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discrimination should be made with all nations dis- ¡ther act extending the principle a little further, as he Mr. McKeon followed (in reply) in some remarks, posed to reciprocate with us, and in 1815 congress had shown. This had been the second advance in which he gave notice of his intention to publish. Mr. passed an act on this subject.

this reciprocity system by the legislation of the McK. yielded the floor several times, for purposes Mr. K. read from this act, and said it was a tender, country. 'In May, 18:28, another act had been passed of explanation, to Mr. Kennedy, of Maryland. on our purt, to the whole world to relax those dis- extending this reciprocal privilege in the carriage of Mr. Cushing said that they were now engaged in criminating duties on tonnage and merchandise im- other nations than our own, in conformity with the debating here, of all possible questions in the range ported in foreign vessels, exactly in the extent in treaties to which he had alluded. Thus it would be of government that could come before congress, the which they were willing to reciprocate such privile- seen that, by legislation, we liad gradually advanced most complex, the most difficult, and ramifying most ges to us. It would be noted, however, as a most to the establishment of this system of reciprocity, extensively into collateral questions and relationsimportant point, that that reciprocal privilege was and, concurrent with that, we had gone on and a subject in which the industrial and commercial restrictly confined to the carriage of the products or formed treaties on the same basis. In regard to this lations of the country had the deepest interest, and manufactures of the respective nations. This act legislation, he had only to say, if the policy were a into which, from its requiring a careful attention to had been followed very soon by the convention of good one, it was manifestly much better to be estab- details, it was impossible to enter fully, in the liLondon—the conımercial treaty of July, 1815, be- lished by legislation than by treaties, which were mited time allowed for debate. It would at once be tween the United States and England, into which, irrepealable, however adverse to our interests. He seen that, in the question of commercial treaties, after some solicitation on our part, the principle of did not pause here to discuss the importance of some (commerce affecting all nations), the interests of all the act of 1815 had been introduced. [Mr. K read limit to this treaty action, although the question was nations were interlinked together. The question from this treaty the stipulation, on the part of the worthy of the gravest consideration of congress. If whether they would modify existing commercial United States, that no higher or other duties should any one would look into the Brazilian treaty of 1828. treaties, involved the questio. of taxes, of duties, of be imposed on the importation into the United States he would find that there had been almost a code of tonnage duties, and in many cases of duties on merof any article the growth or manufacture of the Bri- laws introduced into it, regulating the navigating and chandise; and therefore it was not merely a diplo. tish dominions in Europe, than was imposed on the shipping interests of this couniry for a series of matic question, but in its ulterior relations was a lemanufactures of any other country, and vice versa on years, and placing it entirely beyond the control of gislative question. Suppose the United States nethe part of England, &c.] Mr. K. referred to the congress. · How far such treaties conformed to the gotiated a treaty with another government, either continuation of this treaty, by several renewals to spirit of our laws, to the original limitations on the conceding or getting favors, it became a ques1828, when it was again renewed on condition that treaty-making power, he could not say. He had on- tion with the other countries of the world with whom it should last indefinitely, subject to one year's notice ly to say that these treaties, said to be the law of the we were connected. It also touched immediately the to terminate it from either party. He also alluded land, presented a peculiarity in our government that question of the rights of man, for it went into the to the fact of the treaty of 1818 with Sweden, on the existed nowhere else. To what extent these trea- question of equality between all nations, of internaold principle of conferring and receiving the same ties might hereafter be carried no one could con- tional rights, and of neutral and belligerent rights. privileges as those of the most favored nations; to the ceive. We had some inkling of treaties that should In order to illustrate the view he took of this treaty, on the same principle, with Colombia, in 1825, fix on this country beyond the control of this coun- question in respect to the interests of the United to the treaty with France in 1822, which after conti- try, a regular system of tariff duties, which could Stetes, he asked the attention of the committee nuing in force for a few years, by its own conditions not be changed except by the consent of foreign to the history of the question more especially in had become the same, in operation, as the British countries. In illustration of the bad effects of this England. English legislation on this subject conreciprocity treaty, with slight exceptions; to the policy, Mr. K. referred to the treaty of 1828 be- sisted of two parts: first, those regulations derived agitation of the subject of free trade, and the partial tween Brazil and England, and said, although he from the colonial monopoly; foreign governments extension of the reciprocity system, by the parliament did not fear that it would be carried so far in this that have not colonies, and the United States espeof Great Britain in 1824 and 1825, and to the conse- country, we should be very cautious or any policy cially, being excluded from participation in trade quent extension of it in this country.

which should enable the treaty-making power to with the British colonies. That was a distinct ques. These British ireaties (Mr. K. proceeded to say) bind us down to terms which we could not change. tion. The second branch of English legislation on this carried the principle of reciprocity a little beyond What were the effects of this reciprocity system, subject, and that which more especially concerned the carrying the produce of the respective parties, as manifested in England? It had been originally the present inquiry, was the English navigation laws, and conferred the privilege of bringing in the vessels commenced in that country with a great distrust which involved the very principle contained in these of the respective countries from the ports of the one of its value, and it might be found by examination resolutions. It was stated in many books, but he to those of the other the products of other countries that it was now a question of great contest between proposed to cite from the celebrated discourse of the than their own, provided they were such as might be the different parties there, whether these treaties in earl of Liverpool upon this subject. Mr. C. read legally admitted from the respective ports of the two the main had not been exceedingly hurtful to the in-, the following: nations contracting. Mr. K. alluded to the respec- terests of Great Britain. He had read some able "The principle on which these laws of navigation tive treaties of Great Britain with the Hanse Towns, dissertations on the subject, which went to show, on are founded, and which is thus attacked, is no less with Prussia, Russia, Denmark, &c. in 1824 and 1325, the British side of the water, that her reciprocity consonant to justice than to true policy; in its utand to the reciprocity treaties of this government, in treaties, except with the United States, had been most extent, it goes no further than to establish, as a imitation of this policy, with the sanie powers, and hurtful to Great Britain. If they had gained advan- rule, that the trade between Great Britain and all said it was very easy to see that, as we had no such lages to their navigation and commercial interests—the countries of Europe shall be carried on only in restrictions in our navigation act as they had, we had that was, if they had superceded any portion of our ships either belonging to Great Britain or to those opened the trade of the United States to the compe- shipping heretofore employed in the trade between belonging to the country from which any article may tition of the shipping of those nations without re- the two countries—we had lost exactly what they be imported; and not to suffer Holland or any other striction or limitation as to any quarter of the world, had gained.

power to derive any advantage from becoming the or in reference to any kind of commodity produced He desired to invite the view of the committee carriers in a commercial intercourse with other in any part of the world. We had given to the Hanse principally to the operation of this system in our countries, in which they have no right to be conTowns, to Denmark, to Russia, to Prussia, the privi- irade with the Baltic States. The principal powers cerned. Such was the rule generally adopted in the leges not only of bringing into our ports the produce with which we traded in that region of the world law which was first enacted for this purpose in the of their respective countries and of the countries con- were the Hanse Towns, Sweden, Netherlands, Rus- middle of the seventeenth century, during the usurtiguous to them, but had enabled them to enter into sia, and Denmark. (He omitted to nanie Prussia, pation of Cromwell. When this law was re-enacted competition with the shipping of the United States in because our imports from it were very small.) Now, at the restoration, some modifications or exceptions any species of trade we could carry oa in the world. in looking at the trade between these five powers were made, which subsist to this day.” Since 1815 the enlargement of this principle in our and the United States since 1825, he underiook to

(Jenkinson's Discourse, Preface, page 17. treaties had introduced a very interesting question 10 say that the trade between these two portions of the "There was, however, another species of comthe notice of the American people, and that regarded world had not increased in any degree worthy of merce, which demanded their attention, even inore the limitations which are to be set on the treaty-mak- observation, perhaps not at all. He had thrown to than either of the former, as it was not only a profiing power. The constitution provided that treaties gether some statistics on the subject, from which it table branch of traffic in itself, but as it greatly tendmade by the authority this government were the appeared that our aggregate imports from these five ed to the security of the rest, by being the principal supreme law of the land; they were even vested with powers, in 1825, were within a fraction of nine mil- basis of their naval power. This was the trade of a higher degree of authority as law than the ordina- lions of dollars, and our aggregale exports twelve freightage, or the carrying trade, the subject of our ry legislation of the country, because being contracts, millions of dollars; and in 1840 that our aggregate present discourse. To understand their views in this presented to the country in an irrepealable form, we imports from these countries were nine million four respect, we must first take notice of the foundation were forced to submit to them, however adverse to hundred thousand dollars, and our exports eieven on which their policy was built. They had sucthe interests of the country. Where was the bound- million five hundred thousand dollars; showing that ceeded to the Hanseatic traders in becoming the carary of this trealy-making power, was a question the value of our trade with that whole circle was riers of the world. Long possession had therefore which would occupy a discussion not appropriate to not as great in 1840 as in 1825. [Mr. K. read simi- furnished them with grert numbers of sailors and the present occasion or time. Undoubledly it was lar comparative statements of this trade with some ships, and to these they added uncommon parsimony intended (Mr. K. held) that it should apply to our of these individual powers.)

and industry, the natural endowments of their peoexternal regulations with other nations, and not to He had referred to the state of trade to these two ple. These made them contented with small profits, our internal, and much less to our municipal regula- quarters of the trading world in order that the and enabled them to carry the manufactures of each tions.

house might see the value of the trade as distinct country even cheaper than the natives of it themMr. K. would pass over that, for the purpose of from the question of navigation. He read a state- selves. With such happy circumstances in their falooking into the history of the rise of this question. ment of the foreign and American shipping employ- vor, they were sure of making this branch of trade The old treaties, as they had seen, left the questioned in this trade, showing that the American had de- wholly and perpetually their own, if their negotiaof regulating commerce froin time to time free to creased one-third during that time, and that the fo- tions and policy established two points. the legislation of the day; it was only stipulated by reign had greatly increased.

“The first was, that no nation should grant to its them, that when a privilege was given on one side, Mr. K. was further proceeding, by reference to own natives any privileges in relation to freightage it should enure to the benefit of the contracting statistics, to show that the operation of these trea- which the people of Holland should not equaily eupower. The power of legislation seemed to have lies since 1828 to the present time had been gradual-joy, nor any exclusive right in favor of its own navia been carefully guarded in our old treaties as one of ly to supplant the American navigation, not only in gation. the greatest inportance, with reference to this coun. the direct trade with those countries thus stipulat- “And as the consequences of war would othertry, in its commercial relations. Since 1815 our ing, but with all the other parts of the world, and to wise frequently interrupt the course of this trallic, commercial arrangements had been on two different point out the great disadvantages under which it la- they labored to obtain, as their second point, that, footings: one, the acts of congress; the other, the bored, when his remarks were arrested by the ex- whenever any other nation was engaged in war, they treaty regulations to which he had referred. We piration of the morning hour, and he resumed his might then enjoy, as neuters, the right of protecting had had this act of 1815; in 1824 we had passed ano seat.

the property of its enemies.


"The points once obtained would open a larserireason that is introduction of the reciprocal princi- the general peace which perreded. Christendom, field, on which their industry might exert itseif, laadres bau proved injurious to us.

there had grown 14 a int of interest, and negotia what they could otherwise of right pretend to enjoy. He conceded to the gentleman from New York tions and regulations ?ased on these interests, which, They were wise, however, in endeavoring to obtain (Mr. Brewster) that it became them not to look en- in reality, constituted a revolution-a tacit but most it; no nation besides themselves had more shipping tirely upon the effect of these arrangements upon the complete revolution in the interests of all the states. than what was equal to the carriage of their own navigating interests, but the subject resolved itself in the place of the treaties of alliance, of succesproduce and manufactures; they alone, therefore, into two questions-one, the question of the operation sion, &c. or, in other words, of those treaties which could carry on the freighting of other countries, and of these arrangements on the tonnage, navigating, grew out of family questions, and which had constiJargely reap, when their neighbors were at war, the and freighting interests: and the other the operation Cuted, until within a century past, the prominent advantages proposed.

of these arrangements on production. Now, when questions of European diplomacy, there had grown “The regency of Holland labored with great per- he stated that these treaties had promoted the com- up this vast mass of commercial questions. They severance for the establishment of these two points. parative decrease of American and increase of foreign were a tribute of the policy of the world, whose efTheir great minister, De Witt, filled all his instruc-ionnage, he should be met with the objection (which sect was to draw closer together foreign nations and tions and despatches with every argument and mo- required to be considered) that it was for the benefit to banish questions of war. These commercial tive which his active mind could invent in support of or the producing interest that it should be able to questions were the elements of those great changes these favorite maxims; they were willing to give up carry to market in the cheapest possible mode of con- now going on in the relation of the states of Chris any temporary advantage lo gain that which, once veyance. And, in order to solve the question, and tendom, and he conceded that something needed to acquired, would prove for ages an overflowing spring decide what was the interest of this government, it be done on this question. But was it a thing for this of wealth." [Jenkinson's Discourse, page 43. was necessary to look at it in its relations to the va- house to do? Could they intelligently settle this com

“But Holland most exerted her policy to bring that rious states of this union. There had been a long plex question of negotiations. He would go as far nation to a compliance with her maxims whom she period when these United States had been almost the as the gentleman from Maryland (Mr. Kennedy) to most apprehended as her rival in trade; the scanda- only neutral power whose flag was found on the remedy the inequalities of commercial arrangements Jous ignorance of the English ministers in point of ocean. He meant in the series of wars consequent with several of these northern states, and especially commerce, and the little attention to the interests of on the French revolution. It had been the policy of with the Hanse towns. it during the reigns of the first two princes of the this government to hoist the standard of what was But there was besides, a question. If, in referhouse of Stuart, gave such advantages for some time called free trade. He did not know any term that ence to these countries, the treaties of reciprocity 10 the Dutch, that more vessels of that country were had been more abused than the term free trade. were injurious to us, how was it with reference to seen in the ports of our colonies than even of our There was no such fact as free trade, and there never other countries? There were many others—several

The shipping of England from the reign of had been, as between us and foreign governments. of the South American countries and many others Elizabeth had been in a constant decline. We should The proof of that was the origin of the expression he might cite-in which all the advantages of recipbardly have believed that in the reign of Charles I. free trade. What did it mean? It meant the asser- rocal treaties devolved on the United States. The England could not have furnished more than three tion by the United States of their right to transport real question then was, could this house take up a merchant vessels of 300 tons, if Sir Josiah Child had merchandize on the ocean without being arrested by part of this question and settle a part? Must they not affirmed it. The time at length arrived when the the belligerent nations. That was the origin of the not settle the whole? In other words, in the present government of England determined that the country motto “Free trade and sailors' rights." That ques- stage was it not a diplomatic question? He admitted should be put on an equal footing, in this respect, tion had passed away with the state of war to which that ir. its progress it mighi become a legislative with our neighbors, and took the manly resolution of il belonged; and on the general conclusion of peace, question, but in this stage it seemed to him a diplo. assuming and vindicating all the advantages resulting after the battle of Waterloo, there had grown up a matic question. He desired that the question should from our own commerce and industry to ourselves. series of questions on free trade, and among these be taken up by this house, and that justice should be In 1651, the parliament of England passed into an treaties, if not the first, certainly the first in conse- done to the navigating interests of the country, for ordinance that noble strain of comniercial policy, quence and influence on this whole question in Eu- these interests (he must say, with all respect to the called since the act of navigation. Mr. St. John, re- rope, had been our whole treaty of commerce. gentleman from New York, Mr. Mcheon) suffered turning about this time from his embassy at the Now, what should be the object of these treaties immensely. He admitted that there was a comHague, became the happy instrument which Provi- What was their limitation? How far did subsisting mencement of augmentation in the rate of freight, dence made use of to accomplish the great work. treaties between the United States and other nations but still the general faci remained that, under the Resenting bighly the resusal which had then been require modification. He would first say, in reply close competition with thie foreign states under these given to his proposals, and the insults which had been to the concluding remarks of the gentleman from reciprocity treaties, under the comparative augmenoffered to his person, he warmly solicited, and at New York, (Mr. McKeon,) that, when he asked for tation of the tonnage of these northern states of Eulength induced, the council of state to move the par- equality in this matter, he asked for a physical im- rope, under the colonial arrangements, and more Jiament to pass it. The committee sat five days in possibility. Mr. C. referred to the inequalities of especially under the fact of the immense burdens the forszing it, and it was at last published, by order of pursuits appertaining to the diversity of soil and cli- shipping interest labored under, they were deeply the house, with great pomp and ceremony at the inate, and to the differences of pursuits independent prostrate and required the fostering aid of all the royal exchange. The Dutch were so sensible of its of climate and soil, as sources of necessary inevita-branches of government. He desired that all these consequences, that it was the principal cause of the ble inequality in this matter. There could not be questions might be considered first, as he conceived ensuing war. They called it, in a manisesto publish equality. It was not a "constitutional fact," but a they should be, by the executive. It seemed to him ed soon after, 'a vile act and order. At the negotia- physical fact, equally fixed and unchangeable, and that it was not expedient for this house to undertake tions for that peace which put an end to the war, De ihese arrangements proceeded on the admission of definitively to settle the question on this state of Witt labored with his usual industry and acuteness that fact. We had treaties with certain of the Han- things. to procure the abolition of it; his efforts were happ:- seatic towns-creaties, it was said, of reciprocity.

Mr. Triplett referred to the report of the gentle. ly in vain; they who made the law, attended with What were they? The United States entered into man from Maryland (Vir. Kennedy) on this subject, vigor to the execution of it; the effects of it were im- negotiations wiih Bremen or Lubec for reciprocal which he had read with great interest, and of which mediately apparent. This act of policy alone hath trade. Was that equality? Mr. C. illustrated this he spoke in complimentary terms; but (he continued) fortunately outweighed all our follies and extravagan- by supposing the case of Å and B owning contiguous the members of the committee would be somewhat ces. Though condemned by some of our historians, farms—A's containing one acre and B's a million surprised to see the questions submitted to that comand unnoticed by others, it hath proved the fertile acres, and A's coming and making the modest pro- mittee and the report growing out of them. Mr. T. source of all our naval puwer—it hath operated posal to B to take down their enclosures and enter referred to the nine different questions which had insensibly to our preservation, and hath been the into mutual arrangements for common pasturage. been referred, by petitions and otherwise, to the spring from whence hath flowed the wealth and That was precisely the case between us and Bre- committee, and said the only question on which they greatness of England.”

Mr. C. referred to the argument that Bremen had reported was navigation, if he understood arighi. (Jenkinson's Discourse, pages 45, 47. was an out-port of the Germanic confederation, and

Mr. Kennedy, of Maryland, was understood to say Now, these laws (continued Mr. C.) had been re- said that this was not the case, but that the cities on that the report took up the subject of inland draw laxed by reciprocal treaties-these treaties of relaxa- ly which entered into the treaty were bound by it. backs, and that a bill on that subject was now betion, so far as regarded England, commencing with The whole effect of this system of arrangement was fore the house. the treaty between England and the United States; to create great and prosperous cities like Bremen, Mr. Triplett said he was very glad to hear of it; it and it was curious to remark what had been the el Hamburg, and Lubec, out of the interests and com- had escaped his attention. For the purpose of corsect of that relaxation. He had an abstract of a dis- merce of the United States, without the United States recting the inattention of the commillee in regard to cussion upon the subject in Blackwood's Magazine, !eceiving any reciprocal advantage. Mr. Cushing a most material matter submitted to them, be proin which, by a careful comparison of parliamentary further enforred this argument, and said it was evi- posed as an amendment the following resolution as returns, it was shown thai the effect of the relaxation dent that this was no secure equality or recipro- an additional one: of this principle by the reciprocal treaties between city:

“That the President of the United States be reGreat Britain and other governments, more especial: He would state another question, and that on quested to propose, through the proper diplomatic ly with the northern states of Europe, had been pre- which the other gentleman from New York, (Mr. agents, to the several commercial powers of the judicial to the interests of Great Britain in every one Brewster,) might address the house, and that was, world, with which the commercial intercourse of the of those treaties except with the United States; and the operation of this question on the corn trade of United States is now, or is likciy soon to become, that, with the United States, the effect of the irealy the west. This, he confessed, was a difficult and sufficiently interesting and importait to require or had been beneficial to England. The writer entered embarrassing question. It came to the general ques- render it desirable that the same shiu d be regulatinto the details of the question to show how it had tion in every matter of legislation and of diplomacy, ed by commercial treaties, the formation by treaty happened. Mr. C. did not agree with him; for he and more especially in this extremely complex com- of reciprocal tariffs of duties upon all articles, the believed that the cause of that treaty being beneficial mercial question, viz: that you must combine and growth, produce, or manufacture of the respective to England had been the operation of the colonial compromise interests, in so far as they were conflict countries, imported from the one into the other, bas. question in the treaty of 1816, inasmuch as the colo- ing, for the mutual benefit of all parts of the United ed upon the principle of equal and uniform ad valonial question so modified the general question, with States. They were not to consider only the navigat- rem rates of duties in the respective countries; and respect to the L'nited States, that it had operated ing interests of the United States. He admitted that stipulating, where it shall appear expedient to do so, prejudicially to our tonnage, and while American they were not to sacrifice the producing interests of and suchi stipulation be not inconsistent with any tonnage had increased in the ratio of fifty per cent., the north and northwest to the navigating interests, existing treaty with any other power, to impose, in British tonnage had increased in the ratio of three or and they were not to sacrifice the navigating inte- favor of the power or powers treating upon these

But it was the general conclusion of rests to the producing interests, but they should com- just principles, additional and discriminating duties the writer of this essay that the relaxation of these promise those interests.


of not less than ten per cent. ad valorem upon rival treaties had proved injurious on the whole with all The committee (continued Mr. C.) would see from commodities of the growth, produce, or manufacthe continental states of Europe, and for the same these desultory remarks, that at the present time, in ture of other foreign countries refusing to make, or

tour to one.


with which similar reciprocal treaties shall not be prohibiting the appointment of any chief of the bu- Resolved, That while we disclaim all obligation on made with the United States within a reasonable reau of medicine and surgery who shall not have seen the part of the general government to assume the and specified time. And providing also in said trea- five years' sea service.

debts of the several states, the justice, wisdom, and ties that, so far as they may affect the commerce of Mr. Phelps, from the committee on pensions re- policy of making distribution of the proceeds of the United States, or the duties to be levied by the ported house bill granting a pension to Nancy Wil- the public lands among the several states, accordUnited States on imports from such foreign nations, liams, widow of David Williams, one of the captors of ing to the federal population, is hereby admitted and they shall not be binding on the United States until Major Andre, without amendment, and recommend- affirmed. said regulations of commerce or duties to be levied ing its passage,

Mr. Conrad would now ask that the amendments be on the imports into the United States be ratified by The resolutions submitted yesterday by Mr. Rives, were printed, and the further consideration of the subject law passed by congress. then taken up; when

postponed until Tuesday next. This resolution, (continued Mr. T.) was intended Mr. Rives rose and addressed the senate at some Mr. King thought that to postpone this subject unto offer the same protection to the commerce and length in favor of the propositions contained in the til Tuesday would be to give it the go-by: produce of the United States that the resolutions of resolutions. He dweli with much earnestness on the Mr. Calhoun did not regard the resolutions as mere the gentleman from Maryland (Mr. Kennedy) did to magnitude of the question of assumption of state abstract questions: but, on the other hand, thought the navigating interests.

debts, and said that ihe bare idea of the general go- they were of more momentous consequence than any Like the gentleman from Massachusetts, (Mr. vernment saddling itself with a debt of two hundred question ever before presented to the congress of the Cushing,) to whose remarks he had listened with millions of dollars was so startling and stupendous, United States. He thought they were under the much interest, and with the greater part of which that not a moment should be lost in declaring the highest obligations to the states, to the country, and he agreed, he could not agree, that the navigating opinion of the senate in regard to it.

to the world, to state their opinions, and have a diinterests of the United States were alone those ne- Mr. Allen rose to move an amendment to the re- rect vote on the subject. He would rather spend cessary for the government of the United States to solutions of Mr. Rives, which was to come in after every moment of the remainder of the session than attend to; but that the producing interests should al- the word "states,” in the 8th line, as follows: not to have the matter disposed of. The longer the so be protected. Wheiher that protection was to be “By the appropriation or pledge of any part of its subject was delayed the less probability would there afforded by the laws of congress, or by treaties made revenue or other income-or by the issue, transfer, be of having a direct vote. by the executive department, was very immaterial, or pledge of any stock or other securities—or by Mr. Henderson observed that the first time he ever provided that when the treaties were made, congress the pledge of any part of the public domain-or by heard of the assumption of the state dents, was in had the ratification of all that part of them which the pledge, appropriation, or division or deposite the senate of the United States, when the subject related to the imposilion of duties and to the regula. of any part of the proceeds arising from the sales of had been elaborately discussed on resolutions sube tion of commerce.

the public domain to such states, or to the holders of mitted by the senator from Missouri, (Mr. Benton, Mr. T. briefly entered into the question of the the obligations of such states-or by any other means, soon after the present party came into power. He) power of the president to regulate the imposition of direct or indirect.”

saw no reason why they might not as well republish duties and the regulation of commerce by treaties, Mr. Merrick aiter an address in opposition, offered the whole matter in the newspapers, and save time and referred lo the two seemingly contradictory pro- the following as an amendment to the proposition of of discussion. If the resolutions before them were visions of the constitution--the one giving congress the gentleman from Virginia:

passed, they would still be in the same position that and the other the president the power over this sub- Strike out all after the word "Resolved,” and in- they were. ject. How were these two powers to be reconciled: sert:

Dr. Walker said his colleague was as much mistaThe proviso in his amendment sufficiently explained. Resolved, That governments are rightfully insti- ken when be supposed that this subject was first The executive power could make the treaties, but tuted solely for the happiness of the governed, and, spoken of in the senate or even on this side of the when it absorbed the duties of congress, congress consequently, that government is derelict in its duty Atlantic. It originated with the British, as the cirmust of necessity confirm that part of thein. which shall refuse or neglect the full exertion of its culars of their bankers, &c. would show.

His objuct was that this question of reciprocal legitimate powers for the relief of its citizens when- Mr. Bazby considered it one of the most important treaties should not only extend to the navigating or ever evils destructive of their happiness exist, which questions ever presenied to the senate, striking as it shipping interests of the U. States, but also to its com- such legitimate exertion of the powers of government did at the very keystone of the arch on which the He asked gentlemen if it was not more ne- are competent to remove or alleviate.

government rested. It was a project got up by Bricessary to attend to the commerce carried in a vessel Resolved, That evils of the most grave and distress lish brokers and money changers; he opposed the than to the vessel itself? Yet, so far as previous legis- ing character do now afflict a very large portion of postponement and thought the present congress was lation was concerned, it had related to the navigating the people of these United States, which it is fully ihe one above all, to speak on this subject. interests; and those members from the producing within the competency of this government greatly to

Mr. Allen thought the question involved not only parts of the union had too long neglected the duty of alleviate, if not entirely to remove, and from which attending to the regulation of our commerce with there is no relief to be expected, unless from the two hundred millions, but the power of taxation itreference to the protection of those interests. They timely interposition of government, till after long and sell, and the abrogation on the state constitutions, and had left it too much to the executive, and had not protracted suffering.

should be put to rest.

By a voie of 22 to 19 the senate refused to postgiven him sufficient power to impose countervailing Resolved, That prominent among these evils are duties, &c. He referred to the declaration that his the great disorders of the currency, the unexampled pone the subject, as moved by Mr. Conrad, to Tuesday

next. The subject was then postponed until to-moramendment would interfere with existing treaties. appreciation of money as compared with the proHe denied this, and explained the matter. He con- ducts of industry and all kinds of property, the con

General Jackson's fine. The bill to remit the fine cluded by saying that he had made his remarks rath- sequent destruction of credit and paralysis of trade

was taken up and after short discussion by Messrs. er with the expectation of drawing the attention of and commerce, the large indebtedness of many of the nation to the subject, than that any thing would the states of the union, and the pressure of direct Linn and Berrien, was postponed and the senate adbe done upon it at the present session. taxation upon their people.

joumed. Mr. Fillmore appealed to the committee to suffer Resolved, That a fair and equal distribution among

FEBRUARY 17. The hon. Mr. Cuthbert of Georgia, the resolution to be reported to the house, that the all the states of that vast amount of their common appeared in his seat. malter might be disposed of today.

properly, the public lands, held by this union, is call- Mr. Bayard presented a memorial from citizens of Mr. Brewster obtained the floor, and addressed the ed for by the present necessities of many of the Delaware in favor of the issue of 200,000,000 of gocommittee in remarks, to show, by statistical facts, states, would be eminently beneficial to all, and would vernment stock. that the country had prospered under the reciprocity greatly promote the happiness and welfare of the Mr. Wright presented the proceedings of the champrinciple; and that the United States had gained, whole people.

bers of commerce of New York with a statement enormously gained, under it, especially with refer- Resolved therefore, That it is the duty of the govem. Wlay the reduction in number and compensation of ence to the colonial trade. ment of the United States, without further delay, to the officers of customs at that port should not be

made. Mr. Williams, of Connecticut, made a brief ex. exercise its unquestionably constitutional power planation as to a part of Mr. Brewster's remarks. over this subject, and to make such provisions for a Mr. Rives moved to proceed to the consideration

After which, Mr. Fillmore moved that the com- distribution of the public lands, or a portion of the of the resolutions subruitted by him on a previous mittee rise, his object being, he said, to move in the value thereof, among all the states, as will best day: on which motion the question was taken by house that the committee" be discharged from the tend to the relief of both states and people from the yeas and nays, and decided in the negative, by yeas consideration of the resolution, and that it be laid on distresses and embarrassments under which they are 22, nays 22. the table. It was manifest, he added, that action suffering.

The bill to remit the fine imposed on General could not be had at the present session; and the se- Mr. Woodbury regarded the proposition as the most Jackson was taken up, when a long debate ensued, nate, he understood, had disposed of the subject for dangerous ever presented, and was prepared to say

in which Messrs. Linn, Miller, McRoberts, Bagby, and the session.

that it would sirike at the safety of the union. -others participated; whenThe motion having prevailed, the committee rose He remarked, in answer to that part of Mr. Mer- Mr. Smith, of Connecticut, moved that the senate and reported.

rick's opinions that the general government stood adjourn. Mr. Kennedy, of Maryland, (in view of the action in loco parentis to the states, that Mr. M. had re

And then the senate adjourned. of the senate, where this subject had been referred versed the order—that the states were the creators, FEBRUARY 18. Alabama resolutions. Mr. Bagby to the secretary of state, in order that a report might and the general government stood in the light of presented a joint resolution of the legislature of Alabe had thereon,) moved that the committee be dis- child.

bama in favor of a reduction in the price of public charged from the further consideration of the reso- Mr. Conrad thought the resolutions could have no lands in that state which had been long in the market lution, and that it be laid on the table.

practical bearing, and it must be obvious that the and not sold. Ordered accordingly.

senate could not be prepared to vote on abstract Assumption of state debts. The series of resolutions questions without a full understanding of their im offered by Mr. McDufjie, with the sequel of amend

port. It was true the senator from Virginia (Mr. ments, substitutes, and modifications, offered by Mr. TWENTY SEVENTII CONGRESS OF THE Rives) had made his consession of faith, and thought Evans, Archer, and others. coming up; UNITED STATES-THIRD SESSION.

the subject should be promptly disposed of. The Mr. Barrow expressed bis reasons for being averse

opinions of the senator from New Hamshire (Mr. to enter upon the question at all. The senate has SENATE.

Woodbury) had also been avowed; but how many other and more important and practical duties to fulFEBRUARY 16. Mr. Evans from the committee of had ever read the resolutions, which were but just fill instead of taking up its few remaining days in finance reported the house bill making naval appro- printed and put on their tables? He should move to discussions on vain political creeds and abstraci docpriations for the Half year ending 30th June, 1843, postpone their further consideration, and mean time trines, whose settlement would assimilate this body and the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1844, with have the amendments printed.

ather to a council of political bishops or to a council amendments retaining the chief of the bureau of Mr. Miller offered the following additional resolu- of Trent, Nice, or Augsburg, for the purpose of de provisions and clothing, and striking out the clause I tion as an amendment:

termining what men shall believe, instead of dem


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termining what we shall do. He concluded by Mr. Merrick rose and addressed the senate with of provision and clothing, and the bureau of medicine regretting this unnecessary waste of time in a vain much earnestness, also submitting a counter project and surgery were agreed to. debate.

as a substitute for the whole, to the effect that the Other amendments were then offered, (one approMr. Rives said the senator from Ohio, (Mr. Allen) happiness of the people now requiring it, and the priating $4,000 for a hemp agency adopted,) and pendhad appealed to him to adopt the amendment of his power being in congress, provision should be made ing their farther discussion, the senate adjourned. own resolutions which that senator had proposed.— without further delay for the distribution of the proHe was sorry he could not; but he would accept it ceeeds of the public lands.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. modified in such a way as to pronounce against the Mr. Walker withdrew his amendment; and a debate

THURSDAY, Feb. 16. Mr. Calhoun, from the comissue of a stock for the purpose of paying the debts ensued in which Messrs. Allen, Linn, Evans, and mittee on naval affairs reported a bill giving a penof the states. others participated.

sion to John Wolfenden. Read and passed. Mr. Allen acceded to the modification.

When the question was taken on a motion of Mr. Mr. Briggs, from the committee on post office, reMr. Berrien offered an amendment in the way Tallmadge to lay the subject on the table, and de- ported a bill to authorise the postmaster general to of a proviso that nothing in the resolutions should be cided in the affirmative by a vote of 24 to 23. require the postage on letters sent to any place withheld to affirm or deny the right of congress to surren- Immediately after which, Mr. Walker submitted in the republic of Texas to be pre-paid, and moved der or distribute the proceeds of the sales of the pub- resolutions as distinct propositions which come up its third reading. Mr. Snyder objected. lic lands. hereafter.

Mr. Briggs reported back without amendment the Mr. Crittenden rose and addressed the senate against its endeavoring to fix for all future generations princi

The military appropriation bill from the house then senate bill to prevent the employment of private exples which have been debated from the beginning of came up; when a motion made by Mr. Evans to presses on mail routes, &c.' Referred to the comihe government and which may debated io its Jast adhere to the senate amendments was lost, but was mittee of the whole. breath. After expressing opposition to the two hun ham, and a committee of conference appointed on on foreign affairs to which was referred a bill from

afterwards reconsidered, on the motion of Mr. Gra- Oregon territory. Mr. Adams, from the committee dred million scheine and his determination not to the part of the senate; the point at issue being the the senate, and also a bill from the house authorising Mr. C. said it would never have been heard of, if the appointment of a certain number of cadets at large, the adoption of measures for the occupation and setland distribution act had been allowed to remain on or not restricted to congressional districts.

tlement of the territory of Oregon, for extending certhe statute book.

The bill to remit the fine imposed on Genaral Jackson, lain portions of the laws of the United States over Mr. Conrad then spoke, analyzing the resolutions was debated at length; Messrs. Linn, Archer, Hen- the same, and for other purposes, reported the same and protesting against the senate setting itself up as derson, Dayton, Conrad, Buchanan, Graham, Bayard, without amendment, and with the recommendation it were, for a school to teach this country and Eu- and others participating in the discussion; when the that said bills do not pass. rope, the elements of political knowledge.

bill as introduced by Mr. Linn was ordered to be en- Reciprocily treaties. See page 410. Mr. Walker expressed himself in favor of having capacity," and substituting for an alleged contempt given, offered the following preamble and resolution, grossed, amended in the words "official acts in that

Louisiana inspection laros. Mr. Underwood, on leave the question taken. Mr. Calhoun followed in a few remarks. He wished of court."

which were adopted: to point the creditors to the true reponsible source

And then the senate adjourned.

Whereas complaints are made that the legislature of their debts and give them to understand that they FEBRUARY 21. The president presented a com- of Louisiana has imposed heavy burdens upon the should not even hope for an assumption of state debis munication from the president of the United States, export trade of the United States situated upon the by this government.

in compliance with the resolution of the 14th instant, Mississippi river and its tributary streams, requiring Mr. Årcher was utterly opposed to all assump- enclosing his instructions to Daniel Webster, esq. the produce descending that river to be landed in the tion.

upon the occasion of the negotiations of the late trea- city of New Orleans, and to pay inspection, drayAfter a few remarks from Mr. Cuthbert and Mr. ly with Lord Ashburton.

age, wharfage, and storage fees; and whereas it is Crittenden, the question was taken on the motion sub- Mr. Graham and Mr. While presented joint resolu- charged that such legislation on the part of the state mitted by Mr. Conrad to postpone the subject to the lions of the legislature of Indiana upon the subject of of Louisiana violates the constitution of the United first Monday of December next.

postage and the navigation of the rivers. The reso- States: therefore [The chair in reply to Mr. Archer, stated, that this lutions were read and laid upon the table.

Resolved, that the secretary of the treasury be, motion does not include the resolutions offered by the Further returns were also received from the se- and he is hereby, directed to report to this house, at gentleman from S. Carolina, Mr. McDuffie.) cretary of state as to the operations of the bankrupt its next session, what regulations exists in the port The motion to postpone was decided as follows: law in different states.

of New Orleans, if any, based upon the legislation of YEAS-Messss. Archer, Barrow, Bates, Bayard, Bes. Robert Fullon. Mr. Choale reported the bill from the state of Louisiana, which subject the produce of rien, Choate, Clayton, Conrad, Crafts, Crittenden, Day. the house for the relief of the heirs of Robert Fulton. other states to the payment of the above-mentioned lon, Evans, Graham, Henderson, Huntington, Mangum, Mr. Young offered a resolution calling for a copy fees, and that he lay before this house copies of all Merrick, Miller, Morehead. Phelps, Smih, of Indiana, of the contracts entered into by Robert Fulton in statutes of the state of Louisiana and of the corpoSprague, Tallmadge, While, Woodbridge--25.

1814 and 1815, and the amount of money received by rate authorities of the city of New Orleans now in
NAYS–Messrs. Allen. Bagby, Benton, Buchanan,
Calhoun, Curhbert, Fulton, King, Linn, McDuffie, Mc' him from the government. Also a resolution calling force, under which such fees have been imposed and
Riberis, Rives, Sevier, Smith. of Connecticui, Sturgeon, upon the department to inform the senate as to the are now charged.

The house then adjourned.
Tappan, Wulker. Wilcox, Williams, Woodbury, Wrighi, quantity of public lands to which the Indian title is

Friday, Feb. 17. Government stock. The house Mr. McDuffie now submitted his resolutions, as a Bill for remission of General Jackson's fine. This proceeded to the consideration of the motion to print substantive proposition, as follows:

bill came up upon the question, "shall it pass?" 10,000 copies of the adverse reports on the memoriResolved, That the government of the United Mr. Daylon addressed the senate briedy upon the als asking for an issue of two hundred millions of States has no constitutional power to assume the merits of the bill, and gave his reasons for voting government stock. debts contracted by the states for their own proper against it. These reasons were that the character purposes by the issue of stock, whatever fund may of the bill under consideration was unprecedent- his plan for the relief of the states; and condemned

Mr. Johnson of Maryland, spoke with reference to be pledged for the payment of the interest or princi- ed; that it would be dangerous to pass the bill; that the reports, because, while they admitted the ability pal.

General Jackson was the last man to merit the pas- and ease with which the government could grant the Resolved, That it is inexpedient for this government sage of such a bill; that it would be better to excuse aid solicited, and also admitted the indebtedness of thus to assume the aforesaid debts.

the humble rather than the more distinguished offend- the states, they recommended that the proposition The senate refused to consider them immediately er, &c. It was stated that no bill had ever passed should be rejected. But gentlemen need not endeaand then went into executive session, aster which congress of a character like the present.

vor to avoid the issue now: they would soon have to they adjourned to 20th inst.

Mr. Berrien said a few words explanatory of his meet it, for the question would soon be between reFEBRUARY 20. Mr. Walker submitted the follow- vote against the bill.

pudiation and relief; and it was fast rushing into the ing:

Mr. Conrad expressed himself disgusted with this | public councils and the public mind, and it was rapidResolved, That the secretary of war be directed to eternal sycophancy to one man. State legislatures ly forcing itself on the consideration of the moderate present to the senate, at its next session, a plan and had passed resolutions upon this subject without at and deliberate of all parties. estimate for improving the navigation of the Ohio all examining into the merits of the question. For The morning hour having expired, the further conriver, by an enlarged steamboat canal, on the Indiana one, he would rather that his arm should be severed sideration of the subject was postponed until to-mor. side of the falls, near Louisville. Also, to report from his body, than vote for such a bill. He was row. what effect would be produced on the navigation of tired and heartily sick of the sycophancy and servili. Army bill. Mr. Fillmore introduced a resolution, the river above the falls, by the removal of the ledge ty paid to General Jackson.

which was adopted, to take the senate amendments to of rocks at that point. Also, what would be the ex- Mr. Linn thought this last remark was personal, this bill out of committee at half past two o'clock. pense of enlarging the present canal so as to admit and desired an explanation.

The house then resolved itself into a committee of the largest class of boals; and what arrangements,

Mr. Conrad assured the senate that there was nothing the whole on the state of the union, and resumed the if any, can be made for rendering said canal toll free, personal in his remark. He spoke of the state of consideration of this subject. or subject only to such toll as may be necessary to public sentiment, and as one incident of this he would The question pending was on the amendment of keep the same in repair.

refer to the recommendation of the president made the senate to anpropriate $50,000 for the half calenAssumption of state debts. The resolutions submil. in his annual message to pay General Jackson a fine dar year, and $100,000 for the fiscal year for the conted on Saturday by Mr. McDuffie, denying powers of of three thousand dollars, mingled up with grave tinuation of the improvements of the Missouri, Miscongress to assume the state debts, and the expedi- state matters.

sissippi, and Ohio river. ency of the same, came up: when

Mr. Linn was satisfied, and the bill was passed by Mr. Weller supported the amendment. He said Mr. McDuffie addressed the senate at some length the following vote:

that the value of the commerce that foated on these in the voice of warning against the measure.

YEAS–Messrs. Allen, Baghy, Benton, Buchanan, rivers was upwards of $220,000,000 for the last year Mr. Walker followed at some iength also, and sub- Cuthbert, Calhoun, Henderson, King, Linn, McDuffie, four hundred and fifty steamboats engaged in the mitted amendments to those of Mr. McDuffie, to the McRoberts, Rives, Sevier, Smith, of Conn. Sumith, of lv navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi alone, the effect that assumption would be a palpable violation Spragun Surgeon, Talimadge, Tappan, Walker, Wil aggregate value of which was 87,200,000; four thouof the constitution, and a final overthrow of the so

NAYS— Messrs. Archer, Barrow, Bates, Bayard, Ber- sand fiat boats valued at $420,000; 40,000 persons emvereignty of the states; and declaring that, if assum- rien, Choate, Clayton, Conrad, Crafts, Crittenden, Day- ployed in the navigation of these rivers, whose lives, ed, it would be utterly null and void, and that it on. Evans,'Huntington, Kerr. Merrick, Miller, More- in addition to those of the thousands of passengers, would neither be obligatory on the states nor the peo- head. Phelps, White. Woodbridge—20.

were always in jeopardy in corseruence of the existé ple to pay the debts so assumed.

The naval appropriation bill, was then taken up, and ing objectiors. He showed that, in five years from Mr. McDuffie accepted the amendment as a modifi- the amendments proposed by the committee of finance 1822 to 1827, the loss of property oad, in consequenca cation of his own proposition; when

striking out the house provision relating to the bureau of removal of these obstructions, diminished from

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$1,200,000 to $300,000; and argued at length in favor a speech, denying that the house had any power to Mr. Andrews, of Kentucky, moved the previous of the appropriation.

call to account the power of removal in the president. question, which was seconded; and the bill was passMr. Thompson, of Indiana, submitted an amend- Mr. C. Brown, of Penn., spoke in the most unfavor-ed, ycas 111, nays 51. ment to the amendment, in substance, the bill of the able terms of Mr. Roberts, and in strains of encom- The bill to bring into the treasury monies receivcommittee on ways and means for the improvement ium of Mr. Blythe, who preceded Mr. Roberts as ed by certain public officers before they can be disof harbors and the continuation of the Cumberland collector.

bursed, was also passed. road, and appropriating $1,346,620. He spoke in its Mr. Toland replied in desence of Mr. Roberts, in- Abolition memorial. Mr. Adams moved to suspend support, and advocated the improvement of the Cum-sisting that that gentleman never was the tool of any the rules to offer a memorial from the state of Magberland road, giving all the circumstances under party, and would go down to the grave with honor sachusetts of great length and bulk, signed by 51,863 which it was commenced, etc. He complained of on his head.

persons, asking congress to pass such laws, and to the neglect of internal improvements by the the gen- Mr. Stanly said that the session was so far advan-propose such amendments to the constitution of the eral government, and attributed it to the spirit of par-ced that they had no time to discuss the misconduct United States, as may forever separate the people of ty, which had been interposed to the injury of the wes- of Capt. Tyler. And he moved the previsous ques. Massachusetts from all connection with slavery-but tern people.

lion, which was seconded; and the motion to print on motion of Mr. Weller, the house adjourned. Mr. Sprigg said that twenty-five millions had been prevailed.

Tuesday, FEB. 21. State debts and Mississippi bonds. expended in the different states for internal improve- Robert Fulton. The bill appropriating $75,000 to The motion :o print ten thousand extra copies of the ments under every administration, and not one single the heirs of Robert Fulton, on account of his claims adverse reports of the committee of ways and means dollars had been expended for that purpose in Ken- against the U.States, was taken up, on the motion of was announced as the first business in order. tucky. He replied to Mr. Thompson, and expressed Mr. Adams, and passed, yeas 89, nays 59.

Mr. Thompson, of Miss. replied to the remarks of his regret that the amemdment to the amendment Samuel Swartout. The bill authorizing the secre- several gentlemen delivered on a former occasion, had been received, because it would go far to disin- tary of the treasury to make a settlement with the and defended that state from the imputation that she cline the house to adopt the proposition of the senate. sureties of Samuel Swartwout, was taken up and has refused to pay her debt. He said that the conThe amendments were mosily rejected, and the rejected, yeas 72, nays 75.

stitution of Mississippi required that a bill shall be hour to which the debate was limited having arrived. The house then proceeded to the consideration of read three times by two consecutive legislatures be

Mr. Brockway submitted an amendment to improve bills relating to the territories and the district of Co-fore it becomes a law. It was true that the bill aucertain harbors. Rejected. lumbia, and then adjourned.

thorising the five millions of bonds was read three Mr. Thompson, of Indiana, then modified his amend

Monday, FEB 20. Mr. Giustine presented the re- times, and then Jest on the journal of proceedings; ment, to appropriate $20,000 for the construction of solutions of the legislature of Pennsylvania, request- but that bill was no more a law than a bill on your a bridge over the Ohio river at Wheeling. Rejected ing their representatives and instructing their sena- table which had been read twice-the constitution ayes 61, noes 96.

tors to use their exertions to revive the act passed and rules requiring a third reading. Governor McThe question then recurring on concurring in the by congress in 1838, granting pensions for five years Nutt signed the bonds without authority, and the Unamendment of the senate, appropriating $150,000 to certain widows of officers of the revolutionary ion bank, as the agent of the state, received them for the removal of obstructions in the Missouri, Mis

On his motion a bill having this object in view without authority, and sold them to Mr. Bidule withsissippi, Ohio and Arkansas rivers; it was decided in was taken from the committee of the whole, and ont authority. Therefore the whole matter was a the negativc-ayes 93, noes 98. read a third time and passed.

fraud. Mr. T. having concluded his remarksThe amendment of the senate, allowing the ap

The house went into committee, and took up the Mr. Pope, of Ky., gave notice that he should, topointment of a cadet for the district of Columbia, bill to bring into the treasury, money collected by morrow, introduce a bill to revive public credit, and was concurred in.

certain public officers, before it can be disbursed. regulate the currency and 'exchanges, based on the The amendment of the senate, that the cadets shall

Mr. Fillmore said that this bill required all moneys proceeds of the sales of the public lands, be appointed at large, without reference to the restric. to be placed in the treasury before the expenses of Magnetic telegraphs. The house went into comtion to each congressional district, was non-concurred collection are paid, and it was to be drawn out by mitice of the whole. Mr. Kennedy, of Md., moved in-ayes 40, noes not counted.

drasts on the treasury in pursuance of law. By this to take up the bill making an appropriatinn to test The committee rose, and Mr. Thompson renewed means all the expenses of the department would be the practicability of establishing a system of electrohis amendment, which was rejected in committee of brought before the review of congress.

magnetic telegraphs throughout the U. Siates. the whole; and moved the previous question, which

The bill was laid aside to be reported to the house. Mr. Johnson, of Tenn., moved to appropriate onewas seconded; and the yeas and nays being taken the Mr. Kennedy, of Maryland, made an unsuccessful hall of the sun mentioned in the bill for experi. first branch of his proposition was negatived by yeas effort to have the bill for the establistment of electro-ments in mesmerism, under the superintendence of 74, nays 132; the second branch was negatived by yeas magnetic telegraphs taken up, for the purpose of dis- Mr. Fisk. 65, nays 127. posing of it without debate.

Mr. Stanly said he would vote for the amendment, On ihe question of concurring in the report of the

The bill to authorise the re-issue of the outstanding if Mr. Johnson would become a subject of mesinecommittee of the whole on the state on the union re- treasury notes, if the wants of the treasury should rism. jecting the amendment of the senate appropriating make it necessary, was taken up.

Mr. Johnson replied that he would, if the gentle. $2,000 for the continuation of meteorological obser- Mr. Barnard proposed his bill heretofore introduc- man from North Carolina would act as operator. vations at the military posts of the United States, ed as an amendment, authorizing the secretary of the (Laughter.) under the direction of the surgeon general

treasury to borrow fifteen millions of dollars from Tellers were ordered, and the amendment was reThe veas and nays were, ayes 91, noes 103. So the state banks, at an interest of six per cent. Mr. Tjecte-ayes 22, noes not counted. the amendment of ihe senate (such being the effect B. supported the amendment, and said that, as the The bill was then laid aside to be reported to the of the vote; was concurred in.

exchequer bill was not likely to be taken up, this house. The house concurred with the committee in its re

was the filtest time to consider the subject. He be. China. On motion of Mr. Adams, the committee jection of the amendment of the senate, providing lieved that the measure, if adopted, would have a took up the bill appropriating forty thousand dollars for the appointment of ten additional cadets at large, tendency to revive public business, satisfy the treasu- for the purpose of providing the means of future in

On concurring in the report of the committee on and with the preseot tariff bring during the next tercourse between the United States and the governthe amendment of the senate, appropriating for the rear, twenty or twenty-five millions into the treasu ment of China.

ry. He pressed this subject upon the consideration Mr. Adams moved to amend the bill, by striking continuation of the improvements on the Missouri, of congress, and said that it was one to which the out so much as places the appropriation under the Mississippi, Ohio, and Arkansas rivers, for the half whig party could not consistently object. It was not restrictions and in the manner prescribed by the act calendar year $50,000, and for the fiscal year $100,- intended to preclude the establishment of a national of 1790. 000”

bank, sub-treasury, or any thing else; it was only a Mr. Merriwether opposed the amendment, and moiThe yeas and nays were ordered; and, being taken, temporary expedient.

ed to place the office on the same footing with that were yeas 103, nays 89.

Mr. Cushing proposed as an amendment, the bill held by com. Porter at Constantinople. So ihe amendment of the senate was rejected.

reported by the select committee to establish an ex. Mr. J. C. Clark, of N. Y, took occasion to allude The house concurred with the committee of the chequer board, with a few triding modifications. to the proceedings and doings of both political parwhole on the state of the union in all its other action After defending it, and meeting certain objections, ties, and spoke in terms of condemnation of the on the amendments of the senate, and the bill was he stated in detail the grounds of his opposition to president, secretary of state, &c., without speaking returned to that body.

the amendment of Mr. Barnard. The only result it of the bill. Mr. Fillmose, on leave being given, reported from would produce, would be to give a larger and more Mr. Gordon replied to his colleague. the committee of ways and means, the general ap- extended circulation to the notes of banks of Boston On motion of Mr. Everelt, the committee rose for propriation bill. And the house adjourned.

and New York, without in the least augmenting the the purpore of enabling SATURDAY, FEB. 18. Government stock. Mr. W. currency of the nation. If a loan was to be made, Mr. Fillmore to submit a resolution that the deW. Irwin presented a memorial from citizens of Penn- let it be directly in the form of treasury notes; and bate on this bill shall cease in half an hour, when sylvania in favor of the issue of 200 millions. he wished to dissipate the idea that the government the house shall vote on the amendments pending, or

Tariff. On motion of Mr. McKeon, it was resolved could only be supported by state banks being placed which may be offered. He remarked that there that the president of the United Slates be requested as props under each arm of the government. were five appropriation bills to be acted on, viz: for to communicate to this house, if not incompatible with On motion of Mr. Botts, the committee rose, for navy pensioners, Indian treaties, fortifications and the public interest, any correspondence between the the purpose of enabling

harbors, and the civil and diplomatic bill. Under representatives of foreign governments and the gove Mr. Fillmore to submit a resolution that the debate these circumstances he felt bound to press business ernment of the United States, in relation to the oper- shall cease at three o'clock. The previous question on the house. ation of the present tariff laws under treaties exist- having been moved and seconded, ihe yeas and nays The resolution was adopted. ing with those foreign governments.

were called on the passage of the resolution. And The house then again went into committee and rcJonathan Roberts and Calvin Blythe. The Speaker it was adopted—yeas 33, nays 80.

sumed the consideration of the bill appropriating laid before the house two communications from the The house again went into committee.

$10,000 for a mission to China. secretary of the treasury, in answer to resolutions Mr. Wise arose for the purpose of addressing the After some short discussion, Mr. Adams's proposasking for information in relation to the removal of committee. Having spoken for three minutes, the ed amendment was agreed to by a vote of 79 yeas 10 those gentlemen from the office of collector of the hour arrived for the termination of the debate. 55 nays. A substitute amendment offered by Mr. port of Philadelphia.

The amendment of Mr. Cishing, the exchequer Bronson, proposing only $10 000 and a commercial On motion of Mr. Toland, the communication with bill, was rejected, ayes 33, noes 93.

agent instead of a minister, was negatived by year regard to Mr. Roberts was referred to a select com- The amendment of Mr. Barnard, was rejected, 57, noes 75. mittee with power to send for persons and papers. ayes 31, noes 105.

The was then finally passed by a vote of 96 Mr. W ise moved that the communication relating On motion of Mr. Fillmore, the committee rose, yeas to 59 nays. Reconsideration was moved; the to Mr. Blythe be printed; and on this motion he made and the treasury note bill was reported to the house. house refused to reconsider; and then adjourned.

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