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• Dead' was written after the Apology; because, as Tillemont observes, he seems to promise such a thing at the end of the Apology; where having fallen upon the subject of the resurrection, hes defers a fuller discourse upon it to another time.

In this discourse he rather argues from reason than scripture. His two points are, the possibility and the fitness of a resurrection.

Though this author has been seldom mentioned in antiquity, there is no one doubts the genuineness of either of these pieces.

Athenagoras is a polite writer, and his Greek Attic. He has only rendered his style less agreeable by frequent parentheses.

His testimony to the books of the New Testament.

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I. • Fort he that looks,' says he, ‘on a woman, to lust after her, hath committed adultery in his heart.' See Matt. v. 28.

II. · We can convince you,' says he to the emperors, • that we are not atheists, by the principles we hold, which are not of human invention, but delivered and taught by God. Whatų then are our maxims, in which we are instructed ? “I say unto you: Love your enemies, bless

I them that curse you, pray for them that persecute you, that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven, who maketh his sun to rise on the evil, and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just, and on the unjust." ' See Matt. v. 44, 45,

These are so plain quotations of the words in St. Matthew's gospel, that I need not put down in the margin the Greek at length. I may however observe, that the originals of St. Matthew and Athenagoras agree, as they are represented to do by this translation.

There are likewise in the Apology some other passages taken from St. Matthew's gospel, especially from our Saviour's sermon on the mount; and having 'recited some of those precepts of our Lord, he adds; that w he alleges but a few out of many.' 5 Αλλ' ανακεισθω μεν ο περι της ανασασεως λογος.

ó " Ο γαρ βλεπων, φησι, γυναικα προς το επιθυμησαι αυτης, ηδη μεμοιχευσεν εν τη καρδια αυτ8. P. 36. B. Paris. 1663.

Τινες ουν ημων οι λογοι, οις εντρεφομεθα; λεγω υμιν κ. λ. p. 11. Β. C. "Vid. p. 2. D. 12. A. D. et 38. A.

Ταυτα μεν ουν, μικρα απο μεγαλων, και ολιγα απο πολλων, ίνα μη επι πλειον υμιν ενοχλοιημεν, p. 13. Α.

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ATHENAGORAS. III. Mark X. 6. “ But * III. · Because y in the befrom the beginning of the ginning, God formed creation God made them man and one woman.' male and female."

He mentions this observation with the same view with that of our Lord in St. Mark, as an argument against divorces; though, it must be owned, there are much the same words in Matt. xix. 4. N. T.

ATHENAGORAS. IV. Luke xvi. 18. 6 Who- IV. "For a whosoever, soever? putteth away his says he, shall put away his wife, and marrieth another, wife, and shall marry another, committeth adultery."

committeth adultery. It may be questioned, whether he refers to St. Luke, or to St. Matt. v. 32, or rather xix. 9. It is however a quota

. tion. N. T.

ATHENAGORAS. V. John X. 30. “ Ib and V. • The c Father and the my Father are one."

Son being one; and the Son Ver. 38.—“ That ye may being in the Father, and the know, and believe, that the Father in the Son. Father is in me, and I in him.”

It is undoubted, that he acknowledged the gospel of St. John, from his d so often calling the Son the Word' or Reason of God.

ATHENAGORAS. VI. John xvii. 3. “ Ande VI. - For this alonef conthis is life eternal, that they cerned, to know the one God, might know thee the only and the Word [proceeding] true God, and Jesus Christ from him—knowing, that whom thou hast sent.”

the life we shall obtain hereafter is better than can be

expressed in words, if we * Απο δε αρχης κτισεως, αρσεν και θηλυ εποιησεν αυτες ο θεος.

ó Ο Παραβαινων μεν την χειρα τα θες, ότι εν αρχη ο θεος ένα ανδρα επλασε και μιας γυναικα. p. 37. Β.

2 Πας ο απολυων την γυναικα αυτό, και γαμων ετεραν, μοιχευει.

Ος γαρ αν απολυση, φησι, την γυναικα αυτ8, και γαμηση αλλην, μοιχαται. Legat. p. 37. Β.

• Εγω και ο Πατηρ εν εσμεν-ινα γνωτε, και πιςευσητε, ότι εν εμοι ó Πατηρ, καγω εν αυτω.

Ένος οντος το Πατρος και του Υιου οντος δε του Υιου εν Πατρι, και Πατρος εν Υιρ. p. 10. C. d P. 10. B. C. 12. C. D. 17. D. 27. A. 34. D.

Αύτη δε εςιν η αιωνιος ζωη, ένα γινωσκωσι σε τον μονον αληθινον θεον, και ον απεςειλας Ιησεν Χρισον.

f Yπο μονο δε παραπεμπομενοι τοτε τον ισως θεον και τον παρ' αυτου λογον ειδεναι-πολυ δε και κρειττονα η ειπειν λογω, τον εκδεχομενον βιον ειδοτες. p. 12. C. D.

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ATHENAGORAS. shall but go hence pure

from all uprighteousness.' VII. Acts xvii, 25. “ Nei- VII. - Since he h wanteth ther 8 is worshipped with not, nor needeth any thing.' men's hands, as though he He there gives this character needed any thing.”

of the Deity upon the same account that St. Paul does : and much to the same purpose again : Not as if God

needed.' VIII. Rom. i. 24. “Where- VIII. Men with men

• fore God also gave them up working those things which to uncleanness

k to dis- are abominable, many ways honour their own bodies be- abusing their comely and tween themselves.”

beautiful bodies, and disho27. “ Men with men work- nouring the excellent working that which is upseemly." manship of God.'

IX. Rom. xi. 36. 6 Form IX. For of him, and of him, and through him, through him were all things and to him are all things.” made. Though perhaps he

refers to John i. 3. X. Rom. xii. 1.“ I beseech X. • But why should I you therefore, brethren,- be concerned about wholethat yeo present your bodies burnt-offerings, which God a living sacrifice, holy, ac- does not need ? It is much P ceptable to God, which is better 'therefore to offer an your reasonable service.” unbloody sacrifice, and bring

a reasonable service.' XI. 1 Cor. xv. 30. “ And


XI. He had argued at why stand we in jeopardy length the disadvantages of every hour? 31. I protest virtue; that many of the

Í by your rejoicing, which I best men endure in this life have in Christ Jesus our vexation and sorrow, Lord, I die daily. 32. If proaches and calumnies : after the manner of men, I 5 that if there be no retribu






8 Ουδε υπο χειρων ανθρωπων θεραπευεται, προσδεομενος τινος. Ανενδεης και απροσδεης. p. 13. Β.

Ουχ ώς δεομενα του θεου. p. 15. C.

--Το ατιμαζεσθαι τα σωματα αυτων εν εαυτοις-αρσενες εν αρσεσι την ασχημοσυνην κατεργαζομενοι.

Αρσενες εν αρσεσι τα δεινα κατεργαζομενοι, όσων σεμνοτερα και ευειδεσερα σωματα, παντοιως αυτα υβριζοντες, ατιμουντες και το ποιημα του θεου το kalov. p. 37. C.

η 'Οτι εξ αυτου, και δι' αυτου, και εις αυτον τα παντα.

Προς αυτου γαρ, και δι' αυτου παντα εγενετο. p. 10. C.

Παραςησαι τα σωματα υμων θυσιαν ζωσαν-την λογικην λατρείαν υμων.

P Καιτοι προσφερειν δεον αναιμακτoν θυσιαν, και την λογικην προσαγειν λατρειαν. p. 13. D.


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ATHENAGORAS. have fought with beasts at tion, 9. -virtue is a senseEphesus; what advantageth less thing: to follow pleait me, if the dead rise not? sure is the greatest good : Let us eat and drink, for to- and that ought to be the morrow we die.”

common maxim and law of all, which is admired by the voluptuous and wicked: “ Let us eat and drink, for

to-morrow we die.”', Though these last words are also in Isa. xxii. 13; it seems from the conformity of his argument, that he refers to St. Paul. N. T.

ATHENAGORAS. XII. 1 Cor. xv. 54. 66 Sor XII. It is manifest therewhen this corruptible shall fore, that, according to the have put on incorruption.” apostle, thist corruptible 2 Cor. v. 10.

and dissipated must put on must all appear before the incorruption ; that the dead judgment-seat of Christ, being raised up to life, and that every one may receive the separated, and the things done in his body, consumed parts being again according to that he has united, every one may redone, whether it be good or ceive justly the things he bad.”

has done in his body, whe

ther they be good or bad.' XIII. Gal. iv. 9. 66 How XIII. And fall down to thus' turn ye again to the the beggarly and weak eleweak and beggarly ele- ments. ments ?

These are the very words of Paul, which Athenagoras borrows, though he useth them upon a different account. N. T.


v. 1, 2,

XIV. Wherefore, “ Rebuke not an elder, but cording to the difference of intreat him as a father, and age, some we count as sons the younger men as bre- and daughters, others we

« For we

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ειτε κακόν.

9 De Resurr. p. 62. A. B. Γ 'Οταν δε το φθαρτον τοτο ενδυσηται αφθαρσιαν. κ. λ. * Ινα κομισηται έκαςος τα δια του σωματος, προς α επραξεν, ειτε αγαθον,

"Ευδηλον παντι το λειπομενον, ότι δει, κατα τον απoσoλον, το φθαρτον τουτο και διασκεδασον ενδυσασθαι αφθαρσιαν.

De Resurr. p. 61. C.

Η Εκαςος κομισηται δικαιως α δια του σωματος επραξεν, ειτε αγαθα, ειτε κακα. ibid.

Πως επιςρεφετε παλιν επι τα ασθενη και πτωχα σοιχεια.

Επι τα πτωχα και ασθενη σοιχεια καταπιπτομεν. Legat. p. 15. D. 1 P. 36. C.




« Be

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ATHENAGORAS. thren: the elder women as consider as brethren and sis. mothers, the younger as sis- ters, and the aged we reve. ters, with all purity.' rence as fathers and mothers.'

XV. 1 Tim. vi. 16. 6 Who XV. • For God is 2 to himonly has immortality, dwell- self all things, light inaccesing in Y the light which no sible, -or, according to man can approach unto.” our translation, light which

no man can approach unto.' XVI. James jii. 13. “ Who XVI. For oura excelis a wise man, and endued lence lies not in the structure with knowledge amongst of words, but in the demon

, you ? Let him shew out of a stration and doctrine of good conversation his works works.' with meekness of wisdom." XVII. James v. 7.

XVII. . For as the b hus. hold, the husbandman waiteth bandman, when he has cast for the precious fruit of the the seeds into the earth, exearth, and hath long patience pecteth the time of the harfor it, until he receive the vest,' &c. early and latter rain.”

XVIII. 2 Pet. i. 21. XVIII. Of Moses, Isaiah, “ Fore the prophecy came Jeremiah, and the other pronot in old time by the will phets, he says: “Who d acof man: but holy men spake, cording to the ecstasy of the as they were moved by the thoughts in them, the Divine Holy Ghost.”

Spirit moving them, spoke out those things which were

operated in them.' XIX. Rev. xx. 13. “ And XIX. He speaks of it as the sea gave up the dead the general opinion of chriswhich were in it; and death tians, that f at the time of the and hell delivered up the resurrection, the earth shall dead which were in them.” deliver up her dead.'

XX. There is a particular passage in Athenagoras, which we may not omit. It follows what we have transcribed at Numb. XIV. • The aged we reverence as fathers and





Φως oικων απρόσιτον.

Παντα γαρ

ο θεος εσιν αυτος αυτή» φως απροσιτον. p. 15. C.

Ου γαρ μελετη λογων, αλλ' επιδειξει και διδασκαλια εργων τα ημετερα. p. 37. Β. b. P. 37. A.

“ Ου γαρ θεληματι ανθρωπο ηνεχθη ποτε προφητεια, αλλ' υπο πνευματος αγια φερομενοι ελαλησαν οι άγιοι θεα ανθρωποι.

« Και των λοιπων προφητων, οι κατ' εκτασιν των εν αυτοις λογισμων, κινησαντος αυτες του θεια πνευματος, α ενηργουντο εξεφωνησαν. p. 9. D.

• Και εδωκεν η θαλασσα τος εν αυτη νεκρες, και ο θανατος και ο αδης εδωκαν τας εν αυτοις νεκρες.

Και αποδωσειν μεν νομιζειν την γην τες ιδιες νεκρος. p. 39. Α.

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