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the consummation of the world he shall be in the congregation of the Gentiles, and among their princes, as a musical song in the mouth of all. And in the holy books he shall be written, both his work and his word ; and he shall be the elect of God for ever. And on his account it was that Jacob, my father, instructed me, saying, he shall fill up the defects of thy tribe.'

Every one perceives that the person here spoken of is the apostle Paul: and I should think that every one might perceive also, that this is not a real genuine prophecy, but an allusion, or representation of matters of fact already done, artfully put into the form of a prediction ; with a design, probably, to gain some people, whom the author had in his eye, to acknowledge the christian religion, and the authority of Paul in particular. But few remarks may be of use.

1.) The writer alludes to Gen. xlix. 27. which, according to the Septuagint Version, is thus : " Benjamin ravening wolf, which devours in the morning still, and till the evening he gives food. This prophecy is applied to St. Paul" by Tertullian, in two places of his remaining works, as has been observed by Grabe. I do not mention this as an argument that the book we are considering, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs,' was not written till after the time of Tertullian; but only as a proof that this was a christian interpretation of the prophecy in Genesis. It may have been thought of by many before Tertullian. It was natural enough for christians to understand this text of Paul, who was of the tribe of Benjamin ; who in the former part of his life, and in the early days of christianity, while it yet began to dawn upon mankind, fiercely persecuted the church of God, and afterwards became a diligent and successful labourer in confirming and increasing it.

It will not be disagreeable to the reader to see, with

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1 Και εν βιβλοις ταις αγιαις εσαι αναγραφομενος, και το εργον, και ο λογος αυτου. Και εσαι εκλεκτος θεο εως του αιωνος.

Βενιαμιν λυκος αρπαξ το πρωϊνον εδεται ετι, και εις το εσπερας διδωσι τροφην.

* Inter illas figuras, et propheticas super filios suos benedictiones, Jacob cum ad Benjamin direxisset : Benjamin, inquit, lupus rapax ad matutinum comedet adhuc, et ad vesperam dabit escam. Ex tribu enim Benjamin oriturum Paulum providebat, lupum rapacem ad matutinum comedentem, id est, prima ætate vastaturum pecora Domini, ut persecutorem ecclesiarum; dehinc ad vesperam escam daturum, id est, devergente jam ætate oves Christi educaturum, ut doctorem nationum. Adv. Marcion. I. v. c. 1. Vid. et Scorpiace, c. 13. initio.

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out the trouble of looking for them, a few passages of ancient christian writers, who apply that text of Genesis to St Paul. I therefore put in the margin one passage of Origen, and another ofr Theodoret, and refer to a third in 9 Augustine; all which are very much to our purpose.

2.) It is somewhat doubtful, what the author means by those expressions: “He shall be in the congregation of the Gentiles, and among their princes, as a musical

a song in the mouth of all.' If hereby he intends Gentile princes that were become christian, it would afford a strong argument that this book was not composed before the third or fourth century. But herein may be only a reference to St. Paul's appearance before Felix and Festus, and other Gentile rulers, and his discourses in their presence; which are not only recorded in the Acts, as matters of fact, but were also foretold by the Lord to Ananias, in this manner : 66 For he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel,” Acts ix. 15.

3.) When it is said, ' And in the holy books he shall be written, both his work, and his word;' there is a plain reference to the Acts of the Apostles, in which are recorded Paul's actions for and against the christian religion, and his discourses and preaching in several places; as also to his epistles, all which are parts of the holy scriptures. But the author has not given sufficient hints to satisfy us, how many epistles of this apostle he received.

36. Issachar, sect. 7. I am a hundred and twenty-two years of age, and I never was conscious of any sin unto death in me.' See 1 John v. 16, 17.

I shall transcribe here part of a fine passage in the Testament of Gad, sect. 4, which bears a reference like

• Benjamin ille nunquam fuit lupus rapax. Benjamin ille nunquam ad vesperam dedit escam. Hebræus ex Hebræis, juxta legem pharisæus, circumcisus octavo die, Benjamin prædicabatur, lupus rapax ad matutinum comedens, quando juvenis fuit: et in vesperam dans escam, quando credens spiritalem præbuit cibum a se ecclesiis institutis. Orig. in Ezech. Hom. iv. T. ii. p. 731. A. B.

P Eιδεναι δε χρη, ώς τινες εις τον θεσπεσιον Παυλον τηνδε την προρρησιν ειλκυσαν λυκος γαρ δικην ελυμαινετο την εκκλησιαν κατα τας οικος εισπορευομενος ύσερονδε την πνευματικην τροφην τη οικουμενη διεδωκε. Theod. in Gen. Qu. cx. opp. T. i. p. 77. B. 9 Vid. Aug. Serm. 279. Tom. v. ed. Bened. et passim.

Pauli epistolæ vero et Lucæ Acta Apostolorum a Benjamin hisce indigitantur verbis : Et in libris sacris erit inscriptus, et opus et sermo ejus : opus quidem in Actis Apostolorum, sermo autem et in his, et in ipsius Pauli epistolis. Grabe, Spic. T. i. p. 140.

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wise to some things in the first epistle of St. John. For hatred co-operates to murder: and when any do well, and are in prosperity, and he either bears it or sees it, he is grieved. For, as love would revive those that are dead, and recall them back that are under the sentence of death ; so would hatred slay those that are alive, and would not have them that have committed a small offence to live any longer.—But the spirit of love, by long suffering, co-operates with the law of God to the salvation of men.

37. Levi, sect. 18. · For he shall open the gates of paradise, and shall stop the threatening sword that was placed against Adam : and shall give to his holy ones to eat of the tree of life, and the Spirit of holiness shall be upon

them.' See Rev. ii. 7. 38. Josepb, sect. 19, acquaints his sons with a dream which he had : “ And I saw, says he, that a virgin u was born of Judah, that had on a fine linen garment, and from her proceeded a spotless Lamb. And on its left hand there was a lion, and all the wild beasts ran against him, and the Lamb overcame them and destroyed them, till they were utterly trodden down. And in him did angels, and men, and all the earth rejoice. These things shall be fulfilled in their season, in the last days. Rev. xvii. 14.

39. Dan, sect. 5. • And to them that call upon him shall he give eternal peace. And the righteous shall rejoice in the New Jerusalem, which shall be for the glory of God for ever. And Jerusalem shall no more undergo desolation, nor shall Israel be carried away captive; for the Lord shall be in the midst of her, conversing with men; and the holy one of Israel shall reign over them in humility and poverty. And he that believeth in him shall reign in truth, in the heavens.' It is probable that here is a reference to Rev. xxi. 2–4, and other parts of that book.

40. This writer is justly alleged by' Henry Wharton, as delivering his opinion, and the sentiment of christians in his time, that the holy scriptures should be read by all sorts of men. • And now, my sons,' såys Levi, sect. 13, I charge you to fear the Lord your God out of your whole heart, and walk in simplicity of heart, according to all his law. Dow you also teach your children learn

Και δωσει τοις άγιοις φαγειν εκ του ξυλο της ζωης. t Και ειδον, ότι εκ του Ιουδα εγενηθη παρθενος,- -και εξ αυτης προηλθεν αμνος αμωμος, κ. λ.

u Grabe has no doubt, but that hereby is intended the nativity of the Messiah of a virgin mother. Hæc nativitatem Messiæ ex virgine spectare quilibet videt, Spicileg. T. i. p. 361. " Ubi supra, p. 347.

Διδαξατε δε και υμεις τα τεκνα

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ing, that they may have understanding in all their life, reading continually the law of God.'

41. Thus this author, in an indirect manner, and a pretended prophetical style, bears a large testimony to the christian religion; to the facts, principles, and books of the New Testament. He speaks of the nativity of Christ, the meekness and unblamableness of his life, his crucifixion at the instigation of the Jewish priests, the wonderful concomitants of his death, his resurrection, and ascension. He represents the character of the Messiah as God and man, the Most High God with men, eating and drinking with them, the Son of God, the Saviour of the world, of the Gentiles and Israel, as eternal high priest and king. He likewise speaks of the effusion of the Holy Spirit upon the Messiab, attended with a voice from heaven; his unrighteous treatment by the Jews; and their desolations, and the destruction of the temple, upon that account; the call of the Gentiles; the illuminating them generally with new light; the effusion of the Spirit upon believers, but especially, and in a more abundant measure, upon the Gentiles. Here is little notice taken of our Lord's miracles : however he speaks of the Messiah a ' man who renews the law • in the power of the Most High ;' in which expressions the working of miracles seems to be implied. Here are also passages which seem to contain allusions to the gospels of St. Matthew, St. Luke, and St. John, the Acts of the Apostles, the epistle to the Ephesians, first to the Thessalonians, first to Timothy, the epistle to the Hebrews, the first epistle of St. John, and the book of the Revelation. And, as far as was consistent with his assumed character, the author declares the canonical authority of the Acts of the Apostles, and the epistles of St. Paul. Lastly, he recommends the reading of the holy scriptures.

42. I fear that some will think I have insisted too long upon this book : but it could by no means be quite omitted, as every one must be convinced by the contents of it, and the age in which it was written, according to the general opinion of learned men; either at the end of the first, or, at the utmost, some time in the second century: and I was willing to make an end with it at once. I think it cannot be disagreeable to see the testimonies of a variety of authors. And since some have been pleased to disguise themselves, and appeared under borrowed names and characters; it may be not only an entertainment, but a confirmation of our υμων γραμματα, ένα έχεσι συνεσιν εν παση τη ζωη αυτων, αναγινωσκοντες αδιαλείπτως τον νομον του θεου.

* See numb. 18.

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faith, to find them also asserting in their way the chief things concerning the christian religion.

Iỹ. They who are desirous to inform themselves concerning The Recognitions of Clement, may find satisfaction in the judgment of Cotelerius upon them, and in the testimonies prefixed to his edition of this work; and Grabe's learned and judicious Preface to the writings of St. Clement, in bis Spicilegium.

The first ecclesiastical writer, who has mentioned this work, is Origen, by whom it is twice cited; once in the third Tome of his Commentaries upon Genesis, which passage is preserved in his y Philocalia, where he calls it by the title of The Travels ;' and again in his Tracts upon St. Matthew. He seems to quote it as Clement’s, or at least as a book ascribed to him. It may be argued, from these few quotations of this book in all the remaining works of Origen, whether Greek or Latin, that it was in no great esteem with him, and of no authority.

The next author, whose testimony we are to consider, is Eusebius. Having spoken, in the third book of his Ecclesiastical History, of the first epistle of St. Clement of Rome, and then of the second ascribed to him, he adds: • More

over,a some men have, not long since, produced large and * voluminous writings as his, containing Disputations of • Peter and Appion, of which there is no mention made by • the ancients ; nor have they the pure apostolical doctrine. • What therefore is the genuine and acknowledged writing • of Clement, is manifest.'

Upon this passage we are to observe, in the first place, that Valesius and ·Cotelerius, and some others, reckon

, that hereby Eusebius intends the Recognitions ; of which they suppose the Disputations, or Dialogues, of Peter and Appion to be a part. But I think that a Grabe has proved these Disputations to be a different work. He observes that Photius mentions the Recognitions, and the Disputations of Peter and Appion, distinctly, as two different

και Και Κλημης δε ο Ρωμαιος, Πετρε απο ολα μαθητης, συνωδει τετοις εν τω παρoντι προβληματι προς τον πατερα εν Λαοδικεια ειπων εν ταις Περιοδους. Philoc. cap. 23. p. 18. Cantabr.

2 Tale aliquid dicit et Petrus apud Clementem, ad Matthæi cap. xxvi. 6. Op. Lat. p. 172. Paris. 1571.

Ηδη δε και έτερα πολυεπη και μακρα συγγραμματα, ώς τε αυτε, χθες και πρωην τινες προηγαγον, Πετρε δε και Απιωνος διαλογες περιεχοντα, ων εδ' όλως μνημη τις παρα τους παλαιοις φερεται. Ουδε γαρ καθαρον της αποπολικης ορθοδοξιας αποσωζει τον χαρακτηρα. Η μεν ουν το Κλημεντος ομολογεμενη γραφη, πρoδηλος εσιν. L. iii. c. 38.

b" In loc. Euseb. • Judic. de Libris Recognitionum : apud Patres Apostol. d Spicileg. T. i. p. 271. et seq.

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