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made use of some limitations and exceptions. For if there were christian churches in which the memoirs' he speaks of were not read; upon enquiry made by the emperor, or his order, he had run the hazard of being convicted of a design to impose upon all the majesty of the Roman empire; and that, not in an affair incidentally mentioned, but in the conduct and worship of his own people, concerning whom he professeth to give the justest information. The general reading of the gospels, as a part of divine worship, at that time, about the year 140, or not very long after, is not only a proof that they were well known and allowed to be genuine, but also that they were in the highest esteem. These gospels were not concealed. Justin appeals to them in the most public manner, and they were open to all the world: read by Jews and others.

The other passages of Justin here alleged relate to the Acts of the Apostles, the epistle to the Romans, the first to the Corinthians, the epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians, the second to the Thessalonians, the epistle to the Hebrews, the second of Peter, and the book of the Revelation; which last he expressly ascribes to John the apostle of Christ. I shall leave it to the reader to consider how many of the references to any of the other books are full and clear. I think it was not the method of Justin to use allusions in his style so often as some other writers do.

CHAP. XI.

THE EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS.

I SHALL now show, as I promised, how the words of the New Testament are adapted and applied by the author of the epistle to Diognetus. It is plain he was acquainted with the gospels of Matthew and John. I have observed no references to the Acts of the Apostles. But whereas in all Justin's works hitherto quoted, several of which are of considerable length, there are very few expressions borrowed from the epistles of the New Testament, and those generally obscure, here we shall find many in an epistle of about nine folio pages. I shall put them down, and leave every one to judge how different this is from Justin's man

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ner in those works we have hitherto made use of. But though this epistle be not Justin's, the testimonies it affords to the books of the New Testament are very valuable.

I. · Christ has taught us,' hea says, not to be solicitous [or take any thought] about raiment or food.' See Matt. vi. 25-31.

II. The author says, “Godb has sent from heaven the truth, and the holy word :' and he says, ' he was from the beginning :' and calls Christ the Word’ several times ; which character he may be well supposed to have learned from the beginning of John's gospel. He sayse likewise, that christians live in the world, but they are not of the world.' See John xvii, 14, 15, 16.

III. · Forf what could cover our sins but bis righteousness? By whom could we, who were wicked and ungodly, be justified, but by the only Son of God ? O delightful exchange, o unsearchable contrivance, O unexpected benefit! that the iniquity of many should be hid by one righteous person, and the righteousness of one justify many wicked."

Herein is an allusion to the whole fifth chapter of the epistle to the Romans. See also cb. xi. 33. N. T.

The Epistle to DioGNETUS, IV. 1 Cor. iv. 12. 66

IV. Theyh are reviled being reviled we bless." and bless. V. 1 Cor. viii. 1.

V.

• The apostlek says: knowledge. puffeth up, but Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.”

charity edifieth VI. 1 Cor. ix. 10. 66 VI. But he whol with That he that ploweth, should fear knows, and seeks life, plow in hope: and that he planteth in hope, expecting that thresheth in hope, should fruit.'

.' be partaker of his hope. Comp. ver. 7. Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof?”

VII. 2 Cor. x. 3. “ For VII. • They are in the though we walk in the flesh, flesh, but they live not after

Περι ενδυσεως και τροφης μη μεριμναν. p. 500. D.

Αυτος απ' ερανων την αληθειαν και τον λογον τον άγιον και απερινοητον ανθρωποις ενιδρυται. Ρ. 498. Β.

Ουτος ο απαρχης. Ρ. 501. D. a' P. 501. C. D.

° Και χριστιανοι εν κοσμω οικεσιν, εισι δε EK TOV kogue. P. 497. D.

f P. 500. B. C. 8 Λοιδορεμενοι, ευλογεμεν.

Λοιδορονται και ευλογεσιν. P. 497. C.

Η γνωσις φυσιοι, η δε αγαπη οικοδομει. Αποσολος-λεγει η γνωσις φυσιοι, η δε αγαπη οικοδομει. p. 502. C. I P. 502. C.

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N. T.

The Epistle to DIOGNETUS. we do not war after the the flesh. They are flesh.”

known, she speaks of chris2 Cor. vi. 8.6 By honour tians in his own time all and dishonour, by evil re- along,] and yet are conport and good report. 9. demned. They are put to As unknown, and yet well death, and yet are revived. known: as dying, and be- They are poor, and make hold we live: as chastened, many rich. They want all and not killed. 10. As sor- things, and abound in all rowful, and yet always re- things. They are in dishojoicing: as poor, yet making nour, and in dishonour are many rich : as having no- glorified. They are evilthing, yet possessing all spoken of, and are justified. things.

Being put to death, they are

made alive.' The whole passage (of which I have transcribed here but a part) is a most beautiful representation of the suffering circumstances and virtues of the christians of the author's own time, in allusion to these and other words of the New Testament. Therefore a part of it has been already transcribed, and more of it will appear in some following numbers. N. T.

The Epistle to DioGNETUS. VIII. Philip. iii. 20. “ For VIII. They dwell on

6 our" conversation is in hea- earth, but they converse in

heaven.' IX. 1 Tim. iij. 16. “ And IX. · Who [the disciples] without controversy great is being esteemedp by him, the mystery of godliness : were acquainted with the God was manifest in the mysteries of the Father. flesh, justified in the spirit, For which cause he sent the seen of angels, preached Word, that he might appear unto the Gentiles, believed to the world : who having on in the world, received up been rejected of the people, into glory.”

preached by the apostles, was believed on by the Gen

tiles.' X. 2 Tim. i. 11. 6 Where- X. • And being? a disciunto I am appointed a ple of the apostles, I become preacher, and an apostle, a teacher of the Gentiles." '

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η Ημων γαρ το πολιτευμα εν Βρανους υπαρχει.

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γης διατριβεσιν, αλλ' εν ερανη πολιτευονται. P. 497. B.

P P. 501. D. 9 Αλλ' αποσολων γενομενος μαθητης, γινομαι διδασκαλος εθνων. Ρ. 501. C.

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N. T.

The Epistle to DIOGNETUS. and' a teacher of the Gen- [So the author speaks of tiles."

himself.] XI. 1 Pet. ii. 20. “

XI. · When they do well but ifs when ye do well, and they are punished as evil.' suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God.”

XII. 1 Pet. ij. 24. “ Whou XII. · Saying himself : his own self bare our sins in Hev took our sins. This is his own body on the tree.” evidently a quotation, and

only by a different pointing may be read thus: saying, He himself took our sins. But perhaps it may be doubt- . ful, whether he refers to this text of Peter, or to Isa, ch.

liii. XIII. 1 Pet. iii. 18. “ For XIII. . He delivered up * Christ also has once suffered his own Son a ransom for us, for our sins, the just for the holy for the transgresthe unjust, that he might sors, the innocent for the bring us to God.”

guilty, the just for the un

just.' XIV. 1 John iv. 9. “ In XIV. For God loved

· this was manifested the love mankind to whom he of God to us, because that sent his only-begotten Son, God sent his only-begotten to whom he has promised a Son into the world.”

kingdom in heaven, and will 10. “ Herein is love, not give it to them that love that we loved God, but that him. And y when

And y when you know he loved us.”

him, with how great joy will 16. “And we have known you be filled ? And how and believed the love that will you love him who so God has to us.”

loved

you

before ? And 17. “ Herein is our love having loved him, you will made perfect."

be an imitator of his good19. - We love hiin because he first loved us.

XV. Speaking of the state of things after the coming of

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Και διδασκαλος εθνων.

5 Αλλ' ει αγαθοποιέντες, κ.λ. Αγαθοποιοντες, ως κακοι κολαζονται. 497. C.

“Ος τας αμαρτιας ημων αυτος, ανηνεγκεν. Λεγων αυτος, τας ημετερας αμαρτιας ανεδεξατο. 500. B.

Δικαιος υπερ αδικων. * Αυτος τον ιδιον υιον απεδοτο λυτρον υπερ ημων, τον αγιον υπερ ανομων, τον ακακον υπερ των κακων, τον δικαιον υπερ των αδικων. 500. Β.

y P. 501. A.

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Christ, he has this passage, in which he seems to speak of the volume of the gospels, and of the epistles of the apostles.

• The” fear of the law is sung, and the grace of the prophets is known, and the faith of the gospels is established, and the tradition of the apostles is kept, and the grace of the church rejoiceth exceedingly.'

XVI. The passages alleged from this epistle relate to the gospels of St. Matthew and St. John, the epistle to the Romans, the first and second to the Corinthians, the epistle to the Philippians, the first and second to Timothy, and the first epistle of St. Peter, and first of St. John. And in most of them the allusion is plain. Words of the first epistle to the Corinthians are expressly cited as the apostle's, meaning Paul. The author seems likewise to speak of a code or collection of gospels and apostolical epistles, which he joins together with the law and the prophets.

CHAP. XII.

DIONYSIUS OF CORINTH.

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DIONYSIUS, bishop of Corinth, flourished, according to Cave,a about the year 170. Eusebius in his Chronicle, at the eleventh year of Marcus Antoninus, (which is the year 171 of our Lord) says, Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, a

, • sacred man, was then in reputation.' He wrote seven letters, called by Eusebius Catholic, or general, they being sent to divers churches, and another to a christian woman. These epistles are mentioned by Eusebius in the following order: one to the Lacedemonians: another to the Athenians the third to the faithful of Nicomedia, which was the capital city of Bithynia: the fourth to the church at Gortyna, and the rest of the churches of Crete: the fifth to the church in Amastris, together with the churches throughout Pontus : the sixth to the Gnossians, likewise in Crete : the seventh to the Romans, inscribed to Soter then bishop. • And

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Ειτα φοβος νομο αδεται, και προφητων χαρις γινωσκεται, και ευαγγελιων πισις ιδρυται, και αποσολων παραδοσις φυλασσεται, και εκκλησιας χαρις σκιρτα. p. 502. A. a Hist. Lit.

ALOVUOLOS ETTLOKOTTOS Κορινθο ιερος ανηρ εγνωριζετο.

Καθολικαις προς τας εκκλησιας επιςολαις. Η. Ε. 1. 4. c. 23. p. 143. C.

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