. tuation. He dwelt with melancholy fond- He had expressed a wish during his ill

. ness on the lives of Chatterton, Savage, ness, that his remains should be placed Otway, and such literary characters who near the elm trees which shade the church. had prematurely perished from indigence || yard of the cathedral at Cork, and this and want ; drawing from their end a gloomy | has been piously attended to. presage of his own fate. In this state he was at friends, it is said, propose to erect a molength visited by an epidemic disorder, then | nument over his remains. In the agony raging amongthe poor of the neighbourhood, of feeling which arises when we see a feland which is always found most fatal in its low-creature perish from inanition, to say attacks upon the distressed, who are predis- | nothing of his celebrity and descent, we are posed, both in body and mind, for its ravages. || forcibly reminded of the observation made He had, on this occasion, eaten, after a long on another unfortunate:abstinence,aquantity of crude vegetables, the He asked for bread, and he received a stone."

A few

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