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passage: only it ought to be observed, that afterwards some words of Philip. iii. 8, are there adapted, and put into the mouth of Paul.

There are still remaining short 9 commentaries,' or allegories, upon the four holy gospels,' in four books, which

go

under the name of our Theophilus; but they are now allowed to? be the work of a much later writer. And whether those commentaries, which St. Jerom quotes, were really composed by Theophilus may be doubted; since they were unknown to Eusebius, and were observed by Jerom to differ in style and expression from his other works. However, if they are not his, they were the work of some anonymous ancient.

I now proceed to represent the quotations and allusions to the books of the New Testament, wbich are in his remaining, and undoubtedly genuine, books to Autolycus.

I. Having recited many precepts of piety and virtue from the Old Testament, he says: Buts the evangelic voice

. teaches chastity in yet greater perfection : “ Whosoever looks on another man's wife, to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart. And whosoever putteth away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery.”. But the gospel says: “ Love your enemies, and pray for them that despitefully use you.

For if

ye

love them that love you, what reward have ye? Even robbers and publicans do the same." And it teaches those that do good not to boast : For, says he, “ Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doth," ' Matt. v. 28, 32, 44, 46; vi. 3. N. T.

TheoPHILUS. II. Luke xviii. 27. “ And II. 'For the things' which he said : The things which with men are impossible, are are impossible with men, are possible with God. possible with God.”

The same sense is in Matt. xix. 26, Mark x. 27. But the words of Theophilus agree best with St. Luke. N. T.

THEOPHILUS. III. Luke xx.

35, 36.

10. · For God has given “ But they which shall be us a law and holy precepts: accounted worthy to obtain which he that does may be 9 Apud Biblioth. Maxim. Patr. Lugd. T. ii. p. 166, &c.

Vid. Tillem. ubi supr. Not. 1. Fabr. Bib. Gr. Vol. v. p. 93, 94 . 5 Η δε ευαγγελιος φωνη επιτατικώτερον διδασκει περι αγνειας, λεγεσαLib. iii. p. 126. A.

Το δε ευαγγελιoν, αγαπατε, φησι, τ8ς εχθρες. Ιbid. Β. C.

• Τα αδυνατα παρα ανθρωποις, δυνατα εςι παρα τω θεώ.

* Τα γαρ παρα ανθρωπους αδυνατα, δυνατα εσι παρα θειο. L. ii. p. 92. Β.

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N. T.

THEOPHILUS. that world, and the resur- saved, and obtaining a re

w rection from the dead, nei- surrection may inherit incorther marry, nor are given in ruption.' marriage. Neither can they It seems to me somewhat die any more : for they are likely, that he alludes to the equal to the angels, and are words of St. Luke in the the children of God, being opposite column. the children of the resurrection.”

IV. Luke xxiv. 47. “ And * IV. That this might be a that repentance and remis- sign, that y men should resion of sins should

be

ceive repentance and remispreached in his name.” sion of sins through water.'

-See hereafter Numb.

XXIV. V. * These things the holy scriptures teach us, and all who were moved by the Holy Spirit, among whom John says: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God :” showing, that at the first, God was alone, and in him was the Word. Then he says: 6 And the Word was God. All things were made by him, and without him

was not any thing made, John i. 1, 3. VI. Theophilus says: . The prophets have taught us to abstain from abominable idolatry and adultery, and murder, fornication, theft, covetousness, swearing, lying, anger, and all lasciviousness and impurity: and that whatever things a man would not have done to himself, those neither should he do to another.'

I should not have put down this passage here, if Mill b had not supposed, that in this place Theophilus refers to Acts xv. 20, which, it seems, in some manuscripts and some ancient fathers, is read with an additional clause to this purpose : . But that we write to thein to abstain from pol. lutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things

* Και της ανασασεως τυχων κληρονομησαι την αφθαρσιαν. Ρ. 104. A. L, ii. και -Και κηρυχθηναι-μετανοιαν και αφεσιν αμαρτιων.

Σ' Οπως ή και τετο εις δειγμα το μελλειν λαμβανειν τας ανθρωπος μετανοιαν και αφεσιν αμαρτιων δια υδατος. κ. λ. L. ii. p. 95. Β.

2 όθεν διδασκασιν ημας αι αγιαι γραφαι, και παντες οι πνευματοφοροι, εξ ών Ιωαννης λεγει εν αρχή ην ο λογος και ο λογος ην προς τον θεον δεικνυς

ó ότι εν πρωτοις μονος ην ο θεος, και εν αυτώ ο λογος επειτα λεγει" κ. λ. P. 100. C.

2 Οι και εδιδαξαν απεχεσθαι απο της αθεμιτ8 ειδωλολατρειας, και μοιχειας, και φονο, πορνειας, κλοπης, φιλαργυριας, όρκο, ψευδες, οργης, και πασης ασελγειας, και ακαθαρσιας και παντα όσα αν μη βελεται ανθρωπος εαυτο γινεσθαι, ίνα μηδε αλλη ποιη. L. ii. p. 110. C.

b Fallor 'an huc respexerit Theophilus Antiochenus, Ilpoontai, inquit, εδιδαξαν απεχεσθαι, κ. λ. Mill. Ν. Τ. ad Acts Χν. 20.

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strangled, and from blood; and that " whatever things they would not have done to themselves, they do not do to others. Mill allows, (and in my opinion justly,) that this last clause is an interpolation. But admitting it to be genuine, there could be, I think, but slender ground for supposing, that Theophilus referred to this text; the like precept being recorded in some other texts of the New Testament, and represented there as the doctrine, or substance of the law and the prophets, (agreeably to what Theophilus here writes,) much more distinctly than in this place of the Acts: as Matt. vii. 12. See likewise xxii. 40, and Luke vi, 31. And the foregoing part of the passage of Theophilus has but little agreement with the 20th verse of the xvth chapter of the Acts, as in our copies. But all this is submitted to the consideration of others.

I would only add, that two of the most remarkable expressions of this passage of Theophilus are found in 1 Pet. iv. 3, “ For the time past

of our life

may

suffice wrought the will of the Gentiles: when we walked in d lasciviousness, lusts—and abominable idolatries.

VII. He says likewise: • Fore God, the father and former of all things, has not forsaken the human nature, but gave the law and sent the holy prophets for to declare and show the human kind, that every one of us might awake and acknowledge, that there is one God.'

These words immediately precede the passage last transcribed; and they are likewise preceded by the words which will be found at Numb. XXVIII. They are here put down, that it may be considered, whether there be in them any reference to Acts xiv, 15, 16, 17, “_and preach unto you,

that
ye

should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein. Who in times past suffered all

. nations to walk in their own ways. Nevertheless he left not himself without witness, in that he did good, and gave us rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons or to Acts xvii. 27, “ That they should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after him, and find him, though he be not far from

every one of us."

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Και όσα αν μη θελωσιν εαυτοις γινεσθαι, έτεροις μη πoιεν. Vid. Mill, ibid.

Εν ασελγειαις,- -και αθεμιταις ειδωλολατρειαις. ε ο μεν τοι γε θεος, και πατηρ και κτισης των όλων, εγκατελιπε την ανθρωποτητα, αλλα εδωκεν νομον, και επεμψε προφητας άγιες, προς το καταγγειλαι και δειξαι το γενος των ανθρωπων, εις το ένα εκασον ημων ανανηψαι, και επιγνωναι, ότι εις εσι θεος. p 10. C

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TAEOPHILUS. VIII. Acts xvii. 25. “ Nei- vill. He says of God, that ther is worshipped with men's he needeth nothing. But

& hands, as though î he needed this is so obvious a character any thing.”

of the Creator, that I think it 28. “ For in him we live, cannot be hence concluded and move,

and have our be- that he referred to Paul's ing.”

discourse at Athens. He likewise says of God, that

• he is his own place.' IX. Rom. ij. 6, 7, 8, 9. IX. - He will h search out “ Who will render to every all things, and judge justly, man according to his deeds. rendering to all according to To them who by patient con

the desert of their actions. tinuance in well-doing seek To them that by patient confor glory, and honour, and tinuance in well doing seek immortality, eternal life: for immortality he will give But unto them that are con- eternal life, joy, peace, rest, tentious, and do not obey and many good things which the truth, but obey unright- neither eye hath seen, nor cousness, indignation and ear heard, nor have entered wrath, tribulation and an- into the heart of man. But guish, upon every soul of to the unbelieving, and the man that doth evil.”

despisers, and them that obey not the truth, but obey unrighteousness, shall be wrath and indignation, tribulation, and anguish. And in a word, eternal fire shall be

the portion of such.' X. Rom. xiii. 7, 8. “ Ren- X. And it [the divine der therefore to all their word] teachethi us to render dues, tribute to whom tri- to all all things: honour to bute is due, custom to whom whom honour, fear to whom custoin, fear to whom fear, fear, tribute to whom tribute; honour to whom honour. to owe no man any thing, Owe no man any thing, but but only to love all men.' to love one another."

These, with many other passages, afford full proof, that the ancient christian writers often quoted, or alluded to, texts of the N. T. by memory, without looking into the books themselves.

* Προσδεομενος τινος.

8 Αλλ' αυτος εαυτο τοπος ων και ανενδεης ων, και υπερεχων προ των αιώνων, ηθελησεν ανθρωπον ποιησαι η γνωσθη --- γαρ γενητος και προσδεης εσιν ώ δε αγενητος αδενος προσδειται. L. ii. p. 88. B. L. ii. p. 79. B. C.

i L. iii. p. 126. C.

k

66 For

error, and

n

There are, beside these, some other allusions to words of the epistle to the Romans; but here is enough to show that epistle was well known to Theophilus. N. T.

THEOPHILUS. XI. 1 Cor. ii. 7.

XI. · Whence it is maniwe speak the wisdom of God fest, that all others are in in a mystery, even the hid.

that christians den wisdom, which God or- only have attained to the dained before the world to truth. For we are taught our glory. 8. Which none of the Holy Spirit who spoke of the princes of this world in the holy prophets, and knew. *10. But God has foretold all things. Itm rerevealed them unto us by his mains therefore for you with Spirit :

for the Spirit a good disposition to search searcheth all things, yea, the the things of God, I mean deep things of God. 11. the things spoken by the

-even so the things of prophets, that comparing the God knoweth no man, but things said by you, [perhaps the Spirit of God."

it should be us,] and by others, you may find the

truth.' XII. 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10, 11. XII. • Let me

see there“ Be not deceived: neither fore, whether you are not an fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterer, or a fornicator, or adulterers, nor effeminate, a thief, or an extortioner, nor abusers of themselves or one that abuseth himself with mankind. Nor thieves, with mankind, or a reviler, nor covetous, nor drunkards, -For to those who do nor revilers, nor extortioners, such things God manifests shall inherit the kingdom of not himself, unless they first God. And such were some of purify themselves from every you: but ye are washed," &c. defilement.'

. XIII. 1 Cor. xv. 36, 37. XIII. • Is there not a re“ – That which thou sowest surrection of seeds and fruits, is not quickened, except it and that for the use of men ? die. And that which thou For P instance, a grain of sowest, thou sowest not that wheat, or of other seeds, body that shall be, but o bare when it is cast into the earth,

k Thus, when Theophilus tells Autolycus, that if he does not believe there will be a resurrection, till he sees it, . his faith will be counted for unbelief ;' και η πισις σε εις απισιαν λογισθησεται, p. 74. C; it cannot be doubted, but he alludes to St. Paul's argument and words, Rom. iv. 3, 5.

Το γαρ πνευμα παντα ερευνα, και τα βαθη το θεα ––ούτω και τα τα θεο εδεις ουδεν. κ. λ.

m Και το λοιπον εσω σοι φιλοφρονων ερευναν τα τε θε8. L. ii. p. 110. Α.

n L. i. p. 70. C. D. Αλλα γυμνoν κοκκον, ει τυχοι, σιτά, η τινος των λοιπων. Ρ Ει γαρ τυχοι ειπειν κοκκος σιτα, η των λοιπων σπερματων, επαν βληθη εις VOL. II.

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