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FIFTH SERIES.-No. 1.-VOL. XIII.]
[VOL. LXIII.-WHOLE NO. 1,614.
CONTENTS OF NO. 1, VOL. 13. NATIONAL AFFAIRS.
STATES OF THE UNION -Rhode Island, election. Pennsylvania.
CLAIMS AGAINST MEXICO- report of senate commit
POLITICS OF THE DAY.
PROTET FROM THE PRESIDENT.
THE PAST-THE PRESENT-- FOR THE FUTURE.
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED, EVERY SATURDAY, BY JEREMIAH HUGHES, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE.
for law and gentlemanly conduct on all occasions. A
GENERAL ORDERS, NO. 53.
2. It is due to the line, generally, to add, that those
3. Inquiries into the reported abuses are in progress, with instructions, if probable evidence of guilt be found, to bring the offenders to trial.
4. It is well known to every vigilant officer that discipline can be maintained (and it shall be so maintained-) by legal means. Other resorts are, in the end, always destructive of good order and subordi
THE NEW TARIFF ACT. CONGRESSIONAL PROCEEDINGS. CHRONICLE
CONGRESS. The two houses of congress brought their late long and arduous session to a close on Wednesday last at two o'clock.
The tariff bill passed the senate with amendments on Saturday; on Monday it come into the house; an effort was made to have it laid on the table, which was defeated by a vote of 120 nays, to 65 yeas, and the amendments were concurred in. On the 30th ult. it received the signature of the president.
5. Insolence, disobedience, mutiny, are the usual pro-
6. For insolent words, addressed to a superior, let the
The bill for repealing that provision of the distri bution act which suspends its operation whenever duties are laid upon imports at a higher rate than 20 per cent. on the value thereof, passed by both houses, has been retained by the president without signa
The bill to regulate the taking of evidence in cases of contested elections passed by both houses, has likewise been retained without signature by the president.
BALTIMORE, SEPTEMBER 3, 1842.
The bill to reorganize the navy department by abolishing the board of navy commissioners and establishing a series of bureaus in lieu thereot, has
come a law.
The treasury note bill reported by the committee of way and means has also become a law.
SENATOR KERR. The National Intelligencer of the 1st inst. says: "We learn from a friend of Mr. Senator Kerr, of Maryland, whose absence from his seat in the senate for a few days past has been noticed, that his absence was unavoidably necessary, but did not take place until he had an opportunity of pairing off with a senator of opposite politics; so that neither the state which he represents nor the side of the senate to which he belongs sustained any loss in votes by his absence."
10. At a time when, notwithstanding the smallness of the establishment, thousands of the most promising youths are desirous of military commissions, the country has a right to demand-not merely the usual exact observance of laws, regulations and orders, but yet more-that every officer shall give himself up entirely to the cultivation and practice of all the virtues and accomplishments which can elevate an honorable profession. There is in the army of the United States, neither room. nor associates, for the idle, the ignorant, the vicious. the disobedient. To the very few such, thinly scattered over the service whether in the line or the staff, these admonitions are mainly addressed, and let the vigilant eye of all commanders be fixed up on them. No bad or indifferent officer should receive from a senior any favor or indulgenee whatsoever.
11. The attention of commanders of departments, regiments, companies and garrisons is directed to the 101st of the rules and articles of war, which requires that the whole series shall be read to the troops at least once in every six months. WINFIELD SCOTT.
NAVAL. The law reorganizing the naval department has been followed by the following appointments by the president-by and with the advice and consent of the senate. yards and docks. Lewis Warrington, to be chief of the bureau of navy
Wi. M. Crane, to be chief of the bureau of ordnance and hydrography.
cine and surgery.
equipment and repairs.
Charles W. Goldsborough, to be chief of the bureau of provisions and clothing.
Promotions. Commander John Gwinn to be captain, from the 17th April 1812, vice Clack, dismissed.
Lieut James T. Gerry to be commander, froth the 17th April. 1842, vice Gwinn, promoted.
Passed midshipman Hunn Ginsevoort to be lieutenant, from the 27th February, 1842, vice Clinton, deceased.
Pissed midshipman Willian S. Drayton to be lieutenant, from the 1st April, 1842, vice Carroll, deceased.
7. But it may be said, in the case of mutiny, or conduct tending to this great crime-that it is necessary First order him to be seized. If his companions put late message, speaks of the United States as 'having to cut down, on the spot, the exciter or ring-leader. NATIONAL DEBTS. President Tyler, in his him into irons or confinement, it is plain there is no paid off her whole debt since the last peace, while all spread of the dangerous example. But, should they the other great powers have been increasing theirs! We hesitate; or should it be necessary in any case of are sorry to see a remark in an important public disobedience, desertion or running away-the object document, betraying such a want of information being to secure the person for trial;-as always to re- upon the history and condition of foreign countries, pel a personal assault, or to stop an affray-in every as is implied in the passage above quoted. How one of these cases any superior may strike and could the president have gotten the idea that all the wound; but only to the extent clearly necessary to great powers of the world, except the United States, such lawful end. Any excess, wantonly committed have been since the peace, increasing their respecNATIONAL AFFAIRS. beyond such measured violence, would, itself, be tive public debts? There is no one of the great punishable in the superior. No other case can pos- powers of Europe, which has not been reducing its APPOINTMENTS BY THE PRESIDENT. By and with the sibly justify any superior in committing violence debt, during the same period in which the U. States advice and consent of the senate. George F. Usher, of upon the body of any inferior, without the judgment has paid off hers. There are five governments which Rhode Island, to the commercial agent at Cape Haytien, of a court-except that it may sometimes be neces- are usually denominated the great powers, all of in the Island of St. Domingo, in the place of Benj. E.sary, by force, to iron prisoners for security, or to which have been since the peace, successfully enVisli, resigned. Adam Gordon, collector of the customs, at Key West, gag them for quiet. gaged in reducing the enormous debts contracted by (Fa.) re-appointed. 8. Harsh and abusive words, passionately or wanton- them during the long war which preceded. Great Patrick O. Lee, register of the land office at Natchito-ly applied to unoffending inferiors, is but little less Britain, which is burdened with the greatest debt, ches, (La.) re-appointed. reprehensible. Peter Laidlaw, register of the land office at New Or- vulgar and unmanly; and, in this connection, it may the peace, and what is more, has by changes of inSuch language is, at once, unjust, has reduced that burden fifty millions sterling since leans, vice Joseph Genois, resigned. U.gulations for the army: be useful to recall a passage from the old general revestment with the consent of the public creditors, reduced to the amount of annual interest five mil niors or inferiors will be carefully watched and re- latest authentic accounts, was reduced to 934,000,000 "The general deportment of officers towards ju- lions. The public debt of Russia, according to the gulated. If this be cold or harsh, on the one hand, paper roubles, having been in 1830 as high as 1.500,or grossly familiar on the other, the harmony or dis-000,000. The state of the finances of the Austrian emcipline of the corps cannot be maintained. The ex-pire is not very satisfactorily known, but according amples are numerous and brilliant, in which the most to the best information, the debt has been reduced conciliatory manners have been found perfectly com- since the peace more than 100,000,000 of American
John P. Brown, Dragoman to the legation of the S. at the Sublime Porte
Consuls. A. D. Mann, of Ohio, at Bremen, in the place of F. J. Grund.
Edward Gamage, of S. C., at Florence.
of N. Haly, deceased.
Phlip A. de Creny, of Maine, for the Island of Mar-patible with the exercise of the strictest command; dollars. The debt of Prussia, which amounted in tinique, in the place of John E. Wood, deceased. Levi Bixby, of Vermont, at Paramaribo, in the place of Thomas Trask, resigned. W. W. J. Simth of Virginia, at Matagorda, in the place of CS. Wallack, resigned. John F. McGregot, at Campechy, in the place of C.
and the officer who does not unite a high degree of 1820, to 206,603,000 rix dollars, had been reduced moral vigor with the civility that springs from the on the 1st of January, 1835, to 163,626,000, and it heart, cannot too soon choose another profession in has been undergoing a regular reduction since, and which imbecility would be less conspicuous, and probably does not now much exceed $100,000,000. harshness less wounding and oppressive." (Et. 1835). The funded debt of France has been greatly increase 9. Government not only reposes special trust an ed since the peace, by the assumption of obligations John A. Robinson, of N. Y at Guaymas, in Califor-confidence in the patriotism, valor, fidelity and ab- to foreign countries, and the payment of a thousand nia, in the place of E. S. Glasgow, resigned. ties of" army officers, as is expressed on the face of millions of francs to her own subjects who were P. Pou at Barcelona, in the place of J. A. B. Leonard.commissions; but also in their self-control, respect robbed of their property in the revolution, but the Vol. XIII-SIG. 1.
S. Per vies, r. saved.
That state, after having borrowed as much as she could, in the old fashioned way, from banks and brokers, and domestic and foreign capitalists, resolved to extort a loan of a dollar a head from every washIt is, we presume, unnecessary for us to say that erwoman and woodsawyer, and every body else withwe regard this as very inadequate and in some of its in her limits, that had a dollar to lend. But as washBut for the erwomen and woodsawyers, and other dollar people, respects very pernicious legislation. imposition of new taxes to double the amount alrea- cannot long dispense with the use of their funds, it ready imposed, and in the new acknowledgment of was necessary to give these certificates of loan in a the liability of the state for the accruing though post-circulating form, so that the burden might be shifted poned interest, we in common with every good citi- from one to another, day by day, or, if necessary, zen are bound to be grateful. We are grateful that two or three times a day. These certificates of loan, neither the spirit nor the form of repudiation is yet or "relief notes," as they were called, could not be amongst us." reclaimed except when presented in amounts of one hundred dollars, and then they were redeemable, not FINANCIAL CONDITION. Pennsylvania is indebted in gold or silver, but in state stocks, purporting to $40,000.000. A few years ago, her bonds sold at bear five per cent. interest, which stocks were, at par. They are now at a discount of more than fifty the time the act was passed, about 20 per cent. beper cent., the holders in the meanwhile having lost low par. The notes were, however, made receiva something like $20,000,000. But a few years back ble in payment of debts due to the state. The plan also, the stock of the United States bank was sold at was completed by employing the banks to issue
amount of debt was in process of rapid reduction, owned by the state at par, to which no importance
STATES OF THE UNION.
RHODE ISLAND. The govenor has issued a proclamaItion postponing indefinitely the act placing the state under martial law.
Election. The election in Rhode Island took place on Tuesday 30th ult. Newport elected six whig representatives to the legislature without opposition. Also four delegates to the convention for forming a state con stitution, viz: H. Y. Cranston, K. K. Randolph, E. w.par, and was worth $35,000,000. It is now selling them, and as a reward to those institutions for aiding
$3 and $4 a share. The depreciation, therefore, is upwards of $30,000,000. every description of stock has depreciated, and hundreds who provisions of the United States constitution, the priThe New York American of the 27th ult. says-five years ago, could boast of beings worth from vilege was granted them of suspending specie payGovernor Hubbard of New Hampshire, having been $100,000 to $500,000, are now little better than bank-ments for a terin of years: that is to say, the privilege was granted to such of the banks as would engage in guilty of the indecorum of sending a letter through rupt. We know of two most melancholy instances. the issue of these "relief notes," and receive them in the post office to Governor King of Rhode Island, One gentleman, and an old and worthy merchant, addressed to "his excellency Samuel Ward King, retied from business with a fortune of $500,000. It payment of bank debts. For a time the Pennsylvania relief system worked acting as governor of Rhode Island," and bearing was invested chiefly in United States bank stock, the on the envelope that it was from Governor Hubbard Lehigh and the Schuylkill Navigation companies.-admirably. As the banks that declined issuing the notes, consented, from mistaken motives of policy, of New Hampshire, the letter was immediately and He is now believed to be worth nothing, having to receive them in payment of bank debts, they were without breaking the seal, returned to Gov. Hub- been compelled day and week after week, to make every where at bank par; and the currency was as sacrifices which involved him so deeply, that he at uniform as it was rational to expect it to be, in a The grand jury of landholders last abandoned the effort to escape from ruin and state having between fiifty and sixty banks, three or HIGH TREASON. have returned to the supreme court, now sitting at despair, and gave all he was worth into the hands of four distinct centres of trade, and as many, perhaps, Newport, bills of indictment for high treason against Thomas W. Dorr, Dutee J. Pearce, Joseph Joslin, Daniel Brown, Seth Luther, Nathaniel N. Carpenter,
John Paine and Geo. Frisseil.
his creditors. In the other case, the individual was
as thirty different legal tenders; for, it is to be obser
worth about $300,000, and had also retired from
Stonington, United States bank stock, &c. and is
lature. As a mere circulating medium, the relief notes answered as good a purpose as bank notes. As a measure of value, the s me objection applied to them that applies to all paper money.
ved that the relief notes issued by the Moyamensing bank, though a legal tender to it, were not a legal tender to the Bank of Penn Township, and so of all now, not only worth nothing, but about $100,000 The effect, at first, was such as a fresh issue of in debt. In a single instance, to show the progress, paper money generally produces-a rise of prices, the downward progress of affairs, he borrowed and an appearance of prosperty, or, at least, a dimin$100,000 on securities which stood him in $180,000, ution of the adversity which had been caused by prebut which, if sold now, would not bring $50,000.-vious operations of the paper money system. While Thus, on this single transaction, he has lost $130,000, New York, with her "convertible paper," erected THE CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT BILL. The late ex- besides the interest on the money borrowed. These 900 new houses, Philadelphia, with her "relief Who may tell the notes," ," erected 1,400, including some seven or eight tra session of the legislature which was convened are sad changes for the worse. for the purpose of districting the state according to pain and anxiety that they have brought into fami-churches, and some very elegant private edifices. the new apportionment bill, an act was passed for lies! Who may picture the anguish and despair of Thus things went on till the meeting of the leisthe purpose but Governor Porter instead of signing the domestic circle! Who may sketch the agony of has virtually vetoed it, by announcing that he refuses humbled pride! The last five years have been event to sign on consummate the enactment; and directions ful in the history of many of our citizens. have issued from the executive department to the sympathise deeply and sincerely with the sufferers. sheriffs of the several counties not to advertise for The grief which is secret, and which preys upon the election of congressmen at the ensuing October heart within, is indeed of the most poignant and ago-sylvania, not from any especial connection with the nising character. [Phil. Ing. relief note system, but from causes which had long COMMERCIAL AFFAIRS. By Gouge. In the great been silently in operation. Just in this moment of bank revulsion of 1819, individuals gave way, and panic, a member of the house of representatives corporations gave way, but the credit of all the states brought forward a resolution to compel the banks to remained good and that of the United States govern- resume specie payments, coupled with a proviso that ment was so excellent that it could borrow any the relief notes should no longer be a tender to the amount of money it wanted, at a low rate of inte- banks, but only to the state, in payment of debts.— rest. There was something then for the people to The effect was electric. The holders of the notes, fall back upon; and many of the states, by establish- principally persons in the laboring ranks of life, took ing commonwealth banks, and by other contrivances, the alarm, and hastened in crowds to the brokers' employed their capital and their credit for the relief, offices. Some of the notes fell immediately 50 per or the apparent relief, of the debtor part of the com- cent. in value, and others 25 per cent. Hundreds of munity." thousands of dollars were paid in the way of disVery different now is the condition of things. But counts. The objectionable proviso was afterwards few of the states have either capital or credit left, withdrawn; but it was too late. Paper credit is ofand the struggles of the government to get rid of their tentimes like female reputation. Breathe a suspiembarrassments, will necessarily increase the dis-cion against it, and it is gone. tresses of the people.
The Girard bank broke, and so also did the Penn
STATE CREDIT. The provisions of the act which passed the legislature of Pennsylvania, on the last day of its recent session, having for its object the maintenance of the faith of the state, are this summarily stated in the Philadelphia Gazette:
The notes did, indeed, afterwards receive part of their value; but they Taxation never becomes great without being op- ceased to be a general circulating medium. Their pressive to some classes of society, and the extent currency is now confined to particular districts. The relief note system of Pennsylvania had a of evil it inflicts is not to be estimated solely by the number of dollars and cents it takes out of tho pock-healthy existence for about six months and three ets of the extra tax payers. Excessive taxation is days. Then it fell by the very hands that had brought "Its provisions, so far as we can understand them, always unequal in its operation, and by interfer- in into being. They did not design this. But they are these: The money now in the treasury, consisting with the natural laws of supply and demand, were so utterly ignorant of the principles of currening wholly of relief notes, and whatever may be in cy, that they took measures which produced effects the treasury in February, is to be applied to the paydirectly opposite to what they intended. ment of those known as the domestic creditors, contractors and laborers on the public works (now we believe entirely suspended). The balance of this domestic debt is to be funded. The existing state tax on real estate and real estate securities, is to be doubled. This increase of taxation is applicable in the first place for the payment of the interest accrujog on the funded balance of the domestic debt, and then with the existing taxes to the general interest fund. A new revision of the assessment laws has also been enacted. There are other portions of the law, such for instance as the payment of interest on amounts of the public debt not exceeding six hundred dollars, and the authority to the governor to negoliate a six per cent. loan, and to sell the stocks
and by breaking up some productive establishments
Through this, and other proceedings in relation to
As to the kind of legislation we may expect, recent proceedings in Pennsylvania may afford us an example.
On Friday, Luther, Carpenter, Paine and Frisseil, were brought into court, for the purpose of being arraigned. On motion of their counsel, they were al
lowed till Wednesday next to plead.
RAIL ROADS AND CANALS AT AUCTION.
formity with an act of the legislature of Pennsylvania, the secretary of state of that commonwealth has issued proposals for the sale of all and each of the canals and rail roads belonging to the commonwealth. State stock at par will be received in pay
The number of persons arrested during the late riots in Philadelphia is thirty-eight. One of these, identified as an active participant in the disturbances, had a hearing on Thursday before the mayor, on a writ of habeas corpus for a reduction of bail, which had been fixed at $5,000. The mayor, after hearing the arguments of connsel, refused to reduce the amount of bail, and the prisoner was recommitted.
nating duties on timber, coffee, sugar, &c. &c. But, excluding these, our people are seven times as heavily taxed as the Danes, nearly twice as heavily taxGREAT BRITAIN. REVENUES OF THE ROYAL ed as the French, and one time and a quarter more FAMILY OF ENGLAND. In the early feudal times down heavily taxed than the heaviest taxed peeple in Futo the death of George II. in 1760, there were large rope. But as we have indicated, the comparison is estates attached and belonging to the crown of Eng- not accurate; for many of our local taxes are excludland. These, however, having been much misman-ed, and theirs are included. Thus England we re
peat, is by far the heaviest taxed country in Europe, To the senate of the United States:
As the call
aged, it was proposed, at the period above stated, that they should be taken into the hand of parlia ment for the people, who, in consideration thereof, In the communication made to the senate on the were to provide in suitable manner for the future 13th of June, in answer to its resolution of the 2d of maintenance of the royal family. This proposition March last, there appears to have been, among other papers, sundry letters, addressed to the department was adopted; the estates were transferred to the people; the management of them entrusted to a set of state by certain claimants or their agents, conof officers called commissioners of woods and forests, taining reflections upon the character of the umpire and a handsome allowance made for the royal fami- We cannot but think that America has not been convention between the United States and the Mexiappointed by his Prussian majesty, pursuant to the ly. The result has proved beneficial to both parties; fairly treated in the corn law tariff, and that the sli- can republic of the 11th of April, 1839. to the crown, by giving it a larger and steadier in-ding scale of duties, however applicable to the ports was for all communications which had been addrescome than it had ever been able to realize, whilst of the Baltic, do not give a fair chance to the trade sed to the department of state by any of the claimthe property was in its own hands; and to the peo- of America, whose vessels have to make a voyage ants under that convention, relative to the proceedple, by enabling them to improve, and thereby in- across the Atlantic. America, we say, has every ings and progress of the mixed commission, the cocrease the rents and profits of the said land. The claim to be more favorably considered than those pies were prepared and submitted without attracting following (taken from the parliamentary returns) is countries which have erected themselves into a hos- the attention either of the head of the department or an account, in round numbers, of the moneys receiv- tile attitude against our commerce. ed and paid during a period of seventy-seven years: been, and is still inclined to be, largely our customer mission to the senate, if transmitted at all, would America has myself. If those letters had been noticed, their transAmount of hereditary revenues from for the labor of our looms and our forges. She sends have been accompanied by a disclaimer on the part 1760) down to 1837, £116,000,000 home to us her raw material, and receives it back of the executive of any intention to approve such from us in a manufactured state, giving employment charges. The executive has no complaint to make 65,000,000 to thousands of our artisans. Surely, then, she has against the conduct or derisions of the highly rea natural claim upon us for a more favorable consi-spectable person appointed by his sovereign umpire *£51,000,000 deration than those countries which undisguisedly between the American and Mexican commissioners. tell us that they will do all in their power to exclude us from their markets. Reciprocity is to give and take; and reciprocity demands that we shall take largely from America in return for her custom.
Washington, Aug. 8, 1842.
TAXES IN THE DIFFERENT STATES OF EUROPE. A return of the total amount of taxes It is unfair to place the United States in the same levied in some of the different states of Europe, &c. position with the states of the German league, just published by the house of commons, enables us France and Russia, whose evident intention it is to to lay before our readers a comparison of the taxes exclude our manufactures from their dominions. The committee on foreign relations, to whom was referred levied in England, and in one or two other countries. We should, therefore, wish to see, instead of the the memorial of John Baldwin, W. S. Parrott, G. L. In Denmark the whole amount of taxation, gene-sliding scale, a moderate fixed duty, sufficient to pro- Thompson, and others, in relation to the claims of themral and local, is 18,160,000 rix dollars, paid by teet our home growth, or corn imported from Ame- selves, and others, citizens of the United States, against 2,020,000 people, and taxing the rix dollars at 2s. 2d. rica. Such a measure need give no alarm to our the government of Mexico; and also the memorial of it gives about 19s. per head. agriculturists, for we have no apprehension that Aaron Leggett, another claimant, representing the gricvances sustained by him from the authorities of Mexiour markets would ever be inundated from such a more than commensurate to the average deficiency source, or that, in fact, the supply would ever be co, and appealing to congress for redress; together with in our home produce. Such a measure would, in numerous documents from the department of state relating to the subjects of these memorials, have had the our opinion, more than any other, produce an imme same under their consideration, and beg leave to report: diate amelioration in the condition of the working classes; but it would do more than this-it would have existed between the United States and Mexico, In reviewing the history of the relations which induce a steady and progressive demand for our ma- it is painful to observe in how many instances the nufactures; it would completely identify the inte- property, liberty, and personal security of our citirests of the two great trading nations of the world; zens, as well as the national rights and dignity, have the prosperity of the United States would be the been violated and outraged by a neighboring power, prosperity of Great Britain; and it would give a with which it has ever been our policy to maintain powerful stimulus to the emigration of our redun- the most friendly intercourse. The government of dant population, which appears to be now so much a the United States, in seeking the redress for these indesideratum. How stands the case at present? Cornjuries which respect for its own character, no less from Canada is admitted into the market at a low than the protection due to its citizens, urgently derate of duty, because it is the production of our own manded, has at all times exhibited a moderation and colony; and can we not make the whole of the U. forbearance in pressing its just claims, which nothStates of America equivalent to a colony for every ing but the most anxious desire for the cultivation of The general ordinary taxation of England, accord- purpose of commercial prosperity? harmony and good neighborhood with a youthful reing to the financial accounts for the year, including Of the thousands who annually emigrate to North public, just rising into an independent national existhe cost of collection, amounted, for the last year to America, a considerable portion settle in the United tence on the same continent with itself, could have 53,596,2501. The local taxation, county rates, poor States; but, whether these people locate themselves prompted or excused. At length, after various aborrates, &c., amounted last year to 6,351,8281. (See on the one side of the St. Lawrence or the other, tive experiments, assuming, in one instance, the parliamentary return, No. 235, May, 1842,) making they are equally inclined to resort to the mother shape of a formal arrangement agreed upon with its a total of 59,915,078. This is exclusive of the country for her cottons and her woollens, her silks, minister here, but which the government of Mexico enormous tax we pay for the support of the church, and her hardware. Where, then, is the difference? failed to ratify, and through a patient and persever(the expense of the church in France is included in By promoting the prosperity of the emigrant in the ing adherence by the United States to every honorathe taxation,) it is also melusive of the sewer rates, United States, we promote our own. By opening to ble means of pacific adjustment, a convention was (the expense of keeping up the dikes is included in him a market for the produce he has raised from the concluded and ratified by both powers for the settlethe Netherland taxation,) water rates, church rates, soil, we ensure in him a customer for the produce of ment of these unpleasant subjects of controversy. London tax on coals, borough rates, and several oth- our own industry. Let but Great Britain and AmeUnder this convention a mixed commission. consist. er municipal vexatious imports; it is exclusive of the rica unite themselves firmly in the bonds of commering of two members, being its own citizens, appointpoor rate and police in Ireland, and exclusive of the cial reciprocity, and we need no longer care for ed by the government of Mexico, and of two others, sum devoted to the poor in Scotland, all of which, or German leagues or French ordinances. Nothing citizens of the United States, appointed by the gocorresponding items, are, we believe, included in the could be more opportune for such an arrangement vernment of the Union, was organized in the city of taxes of the foreign countries we have referred to. than the present. It is evident that Sir Robert Peel Washington on the 25th of August, 1810. By the But, excluding all these heavy drains on our indus- is by no means confident of the effect of his new terms of the convention, all claims of citizens of the try, and taking only the public and the local taxes at corn law scale, or of his power of maintaining it. United States upon the Mexican government-state57.948,078, and assuming that the population is, in in a recent debate in the house of commons, he says, ments of which, soliciting the interposition of the round numbers, 28,000,000, and that will give 21. 25. "The new corn laws had not had a fair trial, and the government of the United States, had been presented 54. per head as the annual rate of taxation in Eng-time would soon arrive when they must again be revis- to the department of state, or to the diplomatic agent land. Of course, we do not include sir Robert Peel's ed." of the United States at Mexico, prior to the signanew taxation, which will add pretty nearly 3s ahead ture of the convention-were to be referred to these As the matter now stands, therefore, the commissioners, who were to be sworn impartially to English are by far the heaviest taxed people in Euexamine and decide upon the said claims, according горе They pay the most, if government be good to such evidence as should be laid before them on the for anything, for the least efficient administration of part of the United States and the Mexican republic respectively; the Mexican government engaging to furnish all such documents and explanations as might be in their possession touching the said claims, whenever a demand should be made upon them accom panied with a specification of the documents requi red. The said board of commissioners was to ter minate its duties within 18 months from the time of
Sums voted to the royal family dur
ing the same period,
Money saved to the people,
*Being upwards of £662,000 a year.
The whole taxation of Sweden is £1,335,587, its population, with Norway, is about 4,406,000, giving at the rate of taxation, 6s. 6d. per head. This sum mirabile dictu, includes all the payments for the churches and for the clergy.
The taxes in the Netherlands, the most heavily taxed country in Europe, exclusive of the municipal taxes of Amsterdam and Rotterdam, amount to £5,386,817, the population being 2,660,000. The rate per head is £1 16s. The whole taxation of France is £46,425,725, which, on a population of 33,548,000 gives a rate of £1 7s. per head.
The amount of taxation in Russia is not given in the returns, but it appears to be very smail, and Prussia is not mentioned. We pass by the smaller states, as not affording any ground for comparison with this great empire, and come to England.
What may be the proposed revision hinted at by the right honorable baronet, it impossible to say; but for ourselves, we should be quite willing to allow matters to remain as they are, so far as the corn growing countries of Europe are concerned, provided Jair terins of reciprocity were given to America.
But to these enormous burdens, and most enor-No time could be more propitious for such an atmous they are, which are all borne by industry,-for tempt, when the tariff of the United States is under every farthing of the annual income of the country revision, and when there is an evident disposition on is annually consumed, and it is all created by indus- the part of the governments of both countries to artry—must be added the taxes on corn and provisions, range other differences, and to knit more closely the and other protecting duties, as well as the discrimi bonds of amity between Great Britain and America.
CLAIMS AGAINST MEXICO. MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT, Disclaiming any intention to approve certain charges made by claimants under the convention with Mexico, of the 11th April, 1839, against the umpire between the commissioners under said convention.
IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES.
AUGUST 10, MR. RIVES SUBMITTED THE FOLLOWING
its meeting in the city of Washington; and it was provided, in the event of the commissioners disagreeing in relation to any of the aforesaid claims, that the points on which they differed, and the grounds on which their respective opinions were found, should be submitted to the decision of an arbiter or umpire, to be appointed by his majesty the king of Prussia, and that the decisions of the said umpire should be final and conclusive on all the matters so referred. Finally, the amount which should be found due to the claimants, either by the decision of the board of commissioners or that of the umpire, was to be paid by the Mexican government, with a stipulation that, if it should not be covenient for the Mexican government to pay at once the amount so found due, it should be at liberty, immediately after the decisions in the several cases, to issue therefor treasury-notes, of the description, and under the limitations set forth in the convention, bearing an interest of eight per centum per annum from the date of the award on the claim, in payment of which the said treasurynotes shall have been issued; and the United States agreed to exonerate the Mexican government for ever from any further accountability for claims, which shall either be rejected by the board or the arbiter aforesaid, or which, being allowed by either, shall be provided for by the said government in the
Such, the committee have reason to believe, are thank you cordially for it. It fits me exactly, and the views which have been already expressed by the coming, as it does, from faithful, long tried and highexecutive department of the government, the desig-ly esteemed friends, it is a most acceptable present. nated organ of the nation to conduct its intercourse May the head of that man, who would not desire the with foreign powers. To that branch of the govern- protection of his own brethren and fellow citizens ment properly belongs, in the present stage of theic against the productions of foreign industry, never be discussion, the treatment of all the questions pre-covered with such a hat? sented by the memorials referred to them; and leav ing, therefore, to the deliberate and better informed action of the executive the prosecution of the rights of the memorialists, according to the demands of justice and the dictates of national honor, the committee recommend that the senate discharge them, for the present, from the further consideration of the memorials and documents referred to them.
Wishing you, gentlemen, good success in your business, and health, prosperity and happiness, I am your neighbor and faithful friend, H. CLAY.
POLITICS OF THE DAY.
manner before mentioned.
Ashland, 23d July, 1842. GENTLEMEN: I have received, with very great satisfaction, the letter which you addressed to me last month. You inform me of the establishment of a club to which the honor has been done me of attaching my name, in the parish of Rapides; and, in virtue of a resolution of the club, yon have communicated very friendly and flattering sentiments of regard, attachment and confidence towards ine. thank you, cordially, gentlemen, for these gratifying proofs of esteem. They are received with feelings of lively gratitude, and will be cherished with unfading recollection in my memory.
LETTER FROM PRESIDENT TYLER. Washington, Aug. 22d, 1842. Gentlemen: I should sooner have acknowledged the receipt of your letter of the 16th inst., covering resolutions adopted by a large number of my fellow citizens assembled in the Park, on the 14th inst., but for the severe and constant pressure upon me of important public duties. I will not hesitate to express the pleasure I experienced at the decided tone of approbation manifested by my fellow citizens in their The committee do not deem it necessary or pro- several resolutions. Next to the consciousness of per, at this time, to enter into a detailed review of having done my duty, the approval of my constituthe proceedings of the commission, in execution of ents, the people of the United States, would unthe provisions of this convention. It is sufficient to doubtedly afford me the highest satisfaction. If for observe that very serious complaints are alleged by the maintenance of those republican principles, the memorialists against the course of the Mexican which I have advanced from my earliest manhood, I commissioners, in both the interpretation and execuam destined to be in future-as for all the time I I concur with you in the principles of public potion of the bigh trust devolved upon them by the have been in the discharge of the duties of the pre-licy which ought to prevail in the administration of convention. In the very outset of their joint labors, sidential office has been the case-the object of vitu- the general government. Whilst it does not surthey differed radically from the American commissioners, as to the character of their functions under peration and gross abuse, I must even bear it with prise me, it affords me great pleasure to learn, that in all the fortitude and composure I can call to my aid. the fine cotton growing country in which you reside, the convention, and as to the rules proper to be es- I encounter but the fate which the great high priest surpassed by none in the United States, opinions in tablishad for the government of their proceedings, of republicanism encountered in 1799 and 1800. The favor of the protection of the productions of our and to facilitate and methodize the prosecution of disciple has no reason to anticipate a different or a own country against the competition, within our the claims before the board. These differences, milder fate than that encountered by his instructor. own limits, of the rival productions of foreign counwhich, by the tenacity with which the Mexican com- I shall follow in the footsteps of that illustrious man, tries are making rapid progress. I have always bemissioners adhered to their peculiar views, terminated in denying all direct access to the board by the and act upon his principles, believing as was said by lieved that "the interests of each division of the unmy immediate predecessor, in his celebrated Day-ion, as well as the interests of every class and condiclaimants or their agents, for the conduct and man- ton speech, that "if the Augean Stable is to be tion of society, are identical; and that the prosperiagement of their causes, consumed so much of the cleansed, it can only be done by recurring to the ty or adversity of any one of them would be, in a time of the commission, that they did not enter upon principles of Thomas Jefferson." To the support of greater or less degree, felt by all." And I have the consideration of any of the claims presented for those principles my life has heretofore been devoted, looked forward, with confidence, to the arrival of the their decision, until several months, from the period and shall continue to be to the end. I tender to you, period when this great truth would become generalof their organization, had elapsed. It has thus hap-gentlemen, assurances of my high respect. ly impressed upon the American mind. pened that the eighteen months, to which the duraJOHN TYLER. tion of the commission was limited by the conven- To Daniel Jackson, esq., president; and David Bryson, tion, have expired, leaving many important claims Joseph O'Conner, and others, vice presidents, N. Y. against the Mexican government undisposed of, either because they were not definitively acted upon by the board, or having been acted upon by the COL. R. M. JOHNSON. The Danville Intelliboard, and presented to the umpire for his decision gencer says, "Col. Johnson will be at Washington, upon the disagreeing opinions of the commissioners, Washington county, Pa., about the 25th of Septemthey were returned by him undecided, in conse. ber, on his way to Danville, to be present at the quence of his not having time to examine them grand celebration of the glorious anniversary of the before the expiration of the commission, when he victory of the Thames. considered his own authority and functions as also terminating. However much the results of this opinion of the umpire may be to be regretted, the committee deem it due to the high character of that distinguished functionary, to say that his perfect conscientiousness in forming it, as well as in pronouncing all his other decisions, is above the reach of imputation or suspicion.
LETTER FROM MR. CLAY. An extra from
the Red River Whig, published in the town of Alexandria, Louisiana, contains the following letter from Mr. Clay, in answer to a note presented to him at Ashland by a committee from the Clay Club of the parish of Rapides, Louisiana. The letter will be read with interest, as it reiterates the views of that exalted statesman and pure patriot in regard to some of the leading topics at present under consideration in and out of congress.
In regard to the claims thus undisposed of at the expiration of the mixed commission, the committee are of opinion, notwithstanding the intimation to the contrary contained in two letters of the Mexican commissioners, addressed to the secretary of state, on the 25th and 26th of February last, that they are to be regarded as still subsisting claims against the government of Mexico, in no manner whatever barred by the convention or the proceedings under it, and entitled, according to their intrinsic merits, to the faithful countenance and support of the government of the United States in prosecuting them to a final adjustment. Such of the claims as have been allowed, and their amount ascertained, by the decision of the board of commissioners, or of the umpire, will, of course, be the subject of immediate demand for payment and satisfaction. That satisfaction, to fulfil the requisitions of good faith, the plain intention of the convention, and the only rational end and purpose of the whole transaction between the two governments, must, in every contingency, be rendered in substantial value; and if not convenient to be paid "at once" (to use the language of the convention) in money, must be rendered by substituting such evidences of debt as, while they serve the purpose of giving to the Mexican government further time for the performance of its obligations, shall entitle the holder, at his option, to ultimate and effectual payment in money.
In acting upon this policy, our experience has shown how important, stability is, to its successful operation. This will be best secured by moderation and firmness. The tariff of 1828, forced through congress by a combination between pretended friends and undisguised enemies, against the wishes of those who sincerely desired to foster and build up American manufactures, was the principal cause of the unsettled and agitated state of the public mind,
"On his route to Harrisburg, he will pass through
War office, Aug. 23, 1842.
Of the terms of that treaty, I am entirely igno-
THE CLAY BEAVER. A very superb white
Ashland, 16th July, 1842.
With a sound currency of uniform value throughout the union, emanating from and guarantied by federal authority; with a tariff so adjusted as to afford an adequate revenue, and efficient protection to agriculture, commerce and manufactures; and with the withdrawal of the proceeds of the sales of the public lands from the common treasury, where, in consequence of the fluctuating amount, the policy of the government is liable to sudden and frequent disturbance, we may confidently anticipate the restoration of prosperity.
You do me the honor, gentlemen, to express a wish for my election as president of the U. States. On this subject, I have recently expressed myself so fully in a speech delivered at a barbecue near Lexington, (of which I transmit a copy) that I now have nothing further to add. Whether I shall be a candidate or not, or if a candidate, whether elected or not, I pray you and my friends in the parish of Rapides, whom you represent, to accept my thanks for the friendly feelings towards me by which they are animated.
And I beg that portion of you, who have taken the trouble to come, from so great a distance, to present, in person, to me your note, to accept assurances of my profound acknowledgements, and my last. ing gratitude.
I am, gentlemen, with great respect, your friend and obedient servant, H. CLAY.
PROTEST BY THE PRESIDENT.
To the house of representatives:
By the constitution of the United States it is provided. that "every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if
This is a matter for the people and states to decide; but until they shall have decided it, I shall feel myself bound to execute, without fear or favor, the law, as it has been written by our predecessors.
tion of religion of honor, and of law. To such a tribunal does the constitution authorize the house of representatives to carry up its accusations against any chief of the executive department whom it may In strict compliance with the positive obligation believe to be guilty of high crimes and misdemea- I protest against this whole proceeding of the house thus imposed upon me by the constitution, not having nors. Before that tribunal the accused is confronted of representatives, as ex parte and extra judicial. I been able to bring myself to approve a bill which with his accusers, and may demand the privilege, protest against it, as subversive of the common right originated in the house of representatives, entitled which the justice of the common law secures to the of all citizens to be condemned only upon a fair and "An act to provide revenue from imposts, and to humblest citizen, of a full, patient, and impartial in- impartial trial according to law and evidence before change and modify existing laws imposing duties on quiry into the facts, upon the testimony of witnesses, the country. I protest against it, as destructive of imports, and for other purposes," I returned the rigidly examined, and deposing in the face of day. all the comity of intercourse between the departsame to the house, with my objections to its becom- If such a proceeding had been adopted toward me, ments of this government, and destined, sooner or laing a law. These objections which had entirely sa- unjust as I should certainly have regarded it, I ter, to lead to conflict fatal to the peace of the countisfied my own mind of the great impolicy, if not the should, I trust, have met with a becoming constancy try and the integrity of the constitution. I protest unconstitutionality, of the measure, were presented a trial as painful as it would have been undeserved. against it in the name of that constitution, which is in the most respectful, and even deferential. terms. I would have manifested, by a profound submission not only my own shield of protection and defence, I would not have been so far forgetful of what was to the laws of my country, my perfect faith in her but that of every American citizen. I protest against due from one department of the government to ano- justice, and relying on the purity of my motives and it, in the name of the people, by whose will I stand ther, as to have intentionally employed, in my official the rectitude of my conduct, should have looked for- where, I do, and by whose authority I exercised the intercourse with the house, any language that could ward with confidence to a triumphant refutation in power which I am charged with having usurped, and be, in the slightest degree, offensive to those to whom the presence of that country, and by the solemn to whom I am responsible for a firm and faithful disit was addressed. If, in assigning my objections to judgment of such a tribunal, not only of whatever charge, according to my own conviction of duty, of the bill, I had so far forgotten what was due to the charges might have been formally preferred against the high stewardship confided to me by them. I prohouse of representatives as to impugn its motives in me, but of all the calumnies of which I have hither- test against it, in the name of all regulated liberty, passing the bill. I should owe, not only to that house, to been the unresisting victim. As it is. I have been and all limited government, as a proceeding tending but to the country, my most profound apology. Such acused without evidence, and condemned without a to the utter destruction of the checks and balances departure from propriety is, however, not complain- hearing. As far as such proceedings can accomplish of the constitution, and the accumulating in the ed of in any proceeding which the house has adopted. it, I am deprived of public confidence in the adminis- hands of the house of representatives, of a bare maIt has, on the contrary, been expressly made a sub-tration of the government, and denied even the boast jority of Congress for the time being, an uncontrolject of remark, and almost of complaint, that the of a good name--a name transmitted to me from a led and despotic power. And I respectfully ask, that language in which my dissent was couched was stu- patriot father, prized as my proudest inheritance, this, my protest, may be entered upan the journal of diously guarded and cautious. and carefully preserved for those who are to come the house af representatives, as a solemn and formal after me, as the most precious of all earthly pos- declaration, for all time to come, of the injustice and sessions. I am not only subjected to imputations unconstitutionality of such a proceeding. affecting my character as an individual, but am JOHN TYLER. charged with violating pledges which I never gave; and because I execute what I believe to be the law, with usurping powers not conferred by law; and, above all, with using the powers conferred upon the President by the constitution, from corrupt motives and unwarrantable ends. And these charges are made without any particle of evidence to sustain them, and, as I solemnly affirm, without any foundation in truth.
Washington, August 30, 1842.
Such being the character of the official communication in question, I confess I was wholly unprepared for the course which has been pursued in regard to it. In the exercise of the power to regulate its own proceedings. the house, for the first time, it is believed, in the history of the government, thought proper to refer the message to a select committee of its own body, for the purpose (as my respect for the house would have compelled me to infer) of deliberately weighing the objections urged against the bill by the executive, with a view to its own judgment upon the question of the final adoption or rejection of the measure.
not he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large upon the journal, and proceed to reconsider it."
THE NEW TARIFF ACT.
An act to provide revenue from imports, and to change and modify existing laws imposing duties on imports, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives of the United States of America in congress assembled, That from and after the passage of this act, in lieu of the duties heretofore imposed by law on the artiand paid, the following duties, that is to say: cles hereinafter mentioned, and on such as may now be exempt from duty, there shall be levied, collected
First. On coarse wool unmanufactured, the value
Why is a proceeding of this sort adopted at this Of the temper and feelings in relation to myself of time? Is the occasion for it found in the fact, that some of the members selected for the performance having been elected to the second office under the ter entirely within the discretion of the house of the people, I have succeeded to the first, according of this duty, I have nothing to say. That was a mat- constitution by the free and voluntary suffrages of representatives. But that committee, taking a diffe- to the express provisions of the fundamental law of rent view of its duty from that which I should have the same people? It is true that the succession of the whereof, at the last port or place whence exported supposed had led to its creation, instead of confining vice president to the chief magistracy has never ocitself to the objections urged against the bill, availed curred before, and that all prudent and patriotic to the United States shall be seven cents or under itself of the occasion formally to arraign the motives minds have looked on this new trial of the wisdom per pound, there shall be levied a duty of five per of the president for others of his acts since his in- and stability of our institutions with a somewhat centum ad valorem; and on all other unmannfactured duction into office. In the absence of all proof, and, anxious concern. I have been made to feel too sen- wool, there shall be levied a duty of three cents per as I am bound to declare, against all law or prece- sibly the difficulties of my unprecedented position, pound, and thirty per centum ad valorem; Provided, dent in parliamentary proceedings, and at the same not to know all that is intended to be conveyed in the That when wool of different qualities of the same time, in a manner which it would be difficult to re- reproach cast upon a president without a party. kind or sort, is imported in the same bale, bag, or concile with the comity, hitherto sacredly observed But I found myself placed in this most responsible package, and the aggregate value of the contents in the intercourse between independent and co-ordi- station by no usurpation or contrivance of my own. of the bale, bag, or package, shall be appraised by nate departments of the government, it has assailed I was called to it, under Providence, by the supreme the appraisers, at a rate exceeding seven cents per my whole official conduct, without a shadow of a law of the land, and the deliberately-declared will of pound, it shall be charged with a duty in conformity pretext for such assault, and, stopping short of im- the people. It is by these, the people, that I have to such appraisal: Provided further, That when wool peachment, has charged me, nevertheless, with offen- been clothed with the high powers which they have of different qualities, and different kinds or sorts, is ces declared to deserve impeachment. Had the ex-seen fit to confide to their chief executive, and been imported in the same bale, bag, or package, the contraordinary report which the committee thus made charged with the solemn responsibility under which tents of the bale, bag, or package, shall be appraised to the house been permitted to remain without the those powers are to be exercised. It is to them I at the value of the finest or most valuable kind or sanction of the latter, I should not have uttered a hold myself answerable, as a moral agent, for a free sort, and a duty charged thereon accordingly: Proviregret, or complaint, upon the subject. But, unac- and conscientious discharge of the duties which they embraced in the same invoice, at the same price, the ded further, That if bales of different qualities are companied as it is by any particle of testimony to have imposed upon me. It is not as an individual support the charges it contains, without a deliberate merely that I am now called upon to resist the en- the value of the bale of the best quality: Provided value of the whole shall be appraised according to examination, almost without any discussion, the croachment of unconstitutional power. I represent house of representatives has been pleased to adopt it the executive authority of the people of the United further, That if any wool be imported having in it as its own, and, thereby, to become my accuser be- States; and it is in their name, whose mere agent dirt, or any material or impurities, other than those fore the country, and before the world. The high and servant I am, and whose will declared it their naturally belonging to the fleece, and thus be reducharacter of such an accuser, the gravity of the fundamental law, I dare not, even were I inclined, ced in value to seven cents per pound or under, the charges which has been made, and the judgment to disobey, that I protest against every attempt to appraisers shall appraise said wool at such price as, pronounced against me, by the adoption of the re- break down the undoubted constitutional power of in their opinion, it would have cost had it not been port upon a distinct and separate vote of the house, this department without a solemn amendment of that so mixed with such dirt or impurities, and a duty leaves me no alternative but to enter into my solemn fundamental law. shall be charged thereon in conformity to such approtest against the proceedings. as unjust to myself I am determined to uphold the constitution in this, praisal: Provided also, That wool imported on the as a man, as an invasion of my constitutional powers as in other respects, to the utmost of my ability, and skin shall be estimated as to weight and value as as chief magistrate of the American people, and as a in defiance of all personal consequences. What may violation, in my person, of rights secured to every happen to an individual is of little importance; but Second. On all manufactures of wool, or of which citizen by the laws and the constitution. That con- the constitution of the country, or any of its great wool shall be a component part, except carpetings, stitution has entrusted to the house of representatives and clear principles and provisions, is too sacred to flannels, bockings and baizes, blankets, worsted stuff the sole power of impeachment. Such impeach- be surrendered, under any circumstances whatever, goods, ready-made clothing, hosiery, mitts, gloves, ment is required to be tried before the most august by those who are charged with its protection and de- caps, and bindings, a duty of forty per centum. fence. Least of all should he be held guiltless, who Third. On Wilton carpets and carpeting, treble inThe senate of the United States, composed of the placed at the head of one of the great departments grain, Saxony, and Aubussen carpets and carpeting, representatives of the sovereignty of the states, is of the government. should shrink from the exercise a duty of sixty-five cents per square yard; on Brusconverted into a hall of justice, and in order to in- of its unquestionable authority on the most impor- sels and Turkey carpets and carpeting, fifty-five cents sure the strictest observance of the rules of evidence tant orcasions and should consent, without a strug-per square yard; on all Venetian and ingrain carpets and of legal procedure, the chief justice of the U. gle, to efface all the barriers so carefully created by and carpeting, thirty cents per square yard; on all States, the highest judicial functionary of the land. the people to control and circumscribe the powers other kinds of carpets and carpeting, of wool, hemp, is required to preside over its deliberations In the confided to their various agents. It may be desira- flax or cotton, or parts of either, or other material presence of each judicatory the voice of faction is ble, as the majority of the house of representatives not otherwise specified, a duty of thirty per centum presumed to be silent, and the sentence of guilt or has declared it is, that no such checks upon the will ad valorem: Provided, That bedsides, and other por. nnocence is pronounced under the most solemn sanc- of the legislature should be suffered to continue.tions of carpets or carpeting, shall pay the rate of
tribunal known to our institutions.