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they who have not seen the smoke of the stranger's fire.” Nor were the persons they daily met, at all calculated to remove their apprehensions or conciliate their affections. The drivers of the teams on the road, seemed to them a new and horrible species of men. They were distinguished by rudeness, drunkenness, selfishness and profanity. But they were told there were some exceptions, who had formed associations under oath to assist each other. To our travellers, the very appearance of the cattle and hog-drivers from Mad river, portentous name! in the interior of Ohio, to Philadelphia, had an unnatural shagginess and roughness like wolves; but when, after a toilsome journey, they aproached Pittsburg, they were both astonished and delighted at the size and populousness of the very handsome villages, on the slopes of the hills. At Pittsburg
“ The first thing that strikes a stranger from the Atlantic, arrived at the boat-landing, is the singular, whimsical and amusing spectacle, of the varieties of water craft of all shapes and structures. There is the stately barge of the size of a large Atlantic schooner, with its raised and outlandish looking deck. This kind of craft, however, which required twenty-five hands to work it up stream, is almost gone into disuse, and, though so common ten years ago, is now scarcely seen. Next there is the keel boat, of a long, slender and elegant form, and generally carrying from 15 to 30 tons. This boat is formed to be easily propelled over shallow waters in the summer season, and in low stages of the water is still much used, and runs on waters not yet frequented by steam-boats. Next in order are the Kentucky flats, or in the vernacular phrase, " broad-horns,” a species of ark, very near resembling a New-England pig-stye. They are fifteen feet wide, and from forty to one hundred feet in length, and carry from twenty to seventy tons. Some of them that are called family boats, and used by families in descending the river, are very large and roomy, and have comfortable and separate apartments, fitted
with chairs, beds, tables and stoves. It is no uncommon spectacle to see a large family, old and young, servants, cattle, hogs, horses, sheep, fowls, and animals of all kinds, bringing to recollection the cargo of the ancient ark, all embarked and floating down on the same bottom. Then there are what the people call “covered slids," or ferry flats and Alleghany skiffs, carrying from eight to twelve tons. In another place, are pirogues of from two to four tons burthen, hollowed sometimes from one prodigious tree, or from the trunks of two trees united, and a plank rim fitted to the upper part. There are common skiffs and other small craft named, from the manner of making them,“ dug-outs,” and canoes hollowed from smaller trees. These boats are in great numbers, and these names are specific, and clearly define the boats to which they belong. But besides these, in this land of freedom and invention, with a little aid, perhaps, from the influence of the moon, there are monstrous anomalies reducible to no specific class of boats, and only illustrating the whimsical archetypes of things that have
previously existed in the brain of inventive man, who reject the slavery of being obliged to build in any received form.".
Many of these boats perform voyages of 3000 miles under difficulties and dangers that would make the stoutest heart quail till habit rendered them familiar. The life of a sailor on the ocean, is comparably easier than that of these boatmen. But the race is now gradually passing away since the introduction of steam-boats-above one hundred of which are daily passing to and fro on these great water-courses, bringing together the ends of the earth. The common boats accomplish with difficulty against the current, ten miles a day, whilst these, laughing to scorn the puny opposition of the adverse current, dash with ease through ten times that distance. Our traveller says
“ It imparts a feeling of energy and power to the beholder, to see the large and beautiful steam-boats scudding up the eddies, as though on the wing, and when they have run out the eddy, strike the current. The foam bursts in a sheet quite over the deck. She quivers for a moment with ihe concussion, and then, as if she had collected her energy, and vanquished her enemy, she resumes her stately march, and mounts against the current.”—p. 107.
The introduction of these boats has, with other circumstances, by facilitating the intercourse between the western country and the Atlantic, not only destroyed in a great degree the old boat navigation, but diminished the prosperity of Pittsburg, and transferred its business and wealth to Cincinnati, Louisville, and other places on the Ohio. This, our author remarks, is not much to be regretted, for Pittsburg used “to fatten on the spoils of the poor emigrants that swarmed to that place, and hardened in the pursuits of manufactures, she had been brought to think all men rogues, and every way of getting money fair.” If this be the effect of the manufacturing system, which we fear it is, we have an additional reason to deprecate it, and to render thanks to a kind Providence, who has so ordered it, that this system can never permanently strike its baneful roots into our southern soil. We are not intended for it-our climate is adverse to it, and the nature of our labourers can never be so changed, as to be taught to cultivate it successfully. Fortunately for Pittsburg, the decay of her business is said to have improved her morals, and humanized her manners.
At Pittsburg, our travellers with no experience, and full of flattering hopes of a placid voyage down the gentle stream, embarked in a small flat boat laden with factory cottons and cutlery, owned by a Massachusetts trader. They anticipated, like youth launching on the current of life, not only safety but continual pleasure, and were doomed to meet with similar disappointments. But the inception of the voyage is so well told, that we will give it in the author's words :
“ About one o'clock in the afternoon, we began to float down the Alleghany, and in a few moments we were moving on the broad bosom of the Ohio, at the point of junction nearly a mile in width. The autumns of every part of our country are beautiful, but those of the western country are pre-eminently so. Nothing resulting from beauty of sky, temperature of air, and charm of scenery, can surpass what was now above us and around us. The bright sun, the mild blue sky, a bland feeling of the atmosphere, the variegated foliage of the huge sycamores, which line the banks of the Ohio, their leaves turning red and yellow, and, finally contrasting with the brilliant white of their branches, the unruffled stream, which reflected in its bosom the beautiful surrounding nature-all things conspired to give us very high anticipations from being wafted down "la belle riviere.” We were congratulating each other, that this was indeed worth all the toils and privations we had endured in arriving at the Ohio. But, alas, for human calculations! While we were noticing every object on the banks with such intense interest, whilst the owner was seated amidst his goods and wares, indulging, probably, in golden dreams of easy, certain and great profits, while one of the company that you know of, was completely given up to reverie, at which you have so often smiled-on a sudden, the roar of the river admonished us that we were near a ripple.
We had with us that famous book, “The Navigator," as it is called. The boat began to change its gentle and imperceptible advance for a furious progress. Soon after it gave a violent bounce against a rock on one side, which threatened to capsize it. On recovering her level, she immediately bounced on the opposite side, and that in its turn was keeled up. Instead of running to the oar, we ran to look in the “Navigator.” The owner was pale. The children shrieked. The hardware came tumbling upon us from the shelves, and Mrs. F. was almost literally buried amidst locks, latches, knives, and pieces of domestic cotton. The gentle river had not intended, in this first alarm, to swallow us up, but only to give us timely warning, that too much tranquillity and enjoyment are not to be expected here. We floated off from this ripple, which bore the ominous name of “Dead Man's, into the smooth water, with no other injury than the chaotic state of our lading. But from that moment, adieu to our poetic dreams of floating down the beautiful river in such perfect safety. We were continually running to the “Navigator," astonished to find how full the river was of chutes and ripples.”—p. 20.
Thus they proceeded, surrounded by dangers from rocks, chutes, and sand-bars, constantly on the look-out for perils, and enjoying but little repose, and no tranquillity. Sometimes striking on rocks which threatened instant destruction, and sometimes, at night, stuck fast on a sandbank in the midst of the
river, with the noise of a neighbouring ripple in their ears, and the apprehension in their hearts that they would float off and be dashed to pieces before morning. They, however, arrived safely at Beaver in Pennsylvania, where they purchased a large skiff, which could run in any state of the water without grounding ; but it was uncovered and exposed them to the sun, fogs and rain. At night, too, they had to land, unload the boat, make her fast, with the fear that she might be stolen before day light, and seek a lodging on shore. In this manner they passed many thriving a villages just risen in the wilderness—they saw the mouths of numerous boatable streams extending hundreds of miles into the interior, and bearing on their bosom the produce of their banks to the great Ohio—and they often met boats from the Kenhawa, laden with salt, ascending by poling and seeking a market on the upper waters of the Alleghany.
At Wheeling, where the great national road meets the Ohio, they made a long and sad sojourn. The influenza prevailed, and filled the houses with gloom; and the multitude of emigrants arrested by it, rendered the situation of all comfortless and disheartening. In such a crowd they could obtain but little attention, and their increased expenses added nothing to their comfort. There they, however, remained until the middle of November, when they again resumed their voyage--the temperature of the air had now become delightful, and the river scenery fine. “The gentle and almost imperceptible motion of the boat says our author, as you sit on deck and see the trees apparently moving by you, and new groups of scenery still opening upon your eye, together with the view of these ancient and magnificent forests which the axe has not yet despoiled, the broad and beautiful river, the earth and the sky, render such a trip, at this season,
The shores too were not destitute of animation, for, from the houses and cabins, the crowds of children that poured out to view the passing strangers, gave satisfactory proof that population kept pace with subsistence, and this could be obtained in boundless profusion, with very slight attention to cultivation or business. One of the author's friends settled near St. Charles, raised in one year, with only the assistance of his two sons, who were boys, a hired white man and a negro, 2,400 bushels of corn, 800 bushels of wheat, and other articles in proportion; and the number of cattle, hogs, &c. that he could have raised was indefinite, as his pastures and hay were sufficient for above a thousand.
Our voyagers landed at Marietta, just above the mouth of the Muskingum, with letters to the venerable General Putnam, the patriarch of this colony. He had been one of the first settlers
in this place when it was a compact and boundless forest-he had seen the houses, cattle, and some of the inhabitants swept away by an awful inundation, and felt the scourge of Indian warfare, but he lived to rejoice in the ultimate prosperity of the settlement. He lived to witness "a hundred steam-boats laden for New-Orleans, pass by in the compass of a few hours. He had surrounded his modest but commodious dwelling with fruit trees of his own planting; and finer or more loaded orchards than his no country could offer. In the midst of rural plenty and endeared friends who had grown up around him-far from the display of wealth, the bustle of ambition and intrigue, the father of the colony, hospitable and kind, without ostentation and without effort, he displayed in these remote regions the grandeur, real and intrinsic, of those immortal men who achieved our Revolution. Of these great men, most of whom, and General Putnam among the rest, have passed away, there seems to have arisen a more just and more respectful estimate. Greater and more unambitious men no age or country has reared. Cato's seems to have been their mottomesse quam videri.” (p. 34.) We transcribe this offering to these military heroes with the feeling with which it was made. It is truly delightful to contemplate these hoary patriots in the splendid evening of their days, still unwearied in well doing, exhibiting by example and disseminating by precept the blessed principles of our Revolution; and impressing on youthful hearts, destined, perhaps, at no distant period, to sway the councils of the nation, that inestimable love of liberty which they purchased with their blood, and bestowed on us as an inheritance.
Notwithstanding the inhabitants of this part of the State are principally Yankees, and, indeed, Ohio is said to be called the Yankee State by her neighbours, complaints are every where made of “ Yankee tricks, Yankee finesse, wooden nutmegs, straw blankets, pit-coal indigo," &c. Wherever our travellers stopped for lodgings they were asked if they were Yankees? And where they answered in the affirmative, they constantly saw the unwelcome nature of the intelligence expressed in the lengthened visage. On this point, our author appears to be a little out of humour, and he endeavours to palliate the inference so unfavourable to his countrymen by shifting the odious burden to other shoulders. He says “the emigrants upon whom these charges are fixed, which are probably magnified, both in number and enormity, are as often other people as Yankees. But as these last eminently possess the power of talking, and inspire a sort of terror by their superior acuteness, and as that terror procures a certain degree of respect, many a blockhead from the southern