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Quotations and Allusions.
1. • Ath the same time an angel was sent to the same virgin, saying: “ Behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb by the Holy Ghost, and thou shalt bring forth a son, and he shall be called the Son of the Highest. And thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save his people from their sins :” as they have taught who have written the history of all things concerning our Saviour Jesus Christ. And we believe them. Matt. i. 20, 21, Comp. Luke i. 31. Thus
' he writes in his first Apology.
2. Again, in the same Apology . But lesto we should seem to deceive
be fit to lay before you some of the doctrines of Christ. His words were short and concise. For he was no sophist, but his word was the power of God. Of chastity he spoke in this manner: “ Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart, in the sight of God. And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out. For it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of heaven with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into eternal fire. And he who marries her who is divorced from another man committeth adultery," ' Matt. v. 28, 29, 32.
3. In his Dialogue. And it is written in the gospel, that he said : “ All things are delivered to me of the Father. And no man knoweth the Father, but the Son : neither the Son, save the Father, and they to whom the Son will reveal him," ' Matt. xi. 27.
4. And the virgin Mary having been filled with faith and joy, when the angel Gabriel brought her good tidings, that the Spirit of the Lord should come upon her, and the power of the Highest overshadow her, and therefore that holy thing born of her should be the Son of God,' answered, “ Be it unto me according to thy word,”' Luke i. 35, 38.
5. It is undoubted that the gospels of Matthew and Luke are chiefly quoted by him, and Mark's but seldom. However, I shall take a part of a passage, in which within the compass of half a page these three gospels are quoted.
· And in other words he says, “ Depart from me into outer darkness, which the Father has prepared for Satan Apol. i. p. 75. B. Paris. 1636.
o P. 61. E. P Και εν τω ευαγγελιω δε γεγραπται, ειπων. 326. D. 9 Dial. Par. ii. p. 327. C.
r P. 301. D.
and his angels,” Matt. xxv. 41. And again he said in other words: “I give unto you power to tread upon serpents, and scorpions, and venomous beasts, and upon all the power of the enemy," ' Luke x. 19. And before he was crucified, he said : “ The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the scribes and pharisees, and bet crucified, and rise again the third day,”' Mark viii. 31.
These last words are exactly quoted by Justin againų in another place. In St. Luke ix. 22, is a text very resembling; but in this place Justin appears to have used St. Mark. In St. Luke it is," and be slain, and raised the third day."
6. That Justin had read St. John's gospel, might be concluded from his calling Christ the . Word,' and the word and reason of God. However, it will not be amiss to observe a quotation, or a reference or two.
7. • Butw he is the first power next after God the Father and Lord of all, and Son, and the Word. And in what manner being made flesh he became man, I shall show hereafter.' John i. 14.
8. Speaking of John the Baptist : They* suspected him to be the Christ: to whom he said : “ I am not the Christ, but the voice of one crying, There will come one mightier than me, whose shoes latchet I am not worthy to bear," John i. 20, 23, 27. Compare Matt. iii. 11; Luke iii. 16.
9. • Fory Christ himself has said : “ Unless ye are born again, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven,” John iii. 3, 4, 5. But it is manifest to all, that it is iinpossible for those who have been once born, to enter into the wombs of them that bare them.'
10. - For thus bez said : “ He that hears me and does the things I say, he hears him that sent me,”' Johın xiv. 24.
11. Justin often speaks of the gospels under the title of Memoirs, ora Commentaries; Commentaries of the apostles; His, or Christ's Memoirs; Memoirs of the apostles and their companions: and we have before seen him use the word gospel, as he does also gospels. 8 Και σκολοπενδρων.
σαυρωθηναι, και τη τριτη ημερα " P. 327. A.
* Και αποκτανθηναι, και τη τριτη ημερα εγερθηναι.
Apol. i. p. 74. B. * Dial. p. 316. C.
Apol. p. 94. A. z P. 64. A,
1 Ως απο των απομνημονευματων εμαθομεν. p. 332. C.
• Οπερ εν τοις απομνημονευμασι των αποσολων AUT8 yeypantai. 332. B. et alibi.
• Εν τοις απομνημονευμασιν avty. p. 333. D.
12. Speaking of the eucharist: For thed apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called gospels, have thus delivered it, that Jesus commanded them to take bread, and give thanks.' Matt. xxvi. 26; Mark xiv. 22 ; Luke xxii, 19, 20.
13. - Fore in the Commentaries, which, as I have said, were composed by the apostles, and their followers, [or companions,] it is written, that his sweat fell like drops of blood, as he prayed, saying : “ If it be possible, let this cup pass from
There can be no doubt but he here intends particularly Luke.xxii. 42, and Matt. xxvi. 39. 14. And upon the whole, it must be plain to all, that he
, owned, and had the highest respect for, the four gospels; written two of them by apostles, and the other two by companions and followers of the apostles of Jesus Christ; that is, by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
15. Farther, these gospels were publicly read in the assemblies of the christians every Lord's day, by a person appointed for that purpose, whom he calls . reader. For, giving an account of the christian worship to the emperor, in the first Apology, he says: “Thef memoirs of the apostles, or the writing of the prophets, are read according as the time allows; and when the reader has ended, the president makes a discourse, exhorting to the imitation of so excellent things.
16. Trypho the Jew, in the Dialogue, says8 to Justin : • I am sensible that the precepts in your gospel, as it is
called, are so great and wonderful, that I think it impos• sible for any man to keep them. For I have been at the pains to read them.'
Whether the Dialogue be real, or only a fictitious discourse, this is a proof the gospels were open to all, and were well known in the world.
For it is reasonable to suppose
that Justin chose to write in character.
IV. Let us in the next place observe some references to the Acts of the Apostles.
Apol. 1. p. 98. Β. Α καλειται ευαγγελια.
e Ev yap TOLS απομνημονεύμασιν, ά φημι υπο των αποσολων αυτε και των εκεινους παράκολεθησαντων συντεταχθαι, ότι ιδρως. κ.λ p. 331. C. D.
Και τα απομνημονεύματα των αποσολων, η τα συγγραμματα των προφητων αναγινωσκεται μεχρις εγχωρει ειτα παυσαμεν τ8 αναγινωσκοντος. κ. λ. p. 98. D.
τω λεγομενη ευαγγελια- -εμοι γαρ εμελησεν εντυχειν αυτοις. p. 227. C.
Justin. 1. Acts vii. 22. 6 And h 1. Moses wasi thought Moses was learned in all the worthy to partake of all the wisdom of the Egyptians.” learning of the Egyptians,'
&c. 2. Acts xiii. 27. “ But 2. . For the Jews who they that dwell at Jerusalem, had the prophecies, and aland their rulers, because they ways expected the coming knewk him not, nor yet the of Christ, knew him not, voices of the prophets which and not only so, but killed are read every sabbath day, him. But the Gentiles, who they have fulfilled them in had never heard of Christ, condemning him.”
until the apostles' setting out from Jerusalem taught them the things concerning him,
-being filled with joy and faith- -gave themselves up to the unbegotten God
through Jesus Christ.' I think it plain, there is here a reference to the history in the Acts. See Ch. xiii. from ver. 44, to the end. N. T.
Justin. 3. Acts xxvi, 22, 23. 3. For though it had “ Saying none other thing's been obscurely declared by than those which the pro- the prophets, that" Christ phets and Moses did say should suffer, and after that should come: that m Christ be Lord of all,' &c. should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead,” &c. V. We will now proceed to St. Paul's epistles. N. T.
Justin. 1. Rom. i. 4. “ Or de- 1. For the goodness and spisest thouo the riches of kindness of God, and the his goodness, and forbear- immensity of bis riches, ance, and long suffering, not esteem, as Ezekiel declares, knowing that the goodness him that repents of his sins,
h Και επαιδευθη παση σοφια Αιγυπτιων.
i Αλλα και πασης της ALYUTTIV TALÔevoews uerao xelv nižwon. Ad Græc. Cohort. p. 11. B. Taτον αγνοησαντες, κ. λ.
Ηγνοησαν. Αp. i. p. 85. Α.
i. η Ει παθητος ο Χριςος, κ. λ.
Παθητος μενησομενος ο Xpisos. Dial. p. 302. A.
• Η τ8 πλατ8 της χρησoτητος αυτ8 -καταφρονεις; Ρ Η γαρ χρησoτης, και η φιλανθρωπια το θες, και το αμετρον το πλετε
Dial. p. 266. D.
Justin. of God leadeth thee to re- as one who is righteous, and pentance ?"
has not sinned. See Ezek.
xxxiii. 15, 16. The first words have a great resemblance with Paul's, Rom. ii. 4. Dr. Thirlby in his Notes refers also to Rom. xi. 33; Eph. ii. 7; iii. 8.
2. Nor was Abraham declared righteous by God because of circumcision, but because of faith. For before that he was circumcised, it was said of him: “ Abraham believed God, and it was imputed to him for righteousness. [Gen. xv. 6.] Wherefore we also in the circumcision of our flesh believing in God through Christ, and having the circumcision which is useful to them that have it, that is, of the heart, hope to appear righteous, and acceptable to God.' In these last words is a great resemblance with Rom. ii. 28, 29. as in the first with Paul's argument, Rom. iv ; Gal. iii.
For Rom. xi. 2, 3, 4, may be seen Dialog. p. 257. D. But I do not think it worth while to insert the passage here. N. T.
JUSTIN. 3. 1 Cor. v. 7. 66 Forq 3. • For Christ' was the
6. even Christ our passover is passover, who was afterwards sacrificed for us.
sacrificed for us.' 4. 1 Cor. xi. 18, 19.
4. For he said
t. And • Is hear that there are di- there shall be schisms and visions among you, and I heresies.' partly believe it. For there must be also heresies among
5. 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9, 10. 5. • One u receives the “ For to one is given by the spirit of understanding, anspirit the word of wisdom; other of counsel, another of to another the word of know- power, [or miracles,] another ledge by the same spirit ; to of healing, another of foreanother faith by the same knowledge, another of docspirit; to another the gifts trine, another of the fear of of healing by the same spi- God.' rit; to another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits.”
9 Και γαρ το πασχα ημων υπερ ημων ετυθη, Χριςος.