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was owned by him, is undoubted from Eusebius; and our extracts afford a passage which seems to contain an allusion to it.
XXXIII. Nothing more remains, but that we observe some general titles and forms of quotation used by Theophilus, and the respect he has expressed for the scriptures of the New Testament.
In the passage at Numb. I. after he had recited many precepts of virtue and piety out of the books of the old Testament, he says: But the evangelic voice teaches
• chastity in yet greater perfection.' And afterwards, · But the gospel says: “ Love your enemies.” - At Numb. V. he reckons the gospel of John among the holy scriptures, and John with those who were “moved by the Holy Spirit.' At Numb. XXII. quoting a precept out of the epistses of Paul, he says: The Divine Word commands. And in
• another passage, not yet taken notice of, he says: “ Moreover, y concerning the righteousness which the law teaches, the like things are to be found also in the prophets, and the gospels, because that all being inspired spoke by one and the same Spirit of God.' And this passage may very much dispose us to think, he had before him the four gospels. Nor will any one imagine it likely, that in these books to Autolycus a heathen, we should have express references to all the writings which were esteemed sacred, and of authority, by Theophilus.
PANTANUS flourished, according to Cave, about the year 181; which is not said altogether without reason, though St. Jerom 6 says, he lived to the time of Caracalla,
b who did not begin his reign after his father's death till 211. His native country is uncertain. Some have supposed him a Jew, others a Sicilian. Fabricius“ says, he was an
Y Eτι μην και περι δικαιοσυνης, ής ο νομος ειρηκεν, ακολgθα εύρισκεται και τα των προφητων, και των ευαγγελιων, δια το τες παντας πνευματοφορος ένι πνευματι θες λελαληκεναι. L. iii. p. 124, 125. a Hist. Lit.
b De Vir. Ill. cap. 36. c Bibl. Gr. Tom. v. p. 193.
Athenian : relying, I suppose, upon the authority of Philip Sidetes. He is generally thought to be one of the masters of Clement d of Alexandria, of whom he speaks with great respect in his Stromata : and, as e Eusebius assures us, he expressly called Pantænus his master in his Institutions. He is also inentioned with great respect by Alexander bishop of Jerusalem, in a fragment of a letter to Origen, preserved by Eusebius: in which he particularly says, Pantænus was the person who brought him into acquaintance with Origen : which also is another proof, that Pantænus did not die before the beginning of the third century. Origen 8 justifieth himself in the study of heathen learning by the example of Pantænus, who, he says, was a very useful person, and well furnished with that part of knowledge. Photiusb speaks of him, as a hearer of some of those who had seen the apostles, and even of some of the apostles themselves; which last is admitted by very few moderns : nor does Photius speak positively in this matter.
The time, character, and employments of this great man will appear farther in the testimonies of Eusebius and Jerom,
Eusebius i having observed, that Julian received the bishopric of the church of Alexandria in the first year of Commodus, proceeds: • At that time there presided in the • school of the faithful at that place a man highly celebrated
on account of his learning, by name Pantænus. For • there had been from ancient time erected among them a • school of sacred learning, which remains to this day: and
we have understood, that it has been wont to be furnished • with men eminent for their eloquence and the study of • divine things. And,k it is said, the forementioned person • excelled others of that time, having been brought up in * the principles of the Stoic philosophy: It is said, that he
. ' • showed such ardour of affection for the divine word, as to • be nominated also a preacher of the gospel of Christ to • the nations of the East, and to have gone as far as India • [or Ethiopia]. For there were yet at that time many • evangelists of the word animated with a divine zeal of • imitating the apostles, by contributing to the enlargement • of the gospel, and building up of the church; of whom • Pantænus also was one, who is m said to have gone to the
d Strom. I. 1. p. 274. D. Conf. Eus. H. E. I. v. cap. xi. in. e Eus, ibid.
i L. vi. cap. 14.
216. C. 8 Ap. Eus. H. E. I. vi. cap. 19. p. 221. B. + Cod. 118. p. 297. ver. 30.
i H, E. 1. v. cap. 9, 10.
* Λογος εχει.
· Indians; where it is commonly said he found
of Matthew, which before his arrival had been des 'to some in that country, who had the knowledge of • Christ: to whom Bartholomnew, one of the apostles, is • said to have preached, and to have left with them that
writing of Matthew in Hebrew letters, and that it was preserved among them to that time. This Pantanus
therefore, for his many excellent performances, was at last o * made president of the school of Alexandria, where he set * forth the treasures of the divine principles both by word • of mouth and by his writings.'
Certainly Eusebius is here inaccurate in saying, that Pantænus was at last made president of that school, when he had before expressly said, he presided in it in the beginning of the reign of Commodus : not to insist farther, that St. Clement of Alexandria P succeeded Pantænus in that school about the year 190, and was succeeded by 9 Origen. It will be no vindication of Eusebius to say, there might be two schools at Alexandria, and that Pantænus was master of one of them. If Eusebius thought so, he should have said it. But let there be but one, or ever so many, it is improper to say, he was at last made president or master of the school, when he had been so, according to his own account, long before. However, Eusebius seems to have thought, he was for some time after his return from Ethiopia employed in the same office he had before he went thither.
What Jerom says of this ancient christian is to this purpose : • Pantænus, a philosopher of the Stoic sect, according to an ancient custom of the city of Alexandria, where from the time of the evangelist Mark there had * been always ecclesiastical masters, was a man of so great * prudence and learning, both in the divine scripture and • secular literature, that, at the request of ambassadors · from India, he was sent into that country by Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, where he found that Bartholomew,s
* Ενθα λογος ευρειν αυτον, προφθασαν την αυτ8 παράσιαν, το Ματθαιον ευαγγελιoν παρα τισιν αυτοθι τον Χριςον επεγνωκοσιν, οίς Βαρθολομαιον των αποσολων ενα κηρύξαι αυτοις τε Εβραιων γραμμασι την τε Ματθαιο καταλειψαι γραφην' ήν και σωζεσθαι ας τον δηλομενον χρονον.
Tε κατ' Αλεξανδρειαν τελευτων ηγειται διδασκαλια. p Eus. Hist. I. vi. cap. 6.
9 Eus. ibid. cap. 3. De Vir. Ill. cap. 36.
$ Ubi reperit, Bartholomæum de duodecim apostolis, adventum Domini nostri Jesu Christi juxta Matthæi evangelium prædicàsse, quod Hebraïcis literis scriptum, revertens Alexandriam secum detulit. Hujus multi quidem in sanctam scripturam extant commentarii, sed magis vivá voce ecclesiis profuit. De Vir. Ill. cap. 36.
de twelve apostles, had preached the coming of
Td Jesus Christ, according to the gospel of Matther, wbich he brought back with him to Alexandria, • written in Hebrew letters. There are also extant many • commentaries of this person upon the holy scripture ; but • he was more profitable to the churches by his discourses. • He taught under the reign of Severus, and Antoninus 6 called Caracalla.'
I have placed Pantænus at the year 192, because it is the soonest that we can suppose him returned from Ethiopia.
St. Jerom says, the school at Alexandria had been in being from the time of St. Mark : and Eusebius, from ancient time. Pantænus, however, is the first inaster of it of which there is any mention made in antiquity, unless we admit the account given by Philip Sidetes, of which we havet spoken before, who says, Athenagoras had this
; office. But it is somewhat strange, that no notice should be taken of this by Clement, nor Origen, nor Eusebius. Jerom says,
• there were extant commentaries of Pantanus upon the scripture:' but he gives no particular account of them, and says, he was more profitable by his discourses than his writings. Nor has Eusebius mentioned the title of any work of Pantænus. There is nothing now remaining of him, except a short passage in the Ecloga, ascribed to u Clement of Alexandria, containing a rule for the better understanding the style of the prophets. It might be taken out of a commentary upon the nineteenth psalm.
Eusebius mentions no authority for what he relates of Pantænus, and throughout his account mixes such phrases as these, . it is said,' or ó reported,' and the like. It is said, Bartholomew had preached the gospel before in India, and that he found the gospel of Matthew there in Hebrew. St. Jerom adds, that he brought it home with him to Alexandria, without any ground for it, so far as appears: and, as Richard Simon thinks, mistaking the words of Eusebius, who only says, that the christians of Ethiopia had preserved that Hebrew gospel till the arrival of Pantænus. And farther the same critic w says, that if this story of Eusebius be true, these first christians of Ethiopia were
Ch. xviii, p. 193.
u P. 808. Histoire Crit. du Texte du N. T. ch. iv. p. 41. w Ibid. See likewise Du Pin, who doubts of the truth of this relation, Biblioth. des Auteurs Ecc. Tom. i. Pantænus, et Response aux Remarques sur la Bibliotheque, &c. ch. vii. at the end of the sixth century.
descended from the Jews, and spake the same language with them that lived in Judea.
I think indeed, this story is of no great importance, it not being supported by the authority of any ancient writer of that time; though it could not be quite omitted here.
And if any should be therefore of opinion, that I have been too long in my account of Pantænus, I would observe, that, as I was obliged to mention him, it could not be amiss to relate his history bere at length. It is true, it affords not much concerning this part of our design; but it is very suitable to the general design of this work, the
Credibility of the Gospel History,' to show the merit of the professors of christianity on account of learning, diligence, zeal, remarkable integrity, or any other laudable qualifications. And though we need some particular information concerning the journey into Ethiopia, and the gospel which Pantænus is said to have found there, it cannot be doubted but he was president of the catechetical school of Alexandria, and a man of eminent learning. This is evident from the testimonies here alleged, several of which have no dependence at all upon this story about the Hebrew gospel.