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mothers. It is therefore our great concern, that the bodies of those whom we call sisters, or by any other name of kindred, should be preserved chaste and unpolluted, the s Word again saying to us (or our doctrine teaching us]: “ If any one shall kiss a second time, because it pleaseth bim :" `And afterwards : “ A kiss is to be given so slightly, that it may be rather only a salutation : for if the mind be in the least polluted, it endangers our enjoyment of eternal life.' I think we need not solicitously

inquire, whence Athenagoras had these observations. There is no necessity of supposing he ascribes thein to Christ, or that he took them out of any copies of our gospels, or from any apocryphal gospel. They may be as well cited from some christian writer, whom Athenagoras thought to have expressed bimself upon this subject agreeably to the strict doctrine of Christ delivered in the gospels.

Mr. Jones h has some remarks upon this passage.

XXI. I have now represented very particularly the testimony which Athenagoras gives to the books of the New Testainent; but all these passages are not equally material. It is plain, he owned the gospels of St. Matthew and St. John: there do not appear so clear references to those of St. Mark and St Luke. Here are also plain references or allusions to the epistle to the Romans, and the first to the Corinthians: words of which last are expressly cited by him as the apostle's, meaning Paul: and there is a probable allusion to the second epistle to the Corinthians, and the epistle to the Galatians. The passages here alleged by me concerning the Acts of the Apostles, the first to Timothy, the epistle of St. James, the second of St. Peter, and the book of the Revelation, are doubtful, and are only proposed to the reader's consideration. And beside these, he has a passage, not found in any book of the New Testament, which might at first sight seem to be taken out of some book of authority with him; but notwithstanding, it may be as well supposed the passage of some christian writing, esteemed by him only as an orthodox pious work.

Though we meet with no references in Athenagoras to the other books of the New Testament, they may have been all, or most of them, received by him as books of authority. It is not to be expected, that, in two such pieces as these, we should find references to all the books esteemed sacred by the author.

8 Παλιν ημιν λεγοντος το λογα" Εαν τις δια τουτο εκ δευτερο καταφιληση, ότι ηρεσεν αυτω" και επιφεροντος· ετως ουν ακριβωσασθαι το φιλημα μαλλον δε προσκυνημα δει, ώς, ειπε μικρον τη διανοια παραθολωθειη, εξω ήμας της αιωνια τιθεντος ζωης. p. 36. C. D.

h New and Full Method of settling the canonical Authority of the New Testament, Vol. I. p. 551.

CHAP. XIX.

MILTIADES.

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MILTIADES flourished, according to Cave,a in the beginning of the reign of Commodus about the year 180: from whom Du Pinb does not much differ, who says he flourished under the emperor Commodus. We have no certain marks of his age. It is very probable, bis Apology (of which we shall speak presently) was written in the latter part of the reign of M. Antoninus, or the beginning of that of Commodus. I proceed to the testimonies of the ancients.

Miltiades is called by Tertulliano the sophist of the churches: by which I see no reason to understand him to say, that Miltiades was a rhetorician, and taught that science, but only that he was a learned and elegant christian writer. Tertullian places Miltiades between Justin Martyr and Irenæus; which affords a very good hint for settling his time in general, though not exactly. And it is upon the ground of this passage chiefly, that Tillemont d concludes, Miltiades bad appeared in the world before the middle of the second century, and died in the time of Commodus.

Eusebiuse having mentioned a treatise of Miltiades, written against the Montanists, with this title, · That it does not become prophets to speak in ecstasy,' adds; • Andi beside • that work, Miltiades has left us other monuments of his • zeal for the divine oracles, as well in his writings against • the Gentiles as against the Jews : for he wrote against • both distinctly in two treatises. Moreover 5 he made an a Hist. Lit.

b Bibl. Miltiades. . Ut Justinus Philosophus et Martyr, ut Miltiades Ecclesiarum Sophista, ut Irenæus, &c. Advers. Valent. cap. v. d Mem. E. T. 3. P. 1. Miltiade.

e H. E. I. v. c. 17. Και αλλας ημιν της ιδιας περι τα θεια λογια σπεδης μνημας καταλελοιπεν. Ibid.

8 Ετι δε και προς τας κοσμικές αρχοντας, υπερ ης μετηει φιλοσοφιας, πεποιηκεναι απολογιαν. Ιbid.

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Apology to the princes of this world for the philosophy • which he followed :' that is, for the christian religion.

Learned men are not agreed about the meaning of the words. princes of this world.' Valesius," who supposes the Apology was written in the time of Commodus, when there was but one emperor, understands them of the governors of provinces; which meaning the words will well bear. Others i understand thereby the Roman emperors, which they suppose to have been either M. Antoninus and Lucius, or M. Antoninus and his son Commodus.

St. Jerom, in his book of k Illustrious Men, having recited the titles of this writer's works, says, he flourished in the time of M. Antoninus Commodus.

We have nothing to observe at present upon these works, except what Eusebius says of the monuments of bis zeal for the divine oracles' in his book against both Jews and Gentiles. It is very likely here were many valuable testimonies concerning the books of the New as well as the Old Testament; but we can only lament our loss of them. However, it may not be improper to add another passage

, of St. Jerom: where having observed, that Miltiades' wrote an excellent book against the Gentiles;' he proceeds to mention Hippolytus, Africanus, and divers other christian writers, and then concludes : “ The writings of all these

persons are so full of passages of the philosophers and • their sentiments, that it is not easy to say, which ought to • be most admired in them; whether their polite literature, • or their knowledge of the scriptures.'

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h Vid. Annot. ad Eus. loc.

i Vid. Dodweli, Diss. Iren. iv. sect. 38.

k Cap. 39. Scripsit et Miltiades contra Gentes volumen egregium- Qui omnes in tantum philosophorum doctrinis atque sententiis suos referciunt libros, ut nescias, quid in illis primum admirari debeas, eruditionem seculi, an scientiam scripturarum. Ad magnum Orat. Ep. 83. al. 84.

203

CHAP. XX.

THEOPHILUS OF ANTIOCH.

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THEOPHILUS, bishop of Antioch, was originally a heathen, as hea has informed us himself. His works show him to have been well acquainted with the Greek learning. He succeeded Eros in b the eighth year of Marcus Antoninus, of our Lord 168.

There is nothing remaining that can be depended on as his, beside three books to Autolycus, a learned and studious heathen, who had provoked Theopbilus by frequent discourses, if not also by writing, to make a defence of the christian religion. These books were not finished, as is evident from a divers passages of them, until after the death of the fore-mentioned emperor. It is the general opinion, that they were written by Theophilus a little before his own death, in the beginning of the reign of Commodus, A. D. 181.

Dodwellî indeed was willing to suppose that Theophilus, author of these books to Autolycus, was another Theophilus, different from the sixth bishop of Antioch, and that he wrote these books in the reign of Severus about the year 203. But this supposition has been well confuted by several s learned men: and every one may perceive, how contrary it is to the ancient testimonies concerning this bishop of Antioch; which I shall now put down, because they will not only determine his age, but also give us an account of his works, and his respect for the writings of the New Testament. Eusebius says, “ Theophilus was the sixth bishop of

h • Antioch after the apostles.' His order is this: Euodius, Ignatius, Heros, Cornelius, Eros, Theophilus.

In another i place, . There are,' says Eusebius, three • books of Theophilus bishop of Antioch to Autolycus, containing the elements of religion. There is another book of a Ad Autol. L. i. p. 78. C. D. Paris.

b Vid. Euseb. Chron. © Ad Autol. I. i. p. 09. A. B. L. ii. p. 116. C. D. L. iii. p. 119. A. B. 138. D. d P. 137, 138.

e Vid. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. v. p. 91, 92.

f Vid. Pearson, Op. Post. p. 11, 12. 8 Tillemont, Memoires, T. 3. P. 1. Theophile. Not. 2. . Basnage, Ann. 188. sect. 5, 6. Cave, Hist. Lit. P. 2. p. 31.

h H. E. l. iv, c. 20. · Ibid. cap. 24.

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his against the heresy of Hermogenes, ink which he has * made use of testimonies from John's Apocalypse. There • are also other books of his concerning the rudiments of

our religion.' He likewise mentions another book of his against Marcion, which he says is well written, and was then extant, as well as the other before mentioned.

St. Jerom in bis? book of Illustrious Men, agreeably to Eusebius, says: • Theophilus, the sixth bishop of the • church of Antioch, in the reign of Marcus Antoninus, com

posed a book against Marcion, which is still extant. His • three volumes to Autolycus are also in being, and one • book against the heresy of Hermogenes, and other short

and elegant treatises conducive to the edification of the • church. I havé m

read some

commentaries upon the 'gospel, and the Proverbs of Solomon, which go under bis

name; but they do not appear to me to answer the style • and elegance of the fore-mentioned writings.'

In his preface" to St. Matthew, Jerom says again: 'I • have also read the commentaries of Theophilus bishop of • Antioch.'

In another place: • Theophilus ° the seventh bishop of the • church of Antioch after Peter, who p collecting into one • work the words of the four evangelists, speaks thus in his • Commentaries upon this parable: (Luke xvi, 1–14:] “ The rich man who had a steward is God Almighty, than

whom no one is richer. His steward is Paul, who learned ' the holy scriptures at the feet of Gamaliel, and had

received the law of God to manage; who, when he had began to persecute, bind, kill those that believed in

Christ, and to waste all his Lord's substance, was called to • an account by the Lord : “ Saul, Saul, why persecutest • thou me? It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks, Acts xxii. 3. ix. 4. I shall not transcribe any more of this

Εν εκ της αποκαλυψεως Ιωαννα κεχρηται μαρτυριαις. | Cap. 25.

Legi sub nomine ejus in evangelium, et in proverbia Salomonis commentarios; qui mihi cum superiorum voluminum elegantià et phrasi non videntur congruere.

n Et Theophili Antiochenæ urbis episcopi commentarios. Prol. in Comm. sup. Matth. • Here he counts Peter for the first bishop.

-Qui quatuor evangelistarum in unum opus dicta compingens ingenii sui nobis monumenta dimisit, hæc super hac parabolá in suis commentariis est locutus : Dives, qui habebat villicum, sive dispensatorem, Deus omnipotens est, quo nihil ditius. Hujus dispensator est Paulus, qui ad pedes Gamalielis sacras literas didicit, et legem Dei susceperat dispensandam. Qui quum cæpisset credentes in Christo persequi, ligare, occidere, et omnem domini sui dissipare substantiam, correptus a Domino est : Saüle, Saüie, quid me persequeris?" Durum est tibi contra stimulum calcitrare. Hieron. Ep. 151. Algasiæ. Qu. vi.

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